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Low income country

Francisca Di Pillo, Gustavo Anríquez, Pablo Alarcón, Pedro Jimenez-Bluhm, Pablo Galdames, Vanesa Nieto, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Christopher Hamilton-West
Backyard production systems (BPS) that involve poultry are a good way to improve food security and poverty alleviation. Few studies have been carried out to quantify the contribution of poultry production to these households and the constraints they might face if a priority animal disease enters these systems. This study aims to characterize the poultry-rearing BPS in central Chile and to identify socio-economic factors associated to households' consumption of poultry. Data was collected from 384 BPS through a face-to-face semi-structured questionnaire...
March 1, 2019: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Beatriz Rodríguez-Sánchez, David Cantarero-Prieto
The aim of this study is to explain the trends in socioeconomic inequality and diabetes outcomes in terms of hospital admission and death in old European people. The sample includes 73,301 individuals, across 16 European countries taken from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). People being diagnosed of diabetes were more likely to be admitted to hospital than those without diabetes, although its effect dropped after controlling for clinical and functional complications. Largest asscociations were observed in women, people aged 50-65 years old, with medium educational level and medium household income...
January 17, 2019: Economics and Human Biology
A Garner-Purkis, P Hine, A Gamage, S Perera, M C Gulliford
OBJECTIVE: To compare predeparture tuberculosis (TB) screening policies, including screening criteria and screening tests, and visa requirements for prospective migrants to high-income countries that have low to intermediate TB incidence and high immigration. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of policy documents. METHODS: We systematically identified high-income, high net-migration countries with an estimated TB incidence of <30 per 100,000...
February 13, 2019: Public Health
Arunaz Kumar, Tarundeep Singh, Utkarsh Bansal, Jaivir Singh, Stacey Davie, Atul Malhotra
BACKGROUND: The developing world has a significantly high risk of women and babies dying during childbirth. Interprofessional simulation training has improved birth practices and outcomes by impacting clinical and non-technical skills like communication, teamwork, leadership and effective use of resources. While these programs have become a training requirement in many high-income countries, they have not been widely introduced in the low-income, low-resource settings. QUESTION: To explore the use of a structured obstetric and neonatal emergency simulation training program in India...
February 7, 2019: Midwifery
Savannah J McFeely, Jingjing Yu, Ping Zhao, Susan Hershenson, Steven Kern, Isabelle Ragueneau-Majlessi, Dan Hartman
Despite recent advances in recognizing and reducing the risk of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in developed countries, there are still significant challenges in managing DDIs in low income countries (LICs) worldwide. In the treatment of major infectious diseases in these regions, multiple factors contribute to ineffective management of DDIs that lead to loss of efficacy or increased risk of adverse events to patients. Some of these difficulties, however, can be overcome. This review aims to evaluate the inherent complexities of DDI management in LICs from pharmacological standpoints and illustrates the unique barriers to effective management of DDIs, such as the challenges of co-infection and treatment settings...
February 16, 2019: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Deepa Rao, Ahmed Elshafei, Minh Nguyen, Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Sarah Frey, Vivian F Go
BACKGROUND: Researchers have long recognized that stigma is a global, multi-level phenomenon requiring intervention approaches that target multiple levels including individual, interpersonal, community, and structural levels. While existing interventions have produced modest reductions in stigma, their full reach and impact remain limited by a nearly exclusive focus targeting only one level of analysis. METHODS: We conducted the first systematic review of original research on multi-level stigma-reduction interventions...
February 15, 2019: BMC Medicine
C Herion, L Egger, R Greif, C Violato
AIM: To investigate whether the CanMEDS-based International Federation of Nurse Anesthetists' Standards could adequately define the scope of practice and reliably be used to train and evaluate Swiss nurse anesthetists (NAs). BACKGROUND: Although nurse anesthetists represent a majority of the global workforce in anesthesia, policies that define the scope of practice are frequently non-existent. In low- and middle-income countries, the lack of anesthesia providers with adequate training is a major challenge...
February 15, 2019: International Nursing Review
Deborah S K Thomas, Sheana Bull, Elias C Nyanza, Karen Hampanda, Michael Liedtke, Sospatro E Ngallaba
BACKGROUND: Data collection and integrated reporting between the multiple health facilities for supporting more efficient care linkages is an indispensable element for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) by fostering continuity of patient care and improving the treatment cascade for HIV-infected pregnant women. mHealth potentially presents timely solutions to the data challenges related to efficient and effective care delivery in resource-constrained settings, particularly in low- and middle-income countries...
2019: PloS One
Calvin Chiu, Nancy A Scott, Jeanette L Kaiser, Thandiwe Ngoma, Jody R Lori, Carol J Boyd, Peter C Rockers
Financial barriers cause many women in low- and middle-income countries to deliver outside of a health facility, contributing to maternal and neonatal mortality. Savings accrued during pregnancy can increase access to safe delivery services. We investigated the relationship between household saving during pregnancy and facility delivery. A cross-section of 2381 women who delivered a child in the previous 12 months was sampled from 40 health facility catchment areas across eight districts in three provinces in Zambia in April and May of 2016...
February 14, 2019: Health Policy and Planning
Bertalan Németh, Anett Molnár, Sándor Bozóki, Kalman Wijaya, András Inotai, Jonathan D Campbell, Zoltán Kaló
AIM: Criteria weighting is a key element of multicriteria decision analysis that is becoming extensively used in healthcare decision-making. In our narrative review we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various weighting methods. METHODS: An assessment of the eight identified primary criteria weighting methods was compiled on domains including their resource requirements, and potential for bias. RESULTS: In general, we found more complex methods to have less potential for bias; however, resource intensity and general participant burden is greater for these methods...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
Gareth D Mercer, Penny Lyons, Ken Bassett
PURPOSE: Women bear an inequitable burden of blinding conditions compared to men primarily because they have more limited access to eye care services. This systematic review sought evidence regarding interventions to increase gender equity in eye care. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, and EBSCO CINAHL, and contacted experts to identify studies in low- and middle-income countries of health services interventions for age-related cataract, childhood cataract, and trachoma...
February 15, 2019: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
Barbara S Mensch, Erica K Chuang, Andrea Melnikas, Stephanie R Psaki
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have documented an inverse association between years of schooling attained, particularly by women, and reduced maternal, infant and child mortality. However, if factors affecting educational attainment - many of which are unobservable, e.g. motivation and genetic endowment - also affect the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that enhance health, then assumed effects of schooling will be inflated in analyses that do not address this endogeneity. This systematic review assesses evidence for a causal link between education and maternal and child health in low and middle-income countries...
February 15, 2019: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kathleen M Neuzil, Andrew J Pollard, Anthony A Marfin
Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health concern, particularly in many low- and middle-income countries. The current threats of increasing antimicrobial resistance, urbanization, and climate change elevate the urgency for better prevention and control efforts for typhoid fever. In 2017, the results of ground-breaking research on typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs), the World Health Organization prequalification of a TCV, and global policy and financing decisions have set the stage for the introduction of TCVs into routine immunization programs in endemic countries...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sushant Sahastrabuddhe, Tarun Saluja
Typhoid fever remains a common and serious disease in populations that live in low- and middle-income countries. Treatment usually consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug-resistant strains have been increasing in endemic countries, making treatment prolonged and costly. Improved sanitation and food hygiene have been effective in controlling the disease in the industrialized world, but these steps are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most of the affected areas. Therefore, vaccination is an effective way to prevent the disease for the short to medium term...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Adwoa D Bentsi-Enchill, Joachim Hombach
Typhoid fever is a continuing public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries; however, routine vaccination as a recommended control strategy has not been implemented in the past in most countries. Greater understanding of the typhoid fever burden, the increasing threat of antimicrobial resistance, and licensure of a new generation of typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) were instrumental in paving the way for the World Health Organization (WHO) to issue a revised global policy on typhoid vaccines in March 2018...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sarah Lindsay, Denise Garrett, Duncan Steele
Typhoid and other invasive salmonelloses continue to cause a significant burden of disease, including morbidity, mortality, and financial cost, in low- and middle-income countries. Prevention and control efforts for these diseases encounter challenges and require a coordinated global response. To organize this effort, share breakthrough research, and discuss innovative solutions, the Coalition Against Typhoid, based at the Sabin Vaccine Institute, convened the 10th International Conference on Typhoid and Other Invasive Salmonelloses in Kampala, Uganda, from 4-6 April 2017...
February 15, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Precious Esie, Theresa L Osypuk, Sidney R Schuler, Lisa M Bates
Intimate partner violence (IPV) against women is highly prevalent globally, and is associated with adverse health outcomes, including depression. Though women living in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a larger burden of IPV, little is known about whether IPV increases the risk of depression among non-pregnant women and in contexts of high prevalence. Within the setting of rural Bangladesh, this study examined the relationship between the severity of marital IPV against women and the risk of depression...
April 2019: SSM—Population Health
Raphaël P Piarroux, Thomas Romain, Aurélie Martin, Damien Vainqueur, Joana Vitte, Laurence Lachaud, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Frédéric Gabriel, Judith Fillaux, Stéphane Ranque
Aspergillus sp. fungi cause various diseases in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. The most frequent Aspergillus disorders include chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), a life-threatening disease that affects at least 3 million people worldwide, and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), which affects approximately 4.8 million severe asthmatic patients globally. Diagnosis of such diseases involves IgG serological testing; however, the currently available anti- Aspergillus IgG detection assays are inappropriate for resource-poor laboratory settings, as they are expensive, rely on automated procedures, and require stable electrical power...
2019: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Khaled Rashad Al-Alimi, Abdul Aziz Abdul Razak, Roslan Saub
Backgrounds: People in Yemen and in East African countries chew khat more than five hours daily. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between khat and occlusal caries progression. Methods: A cohort study was carried out among 98 Yemeni khat chewers and 101 non-chewers aged 18-35 years old with early occlusal caries lesions. All participants answered questions on socio-demographic, khat , oral hygiene , sugar intake, and oral health knowledge at baseline...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Meera R Nariadhara, Hendry R Sawe, Michael S Runyon, Victor Mwafongo, Brittany L Murray
Background: Modified systemic inflammatory response syndrome (mSIRS) criteria for the pediatric population together with the provider gestalt have the potential to predict clinical outcomes. However, this has not been studied in low-income countries. We investigated the ability of mSIRS and provider gestalt to predict mortality and morbidity among children presenting to the ED of a tertiary level hospital in Tanzania. Methods: This prospective observational study enrolled a convenience sample of children under 5 years old, presenting to the Emergency Medicine Department of Muhimbili National Hospital from September 2015 to April 2016...
2019: Tropical Medicine and Health
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