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"Antidote" OR "Antivenum" OR "Antivenin"

Elizabeth Donovan, Patricia Case, Jeffrey P Bratberg, Janette Baird, Dina Burstein, Alexander Y Walley, Traci C Green
Drug overdose is the leading cause of unintentional death in the USA and the majority of deaths involve an opioid. Pharmacies are playing an increasingly important role in getting naloxone-the antidote to an opioid overdose-into the community. The aim of the current study was to understand, from the perspective of those who had obtained naloxone at the pharmacy, whose drug using status and pain patient status was not known until the interviews were conducted, as well as those who had not obtained naloxone at the pharmacy but were at risk for overdose, factors that impact the likelihood of obtaining pharmacy-based naloxone (PBN)...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Ann M Arens, Tom Kearney
INTRODUCTION: Physostigmine is a tertiary amine carbamate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier makes it an effective antidote to reverse anticholinergic delirium. Physostigmine is underutilized following the publication of patients with sudden cardiac arrest after physostigmine administration in patients with tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) overdoses. We completed a narrative literature review to identify reported adverse effects associated with physostigmine administration...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Márton Kiss, Ilona Petrikovics, David E Thompson
Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is a natural organic trisulfide that has been patented as a promising antidotal candidate against cyanide (CN). The primary mode of action of DMTS is as a sulfur donor that enables the conversion of CN to thiocyanate. Recently, it was discovered that DMTS is capable of oxidizing hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (MetHb) in vitro. The goal of these experiments was to measure the extent of DMTS-induced MetHb formation in vivo. In these experiments, intramuscular (IM) injections of formulated DMTS were administered to mice...
September 2018: Hemoglobin
Subrata Bhadra, Zhiling Zhang, Wenhui Zhou, Fredrick Ochieng, Gary A Rockwood, Dennean Lippner, Brian A Logue
Cyanide is a rapidly acting and highly toxic chemical. It inhibits cytochrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, resulting in cellular hypoxia, cytotoxic anoxia and potentially death. In order to overcome challenges associated with current cyanide antidotes, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), which converts cyanide to less toxic thiocyanate in vivo, has gained much attention recently as a promising next-generation cyanide antidote. While there are three analysis methods available for DMTS, they each have significant disadvantages...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. A
Danqiong Wang, Guozheng Zhang, Weiwen Zhang, Jian Luo, Lihua Zhu, Jianhua Hu
RATIONALE: Because of the lack of an antidote or effective treatment, patients with severe acute diquat and glyphosate poisoning always died within a few hours. Extracorporeal membrane pulmonary oxygenation (ECMO), as an artificial heart-lung supporting system, can be applied to support lung that is expected to recover from reversible pathological damage. However, to our knowledge, the application of ECMO for patients with diquat and glyphosate poisoning has not been reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old man ingested in 100 ml of diquat (20 g/100 ml) and 400 ml glyphosate (41 g/100 ml) was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), immediately complicated by the development of ventricular fibrillation, respiratory failure, renal failure, and multi-organ failure...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Obed Adu Gyamfi, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Sari B Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Gary A Rockwood, Brian Alexander Logue
The direct analysis of cyanide (HCN or CN- inclusively symbolized as CN) to confirm exposure has major limitations due to cyanide's volatility, reactivity, and short half-life in biological fluids. These limitations have led to the exploration of cyanide detoxification products for indirect verification of cyanide exposure. Although cyanide interacts strongly with sulfur-containing molecules, to date, biomarkers resulting from the interaction of cyanide with glutathione (GSH; i.e., a biologically abundant sulfur-donating biomolecule) have yet to be discovered...
February 6, 2019: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Paul Gressenberger
Administration of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for the treatment of venous thrombotic events (VTE) or non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) is now standard of care and has demonstrated clinical efficacy and safety in numerous clinical studies. Usually these substances have lower overall mortality and less risk of cerebral hemorrhage, but depending on the substance and study, they are more likely to cause gastrointestinal bleeding than vitamin K antagonists (VKA), the medication that used to be standard for VTE and AF...
February 5, 2019: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
V A Palikov, S S Terekhov, Yu A Palikova, O N Khokhlova, V A Kazakov, I A Dyachenko, S V Panteleev, Yu A Mokrushina, V D Knorre, O G Shamborant, I V Smirnov, A G Gabibov
The development of antidotes to organophosphate poisons is an important aspect of modern pharmacology. Recombinant acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase are effective DNA-encoded acceptors of organophosphate poisons and, in particular, pesticides. Here, we present the results of a study on the effectiveness of recombinant butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in modeling organophosphate poisoning caused by oral administration of paraoxon at a dose of 2 mg / kg. The study showed a high activity of BChE as a protective agent for subchronic anticholinesterase poisoning in an in vivo model...
October 2018: Acta Naturae
Adeleh Maleki, Mir-Jamal Hosseini, Nastaran Rahimi, Alireza Abdollahi, Amir Akbarfakhrabadi, Nina Javadian, Shayan Amiri, Behnam Behnoush, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Aluminium phosphide (AlP); is a highly toxic substance with a high mortality rate and no effective antidote. Once exposed to the moisture and acidic conditions of the stomach, AlP releases toxic phosphine (PH3 ) gas, which results in severe toxicity in poisoned subjects. Selegiline is a monoamine oxidase inhibitor with antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties, which is mostly prescribed for the treatment of mood disorders and Parkinson's disease. Since AlP has detrimental effects on cardiac physiology and mitochondrial function, we tested the protective effects of acute selegiline treatment on cardiac mitochondrial function, redox status, and electrocardiographic parameters in rats following AlP poisoning...
February 3, 2019: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Zhenhua Yan, Guanghua Lu, Hongwei Sun, Xuhui Bao, Runren Jiang, Jianchao Liu, Yong Ji
Few studies have focused on the influence of environmental conditions on the bioavailability of pollutants interacted with nanomaterials in organisms. In this study, we primarily compared the influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the bioavailability of fluoxetine in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larva under different environmental conditions: natural organic matter (NOM) and salinity. The results showed that fluoxetine accumulated in the larvae and then transformed into the metabolite norfluoxetine, with the metabolic rates from 2...
January 31, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Milad Tavassoli, Asma Afshari, Andree Letiţia Arsene, Bruno Mégarbane, Josef Dumanov, Monica Maria Bastos Paoliello, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Félix Carvalho, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Gholamreza Karimi, Ramin Rezaee
Mushrooms account for a part of human diet due to their exquisite taste and protein content as well as their promising health effects unveiled by scientific research. Toxic and non-toxic mushrooms frequently share considerable morphological similarities, which mislead the collectors/consumers, resulting in mycotoxicity. Numerous mushroom species are considered "poisonous" as they produce dangerous toxins. For instance, members of the genus Amanita , especially A. phalloides , A. virosa and A. verna , are responsible for severe and even life-threatening noxious consequences...
2019: Toxicology Reports
Hiroki Sano, Kazuhiko Namekata, Atsuko Kimura, Hiroshi Shitara, Xiaoli Guo, Chikako Harada, Yoshinori Mitamura, Takayuki Harada
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. NAC serves as a precursor of cysteine and stimulates the synthesis of glutathione in neural cells. Suppressing oxidative stress in the retina may be an effective therapeutic strategy for glaucoma, a chronic neurodegenerative disease of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and optic nerves. Here we examined the therapeutic potential of NAC in two mouse models of normal tension glaucoma, in which excitatory amino-acid carrier 1 (EAAC1) or glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) gene was deleted...
January 28, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Marcelo A Strauch, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Bruno Lemos Cons, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Jhonatha da Mota Teixeira-Cruz, Matheus da Silva Tavares-Henriques, Pâmella Dourila Nogueira-Souza, Sara L S Gomes, Paulo R R Costa, Edgar Schaeffer, Alcides J M da Silva, Paulo A Melo
BACKGROUND: It is known that local tissue injuries incurred by snakebites are quickly instilled causing extensive, irreversible, tissue destruction that may include loss of limb function or even amputation. Such injuries are not completely neutralized by the available antivenins, which in general are focused on halting systemic effects. Therefore it is prudent to investigate the potential antiophidic effects of natural and synthetic compounds, perhaps combining them with serum therapy, to potentially attenuate or eliminate the adverse local and systemic effects of snake venom...
2019: PloS One
Robin J Slaughter, Martin Watts, J Allister Vale, Jacob R Grieve, Leo J Schep
INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite is used as a bleaching and disinfecting agent and is commonly found in household bleach. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to review critically the epidemiology, mechanisms of toxicity, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hypochlorite poisoning. METHODS: PubMed was searched from January 1950 to June 2018 using the terms "Hypochlorite", "Sodium Hypochlorite", "Sodium Oxychloride", "Hypochlorous Acid", "Bleach", "Chlorine Bleach", in combination with the keywords "poisoning", "poison", "toxicity", "ingestion", "adverse effects", "overdose", and "intoxication"...
January 28, 2019: Clinical Toxicology
Alexis Jemal
Oppression has been identified as a fundamental cause of disease. Like a self-replicating virus, it infects systems from the biological to the political, contributing to personal (e.g., substance use, low self-esteem) and social (e.g., community violence, mass incarceration) dysfunction. Paulo Freire's critical consciousness (CC) is a philosophical, theoretical and practice-based framework that has been identified as an antidote to oppression. Critical consciousness constitutes an awareness of, and action against, institutional, historical, and systemic forces that limit or promote opportunities for certain groups...
December 2018: Journal of human rights and social work
Sophie Gosselin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: CJEM
John F Beckmann, Manon Bonneau, Hongli Chen, Mark Hochstrasser, Denis Poinsot, Hervé Merçot, Mylène Weill, Mathieu Sicard, Sylvain Charlat
Wolbachia bacteria inhabit the cells of about half of all arthropod species, an unparalleled success stemming in large part from selfish invasive strategies. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whereby the symbiont makes itself essential to embryo viability, is the most common of these and constitutes a promising weapon against vector-borne diseases. After decades of theoretical and experimental struggle, major recent advances have been made toward a molecular understanding of this phenomenon. As pieces of the puzzle come together, from yeast and Drosophila fly transgenesis to CI diversity patterns in natural mosquito populations, it becomes clearer than ever that the CI induction and rescue stem from a toxin-antidote (TA) system...
January 23, 2019: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Poulou Aikaterini, Alexiou Evangelos, Geroulakos George, Lazaris M Andreas
INTRODUCTION: Direct oral anticoagulants are commonly used instead of vitamin K antagonists, in patients needing long-term anticoagulant treatment. As their use has become more popular, there is an increase possibility to perform a major surgery on an urgent or emergency basis on patients under non vitamin K antagonists oral anticoagulants. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm on a male patient under rivaroxaban and clopidogrel. Emergency open repair of the aneurysm was performed...
January 23, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Miloš P Stojiljković, Ranko Škrbić, Milan Jokanović, Dubravko Bokonjić, Vesna Kilibarda, Maja Vulović
BACKGROUND: Carbamates physostigmine and pyridostigmine have been used as a pretreatment against poisoning with nerve agents in order to reversibly inhibit and thus protect from irreversible inhibition a portion of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain and respiratory muscles that is crucial for survival. Memantine, an adamantine derivative, has emerged as a promising alternative to carbamates, since it prevented the fasciculations and skeletal muscle necrosis induced by carbamates and organophosphates, including nerve agents...
January 22, 2019: Toxicology
Edyta Turek, Tomohiro Shiraki, Tomonari Shiraishi, Tamehito Shiga, Tsuyohiko Fujigaya, Dawid Janas
Lack of necessary degree of control over carbon nanotube (CNT) structure has remained a major impediment factor for making significant advances using this material since it was discovered. Recently, a wide range of promising sorting methods emerged as an antidote to this problem, all of which unfortunately have a multistep nature. Here we report that desired type of CNTs can be targeted and isolated in a single step using modified aqueous two-phase extraction. We achieve this by introducing hydration modulating agents, which are able to tune the arrangement of surfactants on their surface, and hence make selected CNTs highly hydrophobic or hydrophilic...
January 24, 2019: Scientific Reports
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