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fractionation of plant extract

A Baeza, A Salas, J Guillén, A Muñoz-Serrano, J A Corbacho
Occurrence of radium in drinking water may pose a radiological hazard. It is one of the most radiotoxic radionuclides and a major contributor to the Indicative Dose (ID), regulated parameter in UE. Its removal at Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can be considered a preventive action, as it cannot reach the final consumer nor be accumulated in distribution pipes. A filtration system based on greensand designed for radium removal was tested in an actual DWTP. Removal effectiveness depended on the spatial velocity water passed through the filter, range 65-100%...
March 8, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mengistu T Teramage, Loic Carasco, Frederic Coppin
Water and acetate extractable radiocesium (137 Cs) concentrations were monitored for >400 days in soils that were amended with aqueous 137 Cs or solid organic sources of 137 Cs (plant litter or fragmented organic materials) and subjected to a series of wet-dry cycles. The soils were collected from broadleaf and cedar forests in Fukushima, Japan. In soils amended with aqueous 137 Cs, the water extractable 137 Cs fraction was very low (<1%) and decreased over time while it was below the detection limit in soils amended with solid organic sources of 137 Cs...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
John Nii Addotey, Isabelle Lengers, Joachim Jose, Andreas Hensel
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Leaves and twigs from Phyllanthus muellerianus Kuntze Excell are known to exert anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties as well as wound healing properties. During a wide screening for human hyaluronidase-1 inhibitors from natural sources leaf extracts from P. muellerianus turned out to show basic anti-hyaluronidase activity. A detailed investigation of this effect should rationalize the potential anti-inflammatory activity of the extract for improved wound healing...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Laetitia Bocquet, Sevser Sahpaz, Natacha Bonneau, Claire Beaufay, Séverine Mahieux, Jennifer Samaillie, Vincent Roumy, Justine Jacquin, Simon Bordage, Thierry Hennebelle, Feng Chai, Joëlle Quetin-Leclercq, Christel Neut, Céline Rivière
New anti-infective agents are urgently needed to fight microbial resistance. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are particularly responsible for complicated pathologies that are difficult to treat due to their virulence and the formation of persistent biofilms forming a complex protecting shell. Parasitic infections caused by Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania mexicana are also of global concern, because of the mortality due to the low number of safe and effective treatments. Female inflorescences of hop produce specialized metabolites known for their antimicrobial effects but underexploited to fight against drug-resistant microorganisms...
March 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Takuya Manaka, Naohiro Imamura, Shinji Kaneko, Satoru Miura, Hitomi Furusawa, Tsutomu Kanasashi
We investigated the changes in 137 Cs exchangeable fraction in the soils of contaminated forest ecosystems until 6 years after the Fukushima radioactive atmospheric deposits. For this investigation, we performed chemical extractions of 137 Cs from both organic and mineral soil layer sampled from two forest stands, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and broadleaf deciduous, mainly konara oak (Quercus serrata), which are located 26-27 km inland from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The exchangeable 137 Cs as a proportion of the total 137 Cs inventory was only 10% in the organic layer and 6...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Ambreen Malik Uttra, Alamgeer, Muhammad Shahzad, Arham Shabbir, Shah Jahan, Ishfaq Ali Bukhari, Asaad Mohamed Assiri
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots of Ribes orientale (Family Grossulariaceae) have long been used as a folk remedy to treat rheumatism and joints pain in Northern Areas of Pakistan. AIM OF THE STUDY: The purpose of study was to observe the preventive efficacy of roots of Ribes orientale (RO) aqueous ethanolic extract (30:70) and its aqueous and n-butanol fractions in treating rheumatoid arthritis and to determine its possible mechanism of action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Arthritis was evaluated in vitro using heat induced bovine serum albumin and egg albumin denaturation and membrane stabilizing assays at 50-6400 μg/ml concentration of extract/fractions whereas, in vivo arthritis was evaluated at 50, 100, 200 mg/kg doses of extract/fractions in formaldehyde model by measuring rat paw volume/diameter...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Fatimah Opeyemi Roheem, Siti Zaiton Mat Soad, Qamar Uddin Ahmed, Syed Adnan Ali Shah, Jalifah Latip, Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria
Digestive enzymes and free radical inhibitors are used to prevent complications resulting from diabetes. Entada spiralis (family Leguminosae), which is a well-known medicinal plant in herbal medicine due to its various traditional and medicinal applications, was studied. Crude extracts were successively obtained from the stem bark using petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol as extracting solvents. The antioxidant activity of all the extracts, fractions and isolated compounds were estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene and 2,2'-azinobis(-3-ethylbenzothiazine-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, while digestive enzymes inhibitory activity was assessed using α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory methods...
March 13, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Rebeca Madeleine Ebelle Etame, Raymond Simplice Mouokeu, Frank Stève Monthe Poundeu, Igor Kenfack Voukeng, Cedric Laurel Pouaha Cidjeu, Alembert Tchinda Tiabou, Abel Joel Gbaweng Yaya, Rosalie Anne Ngono Ngane, Jules Roger Kuiate, François Xavier Etoa
BACKGROUND: Enantia chlorantha is a plant belonging to Annonaceae Family. The Barks and leaves are used traditionally to treat infectious diseases. Earlier studies highlighted the antibacterial activity of stem barks methanol extract. This study is thus aimed at investigating the effect of fractionation on antibacterial activity of its n-butanol fraction. METHODS: The extract of E. chlorantha stem barks was obtained by maceration in methanol and then subjected to a liquid/liquid partition by successive depletion with solvents of increasing polarity...
March 11, 2019: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Monika A Olszewska, Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Magdalena Rutkowska, Anna Magiera, Piotr Michel, Marcin W Rejman, Pawel Nowak, Aleksandra Owczarek
Polyphenol-rich plant extracts might alleviate the negative impact of oxidative stress and inflammation, but careful phytochemical standardisation and evaluation of various mechanisms are required to fully understand their effects. In this context, flower extracts of Sorbus aucuparia L.-a traditional medicinal plant-were investigated in the present work. The LC-MS/MS profiling of the extracts, obtained by fractionated extraction, led to the identification of 66 constituents, mostly flavonols (quercetin and sexangularetin glycosides with dominating isoquercitrin), pseudodepsides of quinic and shikimic acids (prevailing isomers of chlorogenic acid and cynarin), and flavanols (catechins and proanthocyanidins)...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Javier Espinoza, Alejandro Urzúa, Loreto Sanhueza, Mariana Walter, Paola Fincheira, Patricia Muñoz, Leonora Mendoza, Marcela Wilkens
Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen that is highly adaptive to environmental conditions and rapidly develops antibiotic resistance. The use of efflux pumps to reduce antibiotic concentrations at the intracellular level is one of the main mechanisms by which bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. The management of efflux pumps, specifically NorA, which is expressed by S. aureus strains, is a valuable strategy for restoring susceptibility in strains resistant to antibacterial agents. In recent years, many studies have focused on searching for natural substances that can reverse efflux pump-mediated resistance in S...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Neena Gopinathan Panicker, Sameera Omar Mohammed Saeed Balhamar, Shaima Akhlaq, Mohammed Mansour Qureshi, Tania Shamim Rizvi, Ahmed Al-Harrasi, Javid Hussain, Farah Mustafa
Plants of the genus Teucrium (Lamiaceae or Labiatae family) are known historically for their medicinal value. Here, we identify and characterize the anticancer potential of T. mascatense and its active compound, IM60, in human cancer cells. The anti-proliferative effect of a T. mascatense methanol extract and its various fractions were analyzed in MCF-7 and HeLa cells in a dose- and time dependent manner. The dichloromethane fraction (TMDF) was observed to be the most effective with cytotoxicity against a more expanded series of cell lines, including MDA-MB-231...
March 11, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Niken Pujirahayu, Toshisada Suzuki, Takeshi Katayama
This study clarifies the chemical constituents and botanical origin of Tetragonula sapiens Cockerell bee propolis collected from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Propolis samples and resin of Mangifera indica were extracted with 99% ethanol to obtain an ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) and an ethanol extract of M. indica resin (EEM). Column chromatography, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were developed and used for the separation and isolation of compounds from the ether-soluble fraction...
March 8, 2019: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Rikard Tröger, Philipp Klöckner, Lutz Ahrens, Karin Wiberg
A multi-residue screening method for simultaneous measurement of a wide range of micropollutants in drinking water (DW) resources was developed. The method was applied in a field study in central Sweden on water from source to tap, including samples of surface water (upstream and downstream of a wastewater treatment plant, WWTP), intake water before and after a DW treatment plant (DWTP, pilot and full-scale), treated DW leaving the plant and tap water at end users. Low detection limits (low ng L-1 levels) were achieved by using large sample volumes (5 L) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS)...
June 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Carla de Moura Martins, Sérgio A L de Morais, Mário M Martins, Luís C S Cunha, Cláudio V da Silva, Carlos H G Martins, Luís F Leandro, Alberto de Oliveira, Francisco J T de Aquino, Evandro A do Nascimento, Roberto Chang
The species Inga laurina is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. There are no studies about the chemical composition and biological activities of extracts of this endangered species. The ethanolic extract and its successive fractions are rich in phenolic compounds and presented good antifungal activities. HPLC/MS-MS/MS and H1/C13 analysis led to the identification of seventeen compounds, most of which are gallic acid derivatives, myricetin and quercetin glycosides. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) contained high levels of total phenolics, expressed in milligrams of gallic acid equivalents per gram of extract (475...
2019: TheScientificWorldJournal
Farzaneh Shakeri, Vahideh Ghorani, Saeideh Saadat, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Medicinal plants have been identified and used as primary sources in prevention and treatment of pulmonary diseases (mainly obstructive pulmonary diseases) from ancient times due to various pharmacological activities. In this review, the stimulatory effects of extracts, some fractions and constituents of medicinal plants on β2-adrenoceptors which could be used as possible therapeutic agents in the future were reviewed. Various databases including; Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using stimulatory effect, β2-adrenoceptors, possible mechanism, tracheal smooth muscle (TSM), medicinal plants and their constituents as keywords from 1985 to 2017...
February 2019: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Brian Picazo, Adriana C Flores-Gallegos, Anna Ilina, Rosa María Rodríguez-Jasso, Cristóbal N Aguilar
Aguamiel is a natural sap produced by some species of agave plants, such as Agave salmiana, A. atrovirens , or A. angustifolia . It is a product with a high concentration of fructose, glucose or sucrose, although its composition may vary depending on the season in which it is produced, and may also contain agave fructans (or agavins) or fructooligosaccharides (FOS). It has been reported that FOS can be produced by enzymes that act on sucrose or inulin, transfructosylating or hydrolyzing these materials, respectively...
2019: Frontiers in Nutrition
Keirith A Snyder, Justin L Huntington, Bryce L Wehan, Charles G Morton, Tamzen K Stringham
Phenology of plants is important for ecological interactions. The timing and development of green leaves, plant maturity, and senescence affects biophysical interactions of plants with the environment. In this study we explored the agreement between land-based camera and satellite-based phenology metrics to quantify plant phenology and phenophases dates in five plant community types characteristic of the semi-arid cold desert region of the Great Basin. Three years of data were analyzed. We calculated the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for both land-based cameras (i...
March 6, 2019: Sensors
Nidhal Soualeh, Aliçia Stiévenard, Elie Baudelaire, Jaouad Bouayed, Rachid Soulimani
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of powder particle size on the cytoprotective and antioxidant activity of Hedera helix (HH) and Scrophularia nodosa (SN), two medicinal plants more commonly known as ivy and figwort, against H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress in mouse primary spleen cells. Thus, the preventive effects of powders of 3 different granulometric classes (50-100 μm, 100-180 μm and 180-315 μm) and those of the hydroethanolic (HE) extract from HH and SN on oxidative stress were compared by monitoring reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)...
March 7, 2019: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
Marie-Emmanuelle Sahuc, Ramla Sahli, Céline Rivière, Véronique Pène, Muriel Lavie, Alexandre Vandeputte, Priscille Brodin, Arielle R Rosenberg, Jean Dubuisson, Riadh Ksouri, Yves Rouillé, Sevser Sahpaz, Karin Séron
Recent emergence of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins has considerably enhanced the success of antiviral therapy. However, the appearance of DAA resistant-associated variants is a cause of treatment failure, and the high cost of DAAs renders the therapy not accessible in countries with inadequate medical infrastructures. Therefore, search for new inhibitors and with lower cost of production should be pursued. In this context, crude extract of Juncus maritimus Lam. was shown to exhibit high antiviral activity against HCV in cell culture...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Virology
Hossein Mohammad-Beigi, Lars Kjaer, Hoda Eskandari, Farhang Aliakbari, Gunna Christiansen, Gianluca Ruvo, Jane L Ward, Daniel Erik Otzen
The ability of proteins to aggregate to form well-organized β-sheet rich amyloid fibrils is increasingly viewed as a general if regrettable property of the polypeptide chain. Aggregation leads to diseases such as amyloidosis and neurodegeneration in humans and various mammalian species but is also found in a functional variety in both animals and microbes. However, there are to our knowledge no reports of amyloid formation in plants. Plants are also the source of a large number of aggregation-inhibiting compounds...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
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