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Carnitine AND "Cardiac disease"

Y J Pan, F P Lu
Objective: To investigate the effect of intravenous supplementation with high-dose L-carnitinen on hemodialysis tolerance in uremic patients with severe heart disease (ischemic heart disease, congestive heart disease and arrhythmia). Methods: Between March 2012 and March 2017, 5 gram L-carnitine was given after the completion of each hemodialysis treatment (3-4 times a week) over a period of two weeks in 29 maintenance hemodialysis patients with severe heart diseases manifested by frequently symptomatic hypotension, chest tightness, wheezing, palpitation, chest pain and other symptoms during hemodialysis...
December 26, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Y Lu, H D Anderson
OBJECTIVE: We recently reported that activation of endocannabinoid receptors attenuates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Mitochondrial dysfunction has emerged as a critical determinant of aberrant myocyte energy production in cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, we determined endocannabinoid influence on mitochondrial function in the hypertrophied cardiac myocyte. DESIGN AND METHOD: The experimental paradigm of hypertrophy in this study was neonatal rat cardiac myocytes treated with endothelin-1 (ET1; 0...
June 2015: Journal of Hypertension
Isidro Vitoria, Elena Martín-Hernández, Luis Peña-Quintana, María Bueno, Pilar Quijada-Fraile, Jaime Dalmau, Sofia Molina-Marrero, Belén Pérez, Begoña Merinero
BACKGROUND: Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease in the mitochondrial transport of long-chain fatty acids. Despite early diagnosis and treatment, the disease still has a high mortality rate. METHODS: Clinical symptoms, long-term follow-up, and biochemical and molecular results of four cases are described and compared with the reviewed literature data of 55 cases. RESULTS: Two cases with neonatal onset, carrying in homozygosity the novel variant sequences p...
2015: JIMD Reports
Katja Gehmlich, Michael S Dodd, J William Allwood, Matthew Kelly, Mohamed Bellahcene, Heena V Lad, Alexander Stockenhuber, Charlotte Hooper, Houman Ashrafian, Charles S Redwood, Lucie Carrier, Warwick B Dunn
Energy depletion has been highlighted as an important contributor to the pathology of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a common inherited cardiac disease. Pharmacological reversal of energy depletion appears an attractive approach and the use of perhexiline has been proposed as it is thought to shift myocardial metabolism from fatty acid to glucose utilisation, increasing ATP production and myocardial efficiency. We used the Mybpc3-targeted knock-in mouse model of HCM to investigate changes in the cardiac metabolome following perhexiline treatment...
February 2015: Molecular BioSystems
Athina A Strilakou, Stylianos T Tsakiris, Konstantinos G Kalafatakis, Aikaterini T Stylianaki, Petros L Karkalousos, Andreas V Koulouris, Iordanis S Mourouzis, Charis A Liapi
Choline is an essential nutrient, and choline deficiency has been associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Choline is also the precursor of acetylcholine (cholinergic component of the heart's autonomic nervous system), whose levels are regulated by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Cardiac contraction-relaxation cycles depend on ion gradients established by pumps like the adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Mg(2+)-ATPase. This study aimed to investigate the impact of dietary choline deprivation on the activity of rat myocardial AChE (cholinergic marker), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and Mg(2+)-ATPase, and the possible effects of carnitine supplementation (carnitine, structurally relevant to choline, is used as an adjunct in treating cardiac diseases)...
January 2014: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Lars Hoffmann, Annette Seibt, Diran Herebian, Ute Spiekerkoetter
Patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation accumulate disease-specific acylcarnitines and triacylglycerols in various tissues. Some of these patients present significant cardiac diseases such as arrhythmias and cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of how fatty acid accumulation is involved in disease pathogenesis is still unclear but apoptosis of cardiomyocytes has been suggested to be one possible mechanism of cardiomyopathy development. In this study, we measured lipid uptake and intracellular lipid accumulation after incubation of HL1 cardiomyocytes with different saturated and monounsaturated long- and medium-chain fatty acid species for various time periods and at different physiological concentrations...
January 2014: Lipids
Josef Finsterer, Peter Ohnsorge
Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents...
December 2013: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
H P Lefebvre, E Ollivier, C E Atkins, B Combes, D Concordet, V Kaltsatos, L Baduel
BACKGROUND: Spironolactone treatment in humans is associated with an increased risk of hyperkalemia and renal dysfunction. HYPOTHESIS: Dogs with cardiac disease treated with spironolactone, in addition to conventional therapy, are not at higher risk for adverse events (AEs) than those receiving solely conventional therapy. ANIMALS: One hundred and ninety-six client-owned dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease. METHODS: Prospective, double-blinded field study with dogs randomized to receive either spironolactone (2 mg/kg once a day) or placebo in addition to conventional therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, plus furosemide and digoxin if needed)...
September 2013: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Athina A Strilakou, Andreas C Lazaris, Apostolos I Perelas, Iordanis S Mourouzis, Ioannis Ch Douzis, Petros L Karkalousos, Aikaterini Th Stylianaki, Costas I Pantos, Charis A Liapi
Choline is a B vitamin co-factor and its deficiency seems to impair heart function. Carnitine, a chemical analog of choline, has been used as adjunct in the management of cardiac diseases. The study investigates the effects of choline deficiency on myocardial performance in adult rats and the possible modifications after carnitine administration. Wistar Albino rats (n=24), about 3 months old, were randomized into four groups fed with: (a) standard diet (control-CA), (b) choline deficient diet (CDD), (c) standard diet and carnitine in drinking water 0...
June 5, 2013: European Journal of Pharmacology
Carlos E Prada, John L Jefferies, Michelle A Grenier, Christina M Huth, Kimberley I Page, Robert L Spicer, Jeffrey A Towbin, Nancy D Leslie
Malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) decarboxylase (MCD) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive organic acidemia characterized by varying degrees of organ involvement and severity. MCD regulates fatty acid biosynthesis and converts malonyl-CoA to acetyl-CoA. Cardiomyopathy is 1 of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in this disorder. It is unknown if diet alone prevents cardiomyopathy development based in published literature. We report a 10-month-old infant girl identified by newborn screening and confirmed MCD deficiency with a novel homozygous MLYCD mutation...
August 2012: Pediatrics
Sunil Bhandari
Chronic kidney disease has been increasingly recognized as a risk factor for incident heart failure. Despite advances in chronic heart failure treatment, the prognosis remains poor. The annual mortality from all cardiovascular causes in the end stage renal disease population is significantly higher than the general population, accounting for more than half of all deaths in this group. The mechanisms underlying the enhanced susceptibility to myocardial ischemia in chronic kidney disease are not well defined...
January 1, 2011: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Mia Jüllig, Xiuyin Chen, Anthony J Hickey, David J Crossman, Aimin Xu, Yu Wang, David R Greenwood, Yee Soon Choong, Sarah J Schönberger, Martin J Middleditch, Anthony R J Phillips, Garth J S Cooper
Cardiac disease is the commonest cause of death amongst diabetic patients. Diabetic cardiomyopathy, which has a poor prognosis, is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and impaired cardiac function and mitochondrial damage is said to contribute to its development. We recently showed that treatment with the Cu(II) -selective chelator, triethylenetetramine (TETA), improved cardiac structure, and function in diabetic subjects without modifying hyperglycemia. Thus, TETA has potential utility for the treatment of heart disease...
April 2007: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Hiromutsu Tominaga, Hideki Katoh, Keiichi Odagiri, Yasuyo Takeuchi, Hirotaka Kawashima, Masao Saotome, Tsuyoshi Urushida, Hiroshi Satoh, Hideharu Hayashi
Although mitochondrial oxidative catabolism of fatty acid (FA) is a major energy source for the adult mammalian heart, cardiac lipotoxity resulting from elevated serum FA and enhanced FA use has been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure. To investigate the effects of intermediates of FA metabolism [palmitoyl-l-carnitine (Pal-car) and palmitoyl-CoA (Pal-CoA)] on mitochondrial function, we measured membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), and the production of ROS in saponin-treated rat ventricular myocytes with a laser scanning confocal microscope...
July 2008: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Lisa M Freeman, John E Rush
Spontaneously occurring dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats are common diseases and are vastly underutilized as models of human cardiac disease. The goals of nutrition are no longer limited to a low-sodium diet, as research is now showing that nutrients can modulate disease and be an important adjunct to medical therapy. Deficiencies of certain nutrients can contribute to cardiomyopathies, as with taurine, but some nutrients-such as n-3 fatty acids, carnitine, and antioxidants-may have specific pharmacologic benefits...
June 2007: Current Heart Failure Reports
Lisa M Freeman, John E Rush, Peter J Markwell
BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of nutritional modification in early canine cardiac disease are not known. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that echocardiographic, neuroendocrine, and nutritional variables will differ between dogs with asymptomatic chronic valvular disease (CVD) and healthy controls, and that a moderately reduced sodium diet enriched with antioxidants, n-3 fatty acids, taurine, carnitine, and arginine will alter these variables in dogs with CVD. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed and blood was collected...
September 2006: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Rebecca E Gompf
Nutritional supplements such as L-carnitine and taurine have been found to be beneficial in dogs and cats with certain cardiac diseases. However, not all animals with cardiac disease respond to nutritional supplementation, which means that further work must be done to identify causes of cardiac disease. Herbal therapies have been used in dogs and cats based on information available from their use in humans. This paper reviews the possible benefits and side effects of L-carnitine, taurine, and herbal supplements...
November 2005: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Christine Kreuder, Melissa A Miller, Linda J Lowenstine, Patricia A Conrad, Tim E Carpenter, David A Jessup, Jonna A K Mazet
OBJECTIVE: To describe cardiac lesions and identify risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in beach-cast southern sea otters. ANIMALS: Free-ranging southern sea otters. PROCEDURE: Sea otters were necropsied at the Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center from 1998 through 2001. Microscopic and gross necropsy findings were used to classify sea otters as myocarditis or DCM case otters or control otters...
February 2005: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Paul D Pion
In this article, I presented my (admittedly biased) perspective of the current state of knowledge addressing the role of traditional and non-traditional therapeutics. The focus has been on the nontraditional therapeutics. Among these, the only ones I currently consider to have any documented value are taurine and, less commonly, L-carnitine. The role of taurine (and likely carnitine) remains limited to cases of documented deficiency. In the case of cats with taurine deficiency-induced myocardial failure, it is now clear that most cases are the result of formulation errors by owners and manufacturers...
January 2004: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
S M Killalea, H Krum
Perhexiline was introduced about 30 years ago and rapidly gained a reputation for efficacy in the management of angina pectoris. However, hepatic and neurological adverse effects associated with perhexiline administration led to a marked decline in its use. The drug was originally classified as a coronary vasodilator, and later as a calcium channel antagonist, but recent data suggests that it acts as a cardiac metabolic agent, through inhibition of the enzyme, carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1). Given the drug's unique anti-ischemic action and favorable hemodynamic profile, together with an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of the drug and the clear clinical need for additional therapies in refractory patients, perhexiline is currently being re-appraised as a potentially useful agent in the management of severe myocardial ischemia...
2001: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Daniel F Pauly, Carl J Pepine
L-Carnitine (carnitine) may have a role in the treatment of various cardiac disorders because of its actions on cardioprotection from hypoxia and oxidative stress. Studies on the role of carnitine administration to patients with myocardial infarction (MI), angina, and congestive heart failure generally have been positive. In general, treatment with carnitine (1.5 to 6 g/d for up to 1 year) results in a beneficial effect of fewer deaths and less heart failure when administered to patients after MI. Compared with placebo, carnitine use resulted in smaller increases in left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes over time...
April 2003: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
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