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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776411/house-dust-mite-exposure-attenuates-influenza-a-infection-in-a-mouse-model-of-pulmonary-allergic-inflammation
#1
Qiyao Hu, Ryan P Gilley, Peter H Dube
Environmental allergens elicit complex immune responses in the lungs that can promote the development of asthma or exacerbate preexisting asthma in susceptible individuals. House dust mites are one of the most common indoor allergens and are a significant driver of allergic disease. Respiratory infections are known factors in acute exacerbations of asthma but the impact of allergen on the pathogen is not well understood. We investigated the pathogenesis of influenza A infection following exposure to house dust mites...
February 15, 2019: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770452/pivotal-role-for-%C3%AE-v-integrins-in-sustained-tfh-support-of-the-germinal-center-response-for-long-lived-plasma-cell-generation
#2
Dillon C Schrock, Scott A Leddon, Angela Hughson, Jim Miller, Adam Lacy-Hulbert, Deborah J Fowell
CD4+ follicular helper T cells (Tfh) are essential for germinal center (GC) reactions in the lymph node that generate high-affinity, long-lived plasma cells (LLPCs). Temporal GC analysis suggests B memory cells (Bmem) are generated early, while LLPCs are generated late in the GC reaction. Distinct roles for Tfh at these temporally different stages are not yet clear. Tfh entry into the GC is highly dynamic and the signals that maintain Tfh within the GC for support of late LLPC production are poorly understood...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30745900/immunobiochemical-reconstruction-of-influenza-lung-infection-melanoma-skin-cancer-interactions
#3
Evgeni V Nikolaev, Andrew Zloza, Eduardo D Sontag
It was recently reported that acute influenza infection of the lung promoted distal melanoma growth in the dermis of mice. Melanoma-specific CD8+ T cells were shunted to the lung in the presence of the infection, where they expressed high levels of inflammation-induced cell-activation blocker PD-1, and became incapable of migrating back to the tumor site. At the same time, co-infection virus-specific CD8+ T cells remained functional while the infection was cleared. It was also unexpectedly found that PD-1 blockade immunotherapy reversed this effect...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30735910/lung-epithelial-protein-disulfide-isomerase-a3-pdia3-plays-an-important-role-in-influenza-infection-inflammation-and-airway-mechanics
#4
Nicolas Chamberlain, Bethany R Korwin-Mihavics, Emily M Nakada, Sierra R Bruno, David E Heppner, David G Chapman, Sidra M Hoffman, Albert van der Vliet, Benjamin T Suratt, Oliver Dienz, John F Alcorn, Vikas Anathy
Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are a family of redox chaperones that catalyze formation or isomerization of disulfide bonds in proteins. Previous studies have shown that one member, PDIA3, interacts with influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA), and this interaction is required for efficient oxidative folding of HA in vitro. However, it is unknown whether these host-viral protein interactions occur during active infection and whether such interactions represent a putative target for the treatment of influenza infection...
January 29, 2019: Redox Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30724707/influenza-and-the-surgeon
#5
Daithi S Heffernan
BACKGROUND: The influenza virus is a pathogenic virus responsible for large numbers of deaths and long-term disabilities worldwide. Although the very young, the very old, and immunocompromised individuals are most susceptible, the effects of the influenza virus can be observed across the entire spectrum of individuals. DISCUSSION: Infection with the influenza virus induces a substantial inflammatory and immunologic response and induces marked pulmonary inflammation...
February 6, 2019: Surgical Infections
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723095/type-i-interferon-induces-cxcl13-to-support-ectopic-germinal-center-formation
#6
Alice E Denton, Silvia Innocentin, Edward J Carr, Barry M Bradford, Fanny Lafouresse, Neil A Mabbott, Urs Mörbe, Burkhard Ludewig, Joanna R Groom, Kim L Good-Jacobson, Michelle A Linterman
Ectopic lymphoid structures form in a wide range of inflammatory conditions, including infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In the context of infection, this response can be beneficial for the host: influenza A virus infection-induced pulmonary ectopic germinal centers give rise to more broadly cross-reactive antibody responses, thereby generating cross-strain protection. However, despite the ubiquity of ectopic lymphoid structures and their role in both health and disease, little is known about the mechanisms by which inflammation is able to convert a peripheral tissue into one that resembles a secondary lymphoid organ...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30723081/human-megakaryocytes-possess-intrinsic-anti-viral-immunity-through-regulated-induction-of-ifitm3
#7
Robert A Campbell, Hansjorg Schwertz, Eugenio D Hottz, Jesse W Rowley, Bhanu Kanth Manne, A Valance Washington, Robert Hunter-Mellado, Neal D Tolley, Miles Christensen, Alicia S Eustes, Emilie Montenont, Seema Bhatlekar, Cassandra H Ventrone, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Sean A Diehl, Paul F Bray, Guy A Zimmerman, Yasuhiro Kosaka, Patricia T Bozza, Fernando A Bozza, Andrew S Weyrich, Matthew T Rondina
Evolving evidence indicates that platelets and megakaryocytes (MKs) have unexpected activities in inflammation and infection; but whether viral infections upregulate biologically active, anti-viral immune genes in platelets and MKs is unknown. We examined anti-viral immune genes in these cells in dengue and influenza infections, viruses that are global public health threats. Using complementary biochemical, pharmacological, and genetic approaches, we examined the regulation and function of interferon induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3), an anti-viral immune effector gene not previously studied in human platelets and MKs...
February 5, 2019: Blood
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715745/th17-serum-cytokines-in-relation-to-laboratory-confirmed-respiratory-viral-infection-a-pilot-study
#8
Emmanouil Antalis, Aris Spathis, Christine Kottaridi, Athanasios Kossyvakis, Kalliopi Pastellas, Konstantinos Tsakalos, Andreas Mentis, Christos Kroupis, Sotirios Tsiodras
BACKGROUND: Th17 cytokines are associated with modulation of inflammation and may be beneficial in clearing influenza infection in experimental models. The Th17 cytokine profile was evaluated in a pilot study of respiratory virus infections. METHODS: Consecutive patients with symptoms of respiratory tract infection visiting the emergency department of a tertiary care hospital during the winter influenza season of 2014 to 2015 were evaluated. CLART PneumoVir kit, (GENOMICA, Madrid, Spain) was used for viral detection of all known respiratory viruses...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Medical Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690443/panax-notoginseng-extract-possesses-significant-antibacterial-activity-against-pathogenic-streptococci
#9
Takeaki Wajima, Reina Kinugawa, Tetsuya Yamada, Hideaki Ikoshi, Norihisa Noguchi
BACKGROUND: In traditional Chinese medicine, Panax notoginseng is used to treat inflammation and bleeding but has not been shown to affect bacterial pathogens. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to assess the antibacterial potential of Panax notoginseng extract (PNE) against bacterial pathogens. METHODS: PNE was dissolved in autoclaved distilled water. Antimicrobial activity was measured by the disc diffusion test and bacterial growth curve assays, in which the concentration of bacterial colony forming units was monitored at several time points in the presence or absence of PNE...
January 28, 2019: Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684125/shikimic-acid-promotes-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-differentiation-and-accelerates-remyelination-in-mice
#10
Fengfeng Lu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Weili Liu, Zhenghao Li, Qi Shao, Cheng He, Li Cao
The obstacle to successful remyelination in demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, mainly lies in the inability of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to differentiate, since OPCs and oligodendrocyte-lineage cells that are unable to fully differentiate are found in the areas of demyelination. Thus, promoting the differentiation of OPCs is vital for the treatment of demyelinating diseases. Shikimic acid (SA) is mainly derived from star anise, and is reported to have anti-influenza, anti-oxidation, and anti-tumor effects...
January 25, 2019: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672726/the-cellular-localization-of-avian-influenza-virus-pb1-f2-protein-alters-the-magnitude-of-ifn2-promoter-and-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-promoter-antagonism-in-chicken-cells
#11
Joe James, Nikki Smith, Craig Ross, Munir Iqbal, Steve Goodbourn, Paul Digard, Wendy S Barclay, Holly Shelton
The accessory protein, PB1-F2, of influenza A virus (IAV) functions in a chicken host to prolong infectious virus shedding and thus the transmission window. Here we show that this delay in virus clearance by PB1-F2 in chickens is accompanied by reduced transcript levels of type 1 interferon (IFN)-induced genes and NFκB-activated pro-inflammation cytokines. In vitro, two avian influenza isolate-derived PB1-F2 proteins, H9N2 UDL01 and H5N1 5092, exhibited the same antagonism of the IFN and pro-inflammation induction pathways seen in vivo, but to different extents...
January 23, 2019: Journal of General Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30630976/the-opposing-effects-of-acute-inflammation-and-iron-deficiency-anemia-on-serum-hepcidin-and-iron-absorption-in-young-women
#12
Nicole U Stoffel, Meryem Lazrak, Souhaila Bellitir, Nissrine El Mir, Asmaa El Hamdouchi, Amina Barkat, Christophe Zeder, Diego Moretti, Hassan Aguenaou, Michael B Zimmermann
Hepatic hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation but inhibited during iron deficiency anemia. In humans, the relative strength of these opposing signals on serum hepcidin and the net effect on iron absorption and systemic iron recycling is uncertain. In this prospective, 45-day study, in young women (n=46; age 18-49 y) with or without iron deficiency anemia, we compared iron and inflammation markers, serum hepcidin and erythrocyte iron incorporation from 57Fe-labeled test meals, before and 8, 24 and 36 hours after influenza/DPT vaccination as an acute inflammatory stimulus...
January 10, 2019: Haematologica
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30616547/a-phase-i-randomized-observer-blinded-single-and-multiple-ascending-dose-study-to-investigate-the-safety-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-bits7201a-a-bispecific-antibody-targeting-il-13-and-il-17-in-healthy-volunteers
#13
Tracy L Staton, Kun Peng, Ryan Owen, David F Choy, Christopher R Cabanski, Alice Fong, Flavia Brunstein, Kathila R Alatsis, Hubert Chen
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of interleukin (IL)-13, a Type 2 inflammatory mediator in asthma, improves lung function and reduces exacerbations; however, more effective therapies are needed. A subset of asthma patients also exhibits elevated IL-17, which is associated with greater disease severity, neutrophilic inflammation, and steroid resistance. BITS7201A is a novel, humanized bispecific antibody that binds and neutralizes both IL-13 and IL-17. METHODS: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity of BITS7201A were evaluated in a phase 1 study...
January 7, 2019: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30611999/downregulation-of-mir-146a-inhibits-influenza-a-virus-replication-by-enhancing-the-type-i-interferon-response-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Fuming Zhang, Xiaofang Sun, Ya Zhu, Wangsen Qin
Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have become increasingly appreciated for their essential roles in innate immune responses to viral infections; however, it is unknown how host miRNAs regulate influenza A virus (IAV)-induced inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of miR-146a in IAV replication in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, we found miR-146a was significantly upregulated in A549 cells with IAV infection. Overexpression of miR-146a promoted IAV replication, while downregulation of miR-146a repressed replication...
January 3, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30593354/duck-innate-immune-responses-to-high-and-low-pathogenicity-h5-avian-influenza-viruses
#15
Ximena Fleming-Canepa, Jerry R Aldridge, Lauren Canniff, Michelle Kobewka, Elinor Jax, Robert G Webster, Katharine E Magor
Ducks are the reservoir host of influenza A viruses, and are permissive for replication of most strains, yet can elicit robust innate immune responses to highly pathogenic strains. Tissue tropism and viral amino acid differences affect virulence, but we have limited knowledge about how viral differences influence the host innate immune response. Here we compare the innate immune response in Pekin ducks to a recombinant highly-pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus and a naturally arising attenuated variant of this strain that differs at one amino acid in polymerase A (T515A), as well as ducks infected with two different H5 strains of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)...
January 2019: Veterinary Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586993/mannan-oligosaccharide-protects-against-the-afb1-promoted-influenza-replication-and-tissue-damages-in-a-tlr4-dependent-manner
#16
Yuhang Sun, Jiarui Su, Shiling Yang, Zixuan Liu, Dandan Liu, Fang Gan, Xingxiang Chen, Kehe Huang
Our previous study reported that aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) promoted influenza replication. Mannan oligosaccharide (MOS), derived from the cell walls of yeast, is a potent immune-modulator. Here, we investigated the role of MOS in AFB1-promoted influenza replication and further explored the underlying mechanisms. In vitro and in vivo, the exposure to AFB1 alone resulted in significantly decreased weight gain and increased viral replication, as well as lung and spleen damages. Increased influenza replication coupled with increases in TLR4, phosphorylated NF-κB and TNF-α levels...
December 26, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30584680/pathogenesis-and-prevention-of-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-pneumococcal-community-acquired-pneumonia
#17
REVIEW
Charles Feldman, Staffan Normark, Birgitta Henriques Normark, Ronald Anderson
It is now well recognized that cardiovascular events (CVE) occur quite commonly, both in the acute phase and in the long-term, in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). CVE have been noted in up to 30% of patients hospitalized with all-cause CAP. One systematic review and meta-analysis of hospitalized patients with all-cause CAP, noted that the incidence rates for overall cardiac events were 17.7%, for incident heart failure were 14.1%, for acute coronary syndromes were 5.3% and for incident cardiac arrhythmias were 4...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30581436/non-specific-effects-of-live-attenuated-pertussis-vaccine-against-heterologous-infectious-and-inflammatory-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Stéphane Cauchi, Camille Locht
Bordetella pertussis is the agent of pertussis, also referred to as whooping cough, a disease that remains an important public health issue. Vaccine-induced immunity to pertussis wanes over time. In industrialized countries, high vaccine coverage has not prevented infection and transmission of B. pertussis , leading to periodic outbreaks in people of all ages. The consequence is the formation of a large source for transmission to children, who show the highest susceptibility of developing severe whooping cough and mortality...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30578308/critical-adverse-impact-of-il-6-in-acute-pneumovirus-infection
#19
Caroline M Percopo, Michelle Ma, Todd A Brenner, Julia O Krumholz, Timothy J Break, Karen Laky, Helene F Rosenberg
Severe respiratory virus infections feature robust local host responses that contribute to disease severity. Immunomodulatory strategies that limit virus-induced inflammation may be of critical importance, notably in the absence of antiviral vaccines. In this study, we examined the role of the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6 in acute infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a natural rodent pathogen that is related to respiratory syncytial virus and that generates local inflammation as a feature of severe infection...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30576502/pregnancy-induces-a-steady-state-shift-in-alveolar-macrophage-m1-m2-phenotype-that-is-associated-with-a-heightened-severity-of-influenza-infection-mechanistic-insight-using-mouse-models
#20
Jean-Francois Lauzon-Joset, Naomi M Scott, Kyle T Mincham, Philip A Stumbles, Patrick G Holt, Deborah H Strickland
Background: Influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with enhanced disease severity, however the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. We hypothesised that normal alveolar macrophage (AM) functions, which are central to maintaining lung immune homeostasis, are altered during pregnancy, and that this dysregulation contributes to the increased inflammatory response to Influenza infection. Methods: Time-mated BALB/c mice were infected with a low dose of H1N1 Influenza A virus at gestation day 9...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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