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Marios Avgeris, Dimitrios Spatharakis, Dimitrios Dechouniotis, Nikos Kalatzis, Ioanna Roussaki, Symeon Papavassiliou
A Cyber-Physical Social System (CPSS) tightly integrates computer systems with the physical world and human activities. In this article, a three-level CPSS for early fire detection is presented to assist public authorities to promptly identify and act on emergency situations. At the bottom level, the system's architecture involves IoT nodes enabled with sensing and forest monitoring capabilities. Additionally, in this level, the crowd sensing paradigm is exploited to aggregate environmental information collected by end user devices present in the area of interest...
February 3, 2019: Sensors
Yuan Lai, Constantine E Kontokosta
Urban trees play a key role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, cleaning air, promoting physical activity, and improving mental health. However, it is still largely unknown how the density and species of urban street trees may impact local public health. This study demonstrates how open data mining and large-scale spatial data integration can contribute to deeper insights into the effects of urban forestry. We analyze the impact of the spatial distribution of street trees by species in New York City by combining crowd-sourced tree census data - which includes geolocation, species, size, and condition for each of 652,169 street trees - with pollen activity, allergen severity, land use, housing conditions, and neighborhood demographic data...
January 31, 2019: Health & Place
Gordon Pennycook, David G Rand
Reducing the spread of misinformation, especially on social media, is a major challenge. We investigate one potential approach: having social media platform algorithms preferentially display content from news sources that users rate as trustworthy. To do so, we ask whether crowdsourced trust ratings can effectively differentiate more versus less reliable sources. We ran two preregistered experiments ( n = 1,010 from Mechanical Turk and n = 970 from Lucid) where individuals rated familiarity with, and trust in, 60 news sources from three categories: ( i ) mainstream media outlets, ( ii ) hyperpartisan websites, and ( iii ) websites that produce blatantly false content ("fake news")...
January 28, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sara E Kearney, Gergely Zahoránszky-Kőhalmi, Kyle R Brimacombe, Mark J Henderson, Caitlin Lynch, Tongan Zhao, Kanny K Wan, Zina Itkin, Christopher Dillon, Min Shen, Dorian M Cheff, Tobie D Lee, Danielle Bougie, Ken Cheng, Nathan P Coussens, Dorjbal Dorjsuren, Richard T Eastman, Ruili Huang, Michael J Iannotti, Surendra Karavadhi, Carleen Klumpp-Thomas, Jacob S Roth, Srilatha Sakamuru, Wei Sun, Steven A Titus, Adam Yasgar, Ya-Qin Zhang, Jinghua Zhao, Rodrigo B Andrade, M Kevin Brown, Noah Z Burns, Jin K Cha, Emily E Mevers, Jon Clardy, Jason A Clement, Peter A Crooks, Gregory D Cuny, Jake Ganor, Jesus Moreno, Lucas A Morrill, Elias Picazo, Robert B Susick, Neil K Garg, Brian C Goess, Robert B Grossman, Chambers C Hughes, Jeffrey N Johnston, Madeleine M Joullie, A Douglas Kinghorn, David G I Kingston, Michael J Krische, Ohyun Kwon, Thomas J Maimone, Susruta Majumdar, Katherine N Maloney, Enas Mohamed, Brian T Murphy, Pavel Nagorny, David E Olson, Larry E Overman, Lauren E Brown, John K Snyder, John A Porco, Fatima Rivas, Samir A Ross, Richmond Sarpong, Indrajeet Sharma, Jared T Shaw, Zhengren Xu, Ben Shen, Wei Shi, Corey R J Stephenson, Alyssa L Verano, Derek S Tan, Yi Tang, Richard E Taylor, Regan J Thomson, David A Vosburg, Jimmy Wu, William M Wuest, Armen Zakarian, Yufeng Zhang, Tianjing Ren, Zhong Zuo, James Inglese, Sam Michael, Anton Simeonov, Wei Zheng, Paul Shinn, Ajit Jadhav, Matthew B Boxer, Matthew D Hall, Menghang Xia, Rajarshi Guha, Jason M Rohde
Natural products and their derivatives continue to be wellsprings of nascent therapeutic potential. However, many laboratories have limited resources for biological evaluation, leaving their previously isolated or synthesized compounds largely or completely untested. To address this issue, the Canvass library of natural products was assembled, in collaboration with academic and industry researchers, for quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) across a diverse set of cell-based and biochemical assays. Characterization of the library in terms of physicochemical properties, structural diversity, and similarity to compounds in publicly available libraries indicates that the Canvass library contains many structural elements in common with approved drugs...
December 26, 2018: ACS Central Science
Basmah Safdar, Kimberly E Ona Ayala, Syed Shayan Ali, Benjamin J Seifer, Michelle Hong, Marna Rayl Greenberg, Esther K Choo, Alyson J McGregor
OBJECTIVES: To a) evaluate the inclusion of sex and gender in publications by emergency medicine (EM) researchers following the 2014 federal mandate and an Academic EM Consensus Conference on sex- and gender-based research and b) assess trends compared with 2011 status report that showed 29% studies used sex and gender in the study design and 2% reported it as a primary outcome. METHODS: Using MEDLINE, the term "emergency" was used to identify all English-language studies of adult humans published between 2014-2017 as EM affiliated (i...
January 14, 2019: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Kevin A Spiegel, Karyn A Havas
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a devastating disease of small ruminants that significantly hinders productivity in endemic areas. Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania reported their first cases in each country between 2006 and 2008 despite the disease being present in the region (Ethiopia and Sudan) since the 1990s. The time leading up to the outbreaks involved refugee movements, drought, civil unrest, and resulted in increased animal mingling, movement and density in these regions. Refugee camps with animal source food demands and a robust informal economy further added to the development of animal mingling and movement as well...
January 11, 2019: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Rupa Jose, E Alison Holman, Roxane Cohen Silver
OBJECTIVE: Disasters are place-based traumatic events, yet contemporary understandings of disaster recovery often do not consider the role of community organizations. We examine organization type and proximity as they relate to post-disaster mental health in a longitudinal study following the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. METHOD: Residents of metropolitan Boston (N = 846) were recruited via a probability-based sampling strategy within weeks of the bombings and were surveyed several times over a two-year period...
September 17, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Elizabeth M Schoenfeld, Shelby Mader, Connor Houghton, Robert Wenger, Marc A Probst, David A Schoenfeld, Peter K Lindenauer, Kathleen M Mazor
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Shared decisionmaking has been promoted as a method to increase the patient-centeredness of medical decisionmaking and decrease low-yield testing, but little is known about its medicolegal ramifications in the setting of an adverse outcome. We seek to determine whether the use of shared decisionmaking changes perceptions of fault and liability in the case of an adverse outcome. METHODS: This was a randomized controlled simulation experiment conducted by survey, using clinical vignettes featuring no shared decisionmaking, brief shared decisionmaking, or thorough shared decisionmaking...
January 3, 2019: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Hans Rutger Bosker
Recently, the world's attention was caught by an audio clip that was perceived as "Laurel" or "Yanny." Opinions were sharply split: many could not believe others heard something different from their perception. However, a crowd-source experiment with >500 participants shows that it is possible to make people hear Laurel, where they previously heard Yanny, by manipulating preceding acoustic context. This study is not only the first to reveal within-listener variation in Laurel/Yanny percepts, but also to demonstrate contrast effects for global spectral information in larger frequency regions...
December 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Anne Lowell, Ḻäwurrpa Maypilama, Lyn Fasoli, Yalŋarra Guyula, Abbey Guyula, Megan Yunupiŋu, Jenine Godwin-Thompson, Rosemary Gundjarranbuy, Emily Armstrong, Jane Garrutju, Rose McEldowney
BACKGROUND: Insufficient and inadequate housing remain serious and enduring problems in remote Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Housing is recognised as a key determinant of persisting inequities between Aboriginal and other Australians in health, as well as education and employment outcomes which in turn impact on health. In our qualitative study exploring strengths and challenges related to early childhood in a remote NT community, insufficient housing emerged as the greatest challenge families experience in 'growing up' their children...
December 18, 2018: BMC Public Health
Kathleen L Prudic, Jeffrey C Oliver, Brian V Brown, Elizabeth C Long
By 2030, ten percent of earth's landmass will be occupied by cities. Urban environments can be home to many plants and animals, but surveying and estimating biodiversity in these spaces is complicated by a heterogeneous built environment where access and landscaping are highly variable due to human activity. Citizen science approaches may be the best way to assess urban biodiversity, but little is known about their relative effectiveness and efficiency. Here, we compare three techniques for acquiring data on butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) species richness: trained volunteer Pollard walks, Malaise trapping with expert identification, and crowd-sourced iNaturalist observations...
December 6, 2018: Insects
Markus Follmann, Hans Briem, Andreas Steinmeyer, Alexander Hillisch, Monika H Schmitt, Helmut Haning, Heinrich Meier
Pharmaceutical companies often refer to 'screening their library' when performing high-throughput screening (HTS) on a corporate compound collection to identify lead structures for small-molecule drug discovery programs. Characteristics of such a library, including the size, chemical space covered, and physicochemical properties, often determine the success of a screening campaign. Therefore, strategies to maintain and enhance the overall quality of screening collections are crucial to stay competitive and to cope with the 'novelty erosion' that is observed gradually...
December 15, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Michael O Harhay, Raphaël Porcher, Gabriel Thabut, Michael J Crowther, Thomas DiSanto, Samantha Rubin, Zachary Penfil, Zhou Bing, Jason D Christie, Joshua M Diamond, Edward Cantu
RATIONALE: In the United States, an algorithm known as the 'match-run' creates an ordered ranking of potential recipients for available lung allografts. A recipient's match-run position, or 'sequence number,' is available to the transplant center when contacted with a lung offer. Lung offers with higher sequence numbers may be interpreted as a crowd-sourced evaluation of poor organ quality, though the association between the sequence number at which a lung is accepted and its recipient's post-transplant outcomes is unclear...
December 18, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Daniel R McCloy, Eric Larson, Adrian K C Lee
Pupillometry has emerged as a useful tool for studying listening effort. Past work involving listeners with normal audiological thresholds has shown that switching attention between competing talker streams evokes pupil dilation indicative of listening effort [McCloy, Lau, Larson, Pratt, and Lee ( 2017 ). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 141 (4), 2440-2451]. The current experiment examines behavioral and pupillometric data from a two-stream target detection task requiring attention-switching between auditory streams, in two participant groups: audiometrically normal listeners who self-report difficulty localizing sound sources and/or understanding speech in reverberant or acoustically crowded environments, and their age-matched controls who do not report such problems...
November 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Ali Y Kahal, Abdelbaset S El-Sorogy, Hussain J Alfaifi, Sattam Almadani, Habes A Ghrefat
To assess the spatial distribution and ecological risk assessment along the Red Sea coast, Saudi Arabia, 30 samples were collected for aluminum, chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, iron, cobalt, nickel and organic matter analysis. The descending order of metal concentrations was Al > Fe > Cr > Cu > Zn > Ni > Co > Pb > Hg > Cd. Average values of enrichment factor of Hg, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn were higher than 2 (209.50, 25.52, 20...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
K Hemming, K Carroll, J Thompson, A Forbes, M Taljaard
The Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) extension for the stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial (SW-CRT) is a recently published reporting guideline for SW-CRTs. We assess the quality of reporting of a recent sample of SW-CRTs according to the 26 items in the new guideline using a novel crowd sourcing methodology conducted independently and in duplicate, with random assignment, by 50 reviewers. We assessed reliability of the quality assessments, proposing this as a novel way to assess robustness of items in reporting guidelines...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Chansoo Kim, Sungjin Cho, Myoungho Sunwoo, Kichun Jo
A High-Definition map (HD map) is a precise and detailed map composed of various landmark feature layers. The HD map is a core technology that facilitates the essential functions of intelligent vehicles. Recently, it has come to be required for the HD map to continuously add new feature layers in order to increase the performances of intelligent vehicles in more complicated environments. However, it is difficult to generate a new feature layer for the HD map, because the conventional method of generating the HD map based on several professional mapping cars has high costs in terms of time and money due to the need to re-drive on all of the public roads...
November 28, 2018: Sensors
Maria Moitinho de Almeida, Johan von Schreeb
Human stampedes are a major cause of mortality in mass gatherings, but they have received limited scientific attention. While the number of publications has increased, there is no recent review of new study results. This study compiles and reviews available literature on stampedes, their prevention, preparedness, and response.A search for peer-reviewed and grey literature in PubMed (National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health; Bethesda, Maryland USA), Google Scholar (Google Inc...
November 27, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
Herry Patel, Michael Amlung
Epidemiological and roadside studies suggest that driving after cannabis use (DACU) is prevalent in the United States, and rates have increased following legalization or decriminalization of cannabis in some U.S. states. Reinforcing value of addictive substances (as measured by behavioral economic demand tasks), is an emerging risk factor for driving under the influence. This study sought to expand upon the previously documented link between alcohol demand and driving after drinking by examining whether similar associations exist between cannabis demand and DACU...
November 26, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Hanaa E Bayomy Helal, Abdelmoniem Yuonis, Rania H M Shaker, Mona Ahmed Elawady
Background: Egypt has the highest prevalence of HCV infection worldwide. This project aimed at identifying the role of HCV transmission among household contacts to index cases in the persistent high incidence of HCV infection in Egypt. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 70 Egyptian cases with chronic liver diseases and their household contacts (140 contacts) from Qalubeyia Governorate. An interview questionnaire was used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors to HCV infection...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
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