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Liza C Gershony, Janelle M Belanger, Andrea D Short, Myly Le, Marjo K Hytönen, Hannes Lohi, Thomas R Famula, Lorna J Kennedy, Anita M Oberbauer
Background: Primary hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease, AD) and symmetrical lupoid onychodystrophy (SLO) are two clinical conditions with an autoimmune etiology that occur in multiple dog breeds. In man, autoimmunity is associated with polymorphisms in immune-related genes that result in a reduced threshold for, or defective regulation of, T cell activation. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes encode molecules that participate in these functions, and polymorphisms within these genes have been associated with autoimmune conditions in dogs and humans...
2019: Canine Genetics and Epidemiology
N Prakash, P Stumbles, C S Mansfield
AIM: To compare the concentration of faecal cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -10, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in dogs with acute diarrhoea with clinically normal (non-diarrhoeic) dogs. METHODS: A total of 14 dogs presenting with acute diarrhoea, and 25 dogs with no history of gastrointestinal signs in the 2 months prior to enrolment, were recruited from two veterinary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. IL-6, -8, -10, and TNF-α were measured in faecal samples using canine-specific ELISA...
February 12, 2019: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Liang Lv, Bowei Zhang, Mengmeng Wang, Senlin Yin, Peizhi Zhou, Yu Hu, Shizhen Zhang, Cheng Chen, Nannan Zhang, Shu Jiang
Although pituitary adenomas (PAs) are regarded as benign neoplasm, efficient postoperative management of PAs, especially invasive PAs, is still a major challenge for neurosurgeons. Thus, in order to verify the effect of postoperative surveillance alone for invasive PAs and identify helpful predictive factors of relapse after initial surgery, a series of 107 cases of surgically gross-totally resected invasive PAs were retrospectively investigated. With regarded to pituitary function, the preoperative incidence of hypothyroidism was higher than that of hypoadrenocorticism and hypogonadism (66...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
J S Béguin, L Chevallier, B Rannou, J J Fontaine, G Benchekroun
A 7-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with a 2-week history of vomiting, diarrhoea, weakness and loss of appetite. Initial laboratory tests revealed hyponatraemia and hyperkalaemia consistent with hypoadrenocorticism. Basal plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations were not suggestive of primary hypoadrenocorticism but the aldosterone concentration was undetectable. Abdominal ultrasound scan showed a mass within the left kidney and a nodular enlargement of the left adrenal gland. Cytological analysis revealed a large granular lymphoma...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Annabel Botsford, Ellen N Behrend, Robert J Kemppainen, Philippe R Gaillard, Frank Oprandy, Hollie P Lee
BACKGROUND: Low-dose ACTH stimulation testing would lower cost and may increase sensitivity for identification of partial ACTH deficiency. HYPOTHESIS: (1) The low-dose ACTH stimulation test will provide comparable results to the standard-dose ACTH stimulation test in dogs suspected of hypoadrenocorticism and (2) partial ACTH deficiency exists in dogs and can result in chronic, intermittent gastrointestinal signs. ANIMALS: Thirty-one client-owned dogs suspected of having hypoadrenocorticism...
November 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Sotaro Mori, Takuji Kurimoto, Kaori Ueda, Hiroko Enomoto, Mari Sakamoto, Yukako Keshi, Yuko Yamada, Makoto Nakamura
Background: Recent immune therapy with checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) has demonstrated remarkable antitumor effects on specific tumors, such as malignant lymphoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. By contrast, CPIs cause an imbalance in the immune system, triggering a wide range of immunological side effects termed immune-related adverse effects (irAEs). Here, we report a rare case of optic neuritis and hypopituitarism during anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody treatment. Case Presentation: A patient with non-small cell lung carcinoma received anti-PD-L1 antibody treatment every 3 weeks; however, the patient started experiencing headaches, general fatigue, anorexia, and diarrhea approximately 1 year after the initiation of the treatment...
May 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Alisdair M Boag, Michael R Christie, Kerry A McLaughlin, Harriet M Syme, Peter Graham, Brian Catchpole
Autoantibodies directed against the P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) have been recently described in dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism, consistent with an immune-mediated pathogenesis of this endocrinopathy. In human autoimmune Addison's disease, autoantibodies may have a predictive value, being detectable before clinical signs developing, and have been shown to persist for a period of time after diagnosis. Furthermore, an autoantibody positive status post-diagnosis has been associated with successful remission of Addison's disease following B-cell depletion, suggesting active immunopathology in these cases...
August 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Patty Lathan, Ann L Thompson
Hypoadrenocorticism (HOAC; Addison's disease) is an endocrine condition seen in small animal practice. Dogs with this disease can present in a variety of ways from acute hypovolemic collapse to vague, chronic, waxing, and waning clinical signs. In the most common form of this disease, animals have both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency, resulting in hyponatremia and hyperkalemia, and signs of cortisol deficiency. The etiology may be immune-mediated destruction of the adrenal cortex, drug-induced adrenocortical necrosis (mitotane), enzyme inhibition (trilostane), or infiltrative processes such as neoplastic or fungal disease...
2018: Veterinary medicine
Katja Kalenyak, Romy M Heilmann
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The term "atypical" HoAC is used for a subgroup of dogs with either an isolated glucocorticoid deficiency or a combined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency but normal electrolytes. Dogs with HoAC can present with a large variety of clinical signs, ranging from shaking, weakness, and mild gastrointestinal signs to seizures, hypovolemic shock, and collapse...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
T E Gin, M L Puchot, A K Cook
Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production...
July 2018: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
Florian K Zeugswetter, Tanja Haninger
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prednisolone and fludrocortisone dosages in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism after integrating endogenous ACTH (eACTH) determination into the surveillance regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The local electronic medical records database was searched for dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism and a complete follow-up including routine eACTH measurements until stabilisation. Dogs were considered stable if they showed no signs of glucocorticoid deficiency or excess, sodium and potassium were within the laboratory reference limits and no change of prednisolone and/or fludrocortisone dosage was recommended by the clinician...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Meng Qi, Ming Ye, Meng Li, Peng Zhang
Internal carotid artery (ICA) supraclinoid segment aneurysms extending into the sellar region and leading to pituitary dysfunction are a rare occurrence. To date, long-term follow up of pituitary function 2 years post-treatment has never been reported. Herein, we present a case of pituitary dysfunction due to an unruptured ophthalmic segment internal carotid artery aneurysm and report improved 2-year follow-up results. A 76-year-old male presented with disturbed consciousness due to hyponatremia, which was caused by hypoadrenocorticism resulting from pituitary dysfunction complicated by hypogonadism and hypothyroidism...
2018: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
J B King, J M Morton
The aim of this study was to describe the incidence and permanence of hypoadrenocorticism associated with trilostane treatment and to assess potential risk factors for hypoadrenocorticism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using case records for 156 dogs treated with trilostane after a diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism. Occurrences of hypoadrenocorticism were categorised as either transient or permanent. After initiation of treatment with trilostane, the estimated cumulative incidence of hypoadrenocorticism was 15% by 2 years and 26% by 4...
December 2017: Veterinary Journal
C E Reusch, F Fracassi, N S Sieber-Ruckstuhl, W A Burkhardt, N Hofer-Inteeworn, C Schuppisser, M Stirn, R Hofmann-Lehmann, F S Boretti
BACKGROUND: Thyrotropin (TSH) can be increased in humans with primary hypoadrenocorticism (HA) before glucocorticoid treatment. Increase in TSH is a typical finding of primary hypothyroidism and both diseases can occur concurrently (Schmidt's syndrome); therefore, care must be taken in assessing thyroid function in untreated human patients with HA. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether alterations in cTSH can be observed in dogs with HA in absence of primary hypothyroidism...
November 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Magali Decôme, Marie-Claude Blais
Naturally occurring hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's disease) is uncommon, with an estimated prevalence in the canine population between 0.06% and 0.28%. This retrospective study evaluated the prevalence and clinical features of hypoadrenocorticism in Great Pyrenees (GP) dogs presented to the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vétérinaire of the University of Montreal between March 2005 and October 2014. During this period, 100 dogs were diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism, representing 0.38% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0...
October 2017: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Sofia Borin-Crivellenti, Rebecca B Garabed, Karla I Moreno-Torres, Maxey L Wellman, Chen Gilor
OBJECTIVE To assess the discriminatory value for corticosteroid-induced alkaline phosphatase (CiALP) activity and other variables that can be measured routinely on a CBC and biochemical analysis for the diagnosis of hypoadrenocorticism in dogs. SAMPLE Medical records of 57 dogs with confirmed hypoadrenocorticism and 57 control dogs in which hypoadrenocorticism was suspected but ruled out. PROCEDURES A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Dogs were included if a CBC and complete biochemical analysis had been performed...
October 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
J A Jaffey, P Nurre, A B Cannon, A E DeClue
BACKGROUND: Clinicians alter dosing for desoxycorticosterone pivalate (DOCP) to mitigate costs, but this practice has not been critically evaluated in a prospective clinical trial. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The duration of action of DOCP is longer than 30 days in dogs with primary hypoadrenocorticism (PH). ANIMALS: A total of 53 client-owned dogs with PH. Twenty-four dogs with newly diagnosed PH (Group 1) and 29 dogs with treated PH (Group 2)...
November 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Fumika Kawano, Tomoyo Itonaga, Masanori Inoue, Miwako Maeda, Hiroaki Miyahara, Kenji Ihara
Rathke's cleft cysts (RCCs) are non-neoplastic, sellar or suprasellar epithelium-lined cysts originating from Rathke's pouch in the pituitary gland. Patients with RCCs are usually asymptomatic, but some have only been identified when symptoms manifested in middle age. The characteristics of these patients during childhood or adolescence remains unknown. We describe an 18-year-old girl who had occasionally suffered from malicious fatigue in the morning since her early teens. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed T1 hyperintense/T2 hypointense signals between the anterior and posterior pituitary glands, indicating the presence of RCC...
July 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Y Shen, J Zhou, Y Q Bao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
J A Wakayama, E Furrow, L K Merkel, P J Armstrong
OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinicopathologic findings and outcome in dogs with atypical hypoadrenocorticism (Group 1) and dogs with suspected atypical hypoadrenocorticism whose post-adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation cortisol concentrations were greater than 55 nmol/L but below the laboratory reference interval (Group 2). METHODS: Medical records were searched to identify dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism between January 2004 and June 2014. Dogs were excluded if their Na:K ratio was less than 27 or if they had received prior therapy that could interfere with adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing...
July 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
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