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Wei Tang, Yue Wang, Jun Zhang, Yali Cai, Zengguo He
Rhodotorula is a group of pigment-producing yeast well known for its intracellular biosynthesis of carotenoids such as β-carotene, γ-carotene, torulene and torularhodin. The great potency of carotenoids in the applications in food, feed as well as in health products and cosmetics products have composed of a market value over $2.0 billion by 2022. Due to the growing public concern over food safety, need for natural carotenoids is on rising, which largely encourages the use of microbial fermentation for natural carotenoids production...
March 12, 2019: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Erpei Wang, Chongmei Dong, Robert F Park, Thomas H Roberts
Rust fungi, which are responsible for some of the world's most destructive plant diseases, are named for the distinctive rusty colour of one or more of their spore forms. Rust spore pigments are thought to provide protection against UV radiation and oxidative stress, and may act as virulence factors. However, with the exception of daisy rust spores, the identity and relative abundance of the carotenoids in the rust spore cytoplasm have not been investigated using modern analytical methods, and little is known about the dependence of the carotenoid complement on species, pathotype, spore-colour mutations and season...
March 2, 2019: Phytochemistry
Vasil A Gaisin, Ekaterina I Burganskaya, Denis S Grouzdev, Aleksandr A Ashikhmin, Nadezda A Kostrikina, Irina A Bryantseva, Veronika V Koziaeva, Vladimir M Gorlenko
In this article, we present the description of a novel mesophilic phototrophic Chloroflexi bacterium, 'Candidatus Viridilinea mediisalina' Kir15-3F. We have isolated an anaerobic, highly-enriched culture of this bacterium from the Kiran soda lake (Siberia) and optimized its cultivation. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that 'Ca. Viridilinea mediisalina' Kir15-3F is a bacteriochlorophyll-containing Chloroflexi bacterium in the enrichment culture. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation demonstrated a link between the phenotype described here and the 'Ca...
February 25, 2019: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Paulo Berni, Stephanie S Campoli, Talita C Negri, Nataly M V de Toledo, Solange G Canniatti-Brazaca
Eleven non-conventional tropical fruits were evaluated regarding their nutritional value, antioxidant potential, carotenoid contents and bioaccessibility. The fruits were chosen due to their spread through the Brazilian territory: araçá-boi, jaracatiá, cambuití, seriguela, capeba, pitangatuba, pitanga, buriti, acerola, dovialis and abricó-da-praia. Results have shown that these fruits are in general, i.e. depending on the fruit, rich sources of dietary fibers and minerals, high in moisture, and low in proteins...
January 15, 2019: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Dongzhe Sun, Zhao Zhang, Yue Zhang, Ka-Wing Cheng, Feng Chen
In the present study, the effect of various light conditions on carotenoid accumulation in a novel heterotrophic microalga, Crypthecodinium sp. SUN was investigated. The results showed that C. sp. SUN mainly produced γ-carotene and β-carotene. The total carotenoid content could reach to 12.8 mg g-1 dry weight under high light intensity (100 μmol m-2  s-1 ), which was >100-fold higher than that under dark condition. Besides, along with the light intensity increased, the ROS level in vivo was decreased at 48 h and 72 h...
December 26, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Kevin Albert Noronha Matos, Danielle Praia Lima, Anna Paula Pereira Barbosa, Adriana Zerlotti Mercadante, Renan Campos Chisté
Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare) and peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) are Amazonian fruits with high potential to be used as source of carotenoids due to the remarkable yellow-orange colour of their pulp and peel. In this study, for the first time, both the extraction of carotenoids from the peel of tucumã and peach palm fruits and their carotenoid profile were investigated. The carotenoid contents of the peel of both fruits were higher than those found in the pulp. The highest yield of carotenoids from both fruit peels were obtained at the solid-liquid ratio of 1:7 (w/v), 80 min of shaking and by adding 30% of ethyl acetate in acetone, being β-carotene the major carotenoid (7...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Sun-Wook Jeong, Chang Keun Kang, Yong Jun Choi
A metabolically-engineered Deinococcus radiodurans R1 strain capable of producing phytoene, a colorless C40 carotenoid and a promising antioxidant, has been developed. To make this base strain, first, the crtI gene encoding phytoene desaturase was deleted to block the conversion of phytoene to other carotenoids such as lycopene and γ-carotene. This engineered strain produced 0.413 ± 0.023 mg/l of phytoene from 10 g/l of fructose. Further enhanced production of phytoene up to 4.46 ± 0.19 mg/l was achieved by overexpressing the crtB gene encoding phytoene synthase and the dxs genes encoding 1-deoxy-D -xylulose-5-phosphate synthase gene, and by deleting the crtD gene...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sandra González-Casado, Olga Martín-Belloso, Pedro Elez-Martínez, Robert Soliva-Fortuny
The application of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to whole tomatoes is proposed as a pre-processing treatment to obtain purees with high health-related properties. Tomato fruit was subjected to different electric field strengths (0.4, 1.2 and 2 kV cm-1) and number of pulses (5, 18 and 30 pulses). Tomatoes were stored at 4 °C for 24 h after PEF processing and then ground and mixed with 5% olive oil. The resulting tomato-based product was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. PEF treatments significantly increased the amount and bioaccessible fraction of carotenoids in the derived product...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
Wei Xiong, Gaozhong Shen, Donald A Bryant
The genome of the model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002, encodes two paralogs of CruA-type lycopene cyclases, SynPCC7002_A2153 and SynPCC7002_A0043, which are denoted cruA and cruP, respectively. Unlike the wild-type strain, a cruA deletion mutant is light-sensitive, grows slowly, and accumulates lycopene, γ-carotene, and 1-OH-lycopene; however, this strain still produces β-carotene and other carotenoids derived from it. Expression of cruA from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (cruA 6803) in Escherichia coli strains that synthesize either lycopene or γ-carotene did not lead to the synthesis of either γ-carotene or β-carotene, respectively...
March 2017: Photosynthesis Research
Shinichi Takaichi, Hideyuki Yazawa, Yoko Yamamoto
The precise chemical structures of two carotenoid glucoside esters, keto-myxocoxanthin glucoside ester isolated from Myxococcus sp. MY-18 and dehydrorhodopin glucoside ester from cells cultured in a nicotinecontaining medium, were determined as 1'-[(6-O-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3',4'-didehydro-l',2'-dihydro-β,ψ-caroten-4-one and 1-[(6-O-acyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-3,4-didehydro-1,2-dihydro-ψ,ψ-carotene, respectively. They had β-D-glucoside, whose C-6 hydroxyl group was esterified. The major fatty acid was 11-methyldodecanoate with minor components of n-dodecanoate, n-tetradecanoate, and 13-methyltetradecanoate...
January 1995: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Salvador Barahona, Yassef Yuivar, Gabriel Socias, Jennifer Alcaíno, Víctor Cifuentes, Marcelo Baeza
The study of the yeasts that inhabit cold environments, such as Antarctica, is an active field of investigation oriented toward understanding their ecological roles in these ecosystems. In a great part, the interest in cold-adapted yeasts is due to several industrial and biotechnological applications that have been described for them. The aim of this work was to isolate and identify yeasts from sedimentary rock samples collected at the Union Glacier, Antarctica. Furthermore, the yeasts were physiologically characterized, including the production of metabolites of biotechnological interest...
July 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Konstantina Nanou, Triantafyllos Roukas
The objective of this study was to evaluate a waste, waste cooking oil (WCO) as substrate for carotene production by Blakeslea trispora in shake flask culture. WCO was found to be a useful substrate for carotene production. B. trispora formed only pellets during fermentation. The oxidative stress in B. trispora induced by hydroperoxides and BHT as evidenced by increase of the specific activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased significantly the production of carotenes. The highest concentration of carotenes (2021 ± 75 mg/l or 49...
March 2016: Bioresource Technology
L A C Cardoso, S Jäckel, S G Karp, X Framboisier, I Chevalot, I Marc
The red yeast Sporobolomyces ruberrimus H110 was able to use glycerol as a carbon source. The highest concentration (0.51gL(-1)) and productivity (0.0064gL(-1)h(-1)) of carotenoids were achieved when raw glycerol from biodiesel production, containing around 1gL(-1) of fatty acids, was used as the carbon source, which represented increases of 27% and 1.5×, respectively, in relation to pure glycerol. Mass spectrometry analysis led to the identification of four carotenoids in the fermented samples, torularhodin, torulene, β-carotene and γ-carotene...
January 2016: Bioresource Technology
Jae-Woo Ahn, Kyung-Jin Kim
The γ-carotenoids, such as myxol and saproxanthin, have a high potential to be utilized in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries for their neuro-protective and antioxidant effects. CrtD is involved in the production of γ-carotenoids by desaturating the C3'-C4' position of 1'-OH-γ-carotenoid. We determined the crystal structure of CrtD from Nonlabens dokdonensis DSW-6 (NdCrtD), the first structure of CrtD family enzymes. The NdCrtD structure was composed of two distinct domains, an FAD-binding domain and a substrate-binding domain, and the substrate-binding domain can be divided into two subdomains, a Rossmann fold-like subdomain and a lid subdomain...
September 2015: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Virginia Hernández, Pilar Hellín, Jose Fenoll, Pilar Flores
The present study examines the effect of an increased day temperature on vitamin C and carotenoid concentrations in tomato, depending on the developmental stage of fruits when the stress is imposed. Plants were cultivated in a growth chamber initially at 24 °C, and the day temperature was increased to 32 °C when fruits belonging to six different fruit development stages could be differentiated. Vitamin C, phytoene, phytofluene, lycopene, γ-carotene, and violaxantin concentrations were significantly lower when a temperature of 32 °C was imposed during the advanced stages of fruit development compared to the levels observed in the control treatment...
March 11, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Marcus Tank, Donald A Bryant
A novel anoxygenic photoheterotrophic member of the phylum Acidobacteria , Chloracidobacterium thermophilum strain B sp. nov., was isolated from a cyanobacterial enrichment culture derived from microbial mats associated with Octopus Spring, Yellowstone National Park, WY. C. thermophilum sp. nov. was a Gram-stain-negative rod (diameter, approximately 0.8-1.0 µm; variable length, approximately 2.5 µm), which formed greenish-brown liquid suspension cultures. It was a moderately thermophilic microaerophile and grew in a defined medium at 51 °C (T(opt); range 44 to 58 °C) and in the pH range 5...
May 2015: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Takashi Maoka, Yumiko Yamano, Akimori Wada, Tetsuji Etho, Yukimasa Terada, Harukuni Tokuda, Hoyoku Nishino
Three new oxidative metabolites of lycopenes, (erythro)-lycopene-5,6-diol, (threo)-lycopene-5,6-diol, and 1,16-dehydro-2,6-cyclolycopene-5-ol B, and four new oxidative metabolites of γ-carotenes, 2',6'-cyclo-γ-carotene-1',5'-diol A, 2',6'-cyclo-γ-carotene-1',5'-diol B, (erythro)-γ-carotene-5,6-diol, and (threo)-γ-carotene-5,6-diol, were isolated as minor components from the aril of gac, Momordica cochinchinensis. These structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data, and some of them were compared to the structures of synthetic samples...
February 11, 2015: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A Carrillo-López, E M Yahia
Tomato is an important agricultural crop world-wide. Their pigments are very important in many ways. They have been associated with health benefits such as lowering the risk of some chronic diseases. Quantification of chlorophylls by spectrophotometry and Identification of carotenoids using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification by HPLC-DAD was carried out in the exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit during 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red and red)...
October 2014: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Triantafyllos Roukas, Maria Varzakakou, Parthena Kotzekidou
The effect of the aeration rate on carotene production from deproteinized hydrolyzed whey by Blakeslea trispora in a bubble column reactor was investigated. Aeration rate significantly affected carotene concentration and morphology of the fungus. Enhanced aeration caused change of the morphology of B. trispora from pellets with large projected area to pellets with small projected area. This morphological differentiation of the fungus was associated with a significant increase in carotene production. When deproteinized hydrolyzed whey was supplemented with 30 g/l Tween 80, 30 g/l Span 80, and 0...
January 2015: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Judith Hempel, Evelyn Amrehn, Silvia Quesada, Patricia Esquivel, Víctor M Jiménez, Annerose Heller, Reinhold Carle, Ralf M Schweiggert
High levels of β-carotene, lycopene, and the rare γ-carotene occur predominantly lipid-dissolved in the chromoplasts of peach palm fruits. First proof of their absorption from these fruits is reported. The structural diversity, the physical deposition state in planta, and the human bioavailability of carotenoids from the edible fruits of diverse orange and yellow-colored peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) varieties were investigated. HPLC-PDA-MS(n) revealed a broad range of carotenes, reaching total carotenoid levels from 0...
November 2014: Planta
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