Abhilasha Purohit, Sugandha Saxena, Michelle Varney, Dipakkumar R Prajapati, Jessica A Kozel, Audrey Lazenby, Rakesh K Singh
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) manifests aggressive tumor growth and early metastasis. Crucial steps in tumor growth and metastasis are survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and immunosuppression. Previously we have shown that CXCR2 is expressed on endothelial cells, innate immune cells, and fibroblasts and regulates angiogenesis and immune responses. In this report, we examined whether tumor angiogenesis, growth, and metastasis of CXCR2-ligands expressing PDAC cells are regulated in vivo by a host CXCR2-dependent mechanism...
January 13, 2021: American Journal of Pathology
Noritoshi Kobayashi, Yuma Takeda, Naoki Okubo, Akihiro Suzuki, Motohiko Tokuhisa, Yukihiko Hiroshima, Yasushi Ichikawa
Extrapulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (EPNEC) is a lethal disease with a poor prognosis. Platinum-based chemotherapy is used as the standard first-line treatment for unresectable EPNEC. Several retrospective studies have reported the results of the utilization of temozolomide (TMZ) as a drug for the second-line treatment for EPNEC. Patients with unresectable EPNEC that were resistant to platinum-based combination chemotherapy were recruited for a prospective phase II study of TMZ monotherapy. A 200 mg/m2 dose of TMZ was administered from day 1 to day 5, every four weeks...
January 16, 2021: Cancer Science
Xiao Zhang, Wenyu Song, Chunxia Qin, Fang Liu, Xiaoli Lan
PURPOSE: 68 Ga-Labelled Fibroblast Activation Protein Inhibitor (68 Ga-FAPI) has shown promise in tumour positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, including malignant pancreatic lesions. Here, we showed several non-malignant findings of focal 68 Ga-FAPI-04 uptake in the pancreas which were occasionally found by PET/MR. The study aimed to investigate the reasons for the focal uptake and remind caution for the diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed imaging data of 103 patients who underwent 68 Ga-FAPI-04 PET/MR at our institute from May 22 to July 8, 2020...
January 15, 2021: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Arif A Arif, Peter T W Kim, Adrienne Melck, Andrew Churg, Zachary Schwartz, Heather C Stuart
BACKGROUND Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a multi-tumor syndrome in which affected patients develop malignancies that are rare in the overall population, such as tumors of neural or endocrine origin. CASE REPORT A 67-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of NF1 presented with abdominal pain and pneumoperitoneum. She underwent small-bowel resections for a perforated jejunal lesion and a second lesion in the ileum; pathology showed a neurofibroma at the site of the perforation and a 1-cm low-grade GIST, respectively...
January 16, 2021: American Journal of Case Reports
L Sivapalan, H M Kocher, H Ross-Adams, C Chelala
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is predicted to become the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality within the next decade, with limited effective treatment options and a dismal long-term prognosis for patients. Genomic profiling has not yet manifested clinical benefits for diagnosis, treatment or prognosis in PDAC, due to the lack of available tissues for sequencing and the confounding effects of low tumour cellularity in many biopsy specimens. Increasing focus is now turning to the use of minimally invasive liquid biopsies to enhance the characterisation of actionable PDAC tumour genomes...
December 30, 2020: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Alessandro Bisio, Linda Gonder-Frederick, Ryan McFadden, Daniel Cherñavvsky, Mary Voelmle, Michael Pajewski, Pearl Yu, Heather Bonner, Sue A Brown
BACKGROUND: Older adults with type 1 diabetes (≥65 years) are often under-represented in clinical trials of automated insulin delivery (AID) systems. We sought to test the efficacy of a recently FDA-approved AID system in this population. METHODS: Participants with type 1 diabetes used sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy for four weeks and then used an AID system (Control-IQ) for four weeks. In addition to glucose control variables, patient-reported outcomes (PRO) were assessed with questionnaires and sleep parameters were assessed by actigraphy...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Lingling Yang, Sarah E Webb, Nana Jin, Heung Man Lee, Ting Fung Chan, Gang Xu, Juliana C N Chan, Andrew L Miller, Ronald C W Ma
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: β-cell dysfunction is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. In a previous pilot study, we identified an association between genetic variants within the human DACH1 gene and young-onset type 2 diabetes. Here, we characterized the function of dachb, the only dach homologue to be expressed in the pancreas, in developing zebrafish embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We injected one-cell stage embryos with a dachb-morpholino (MO) or with the dachb-MO and dachb-mRNA and determined the effect on the development of the pancreatic islet...
January 15, 2021: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Venkata S Akshintala, Mouen A Khashab
Artificial intelligence (AI) applications in health care have exponentially increased in recent years, and a few of these are related to pancreatobiliary disorders. AI-based methods were applied to extract information, in prognostication, to guide clinical treatment decisions and in pancreatobiliary endoscopy to characterize lesions. AI applications in endoscopy are expected to reduce inter-operator variability, improve the accuracy of diagnosis, and assist in therapeutic decision-making in real time. AI-based literature must however be interpreted with caution given the limited external validation...
January 2021: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Giovanna Vacca, Alfonso Reginelli, Fabrizio Urraro, Angelo Sangiovanni, Federico Bruno, Ernesto Di Cesare, Salvatore Cappabianca, Angelo Vanzulli
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common disease that may involve pancreas and peripancreatic tissues with a prevalence of up to 50 per 100,000 individuals for year. The Atlanta classification was assessed for the first time in 1992 and modified in 2012 in order to describe morphological features of AP and its complications. AP can be morphologically distinguished in two main types: interstitial edematous pancreatitis (IEP) and necrotizing pancreatitis (NEP). This classification is very important because the presence of necrosis is directly linked to local or systemic complications, hospital stays and death...
December 2020: Gland Surgery
Andrea Agostini, Alessandra Borgheresi, Federico Bruno, Raffaele Natella, Chiara Floridi, Marina Carotti, Andrea Giovagnoni
Computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role as a diagnostic tool in many diagnostic and diffuse pancreatic diseases. One of the major limits of CT is related to the radiation exposure of young patients undergoing repeated examinations. Besides the standard CT protocol, the most recent technological advances, such as low-voltage acquisitions with high performance X-ray tubes and iterative reconstructions, allow for significant optimization of the protocol with dose reduction. The variety of CT tools are further expanded by the introduction of dual energy: the production of energy-selective images (i...
December 2020: Gland Surgery
Francesco Gentili, Susanna Guerrini, Francesco Giuseppe Mazzei, Ilaria Monteleone, Nunzia Di Meglio, Letizia Sansotta, Armando Perrella, Sara Puglisi, Massimo De Filippo, Paolo Gennaro, Luca Volterrani, Maria Grazia Castagna, Francesco Dotta, Maria Antonietta Mazzei
Dual energy CT (DECT)with image acquisition at two different photon X-ray levels allows the characterization of a specific tissue or material/elements, the extrapolation of virtual unenhanced and monoenergetic images, and the quantification of iodine uptake; such special capabilities make the DECT the perfect technique to support oncological imaging for tumor detection and characterization and treatment monitoring, while concurrently reducing the dose of radiation and iodine and improving the metal artifact reduction...
December 2020: Gland Surgery
James Kamau, Elisabeth Paul, Mathai Chalunkal, Richard Snyder, Douglas S Corwin
Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition caused by an insult to the pancreas. Pancreatitis is associated with local and systemic complications such as splenic vein thrombosis and systemic inflammatory response syndromes (SIRS), respectively. Pancreatitis increases the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) through a combination of increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and systemic vascular injury. However, DVT and pulmonary embolism remain under-recognized and underappreciated complications of acute pancreatitis as they fall through the cracks in the commonly used venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment model...
December 13, 2020: Curēus
Péter J Hegyi, Alexandra Soós, Emese Tóth, Attila Ébert, Viktória Venglovecz, Katalin Márta, Péter Mátrai, Alexandra Mikó, Judit Bajor, Patrícia Sarlós, Áron Vincze, Adrienn Halász, Ferenc Izbéki, Zoltán Szepes, László Czakó, György Kovács, Mária Papp, Zsolt Dubravcsik, Márta Varga, József Hamvas, Balázs C Németh, Melania Macarie, Ali Tüzün Ince, Dmitry S Bordin, Elena A Dubtsova, Mariya A Kiryukova, Igor E Khatkov, Tanya Bideeva, Artautas Mickevicius, Elena Ramírez-Maldonado, Ville Sallinen, Bálint Erőss, Dániel Pécsi, Andrea Szentesi, Andrea Párniczky, László Tiszlavicz, Péter Hegyi
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is an end-stage disease with no specific therapy; therefore, an early diagnosis is of crucial importance. In this study, data from 1315 and 318 patients were analysed from acute pancreatitis (AP) and CP registries, respectively. The population from the AP registry was divided into AP (n = 983), recurrent AP (RAP, n = 270) and CP (n = 62) groups. The prevalence of CP in combination with AP, RAP2, RAP3, RAP4 and RAP5 + was 0%, 1%, 16%, 50% and 47%, respectively, suggesting that three or more episodes of AP is a strong risk factor for CP...
January 14, 2021: Scientific Reports
Romina J Bevacqua, Jonathan Y Lam, Heshan Peiris, Robert L Whitener, Seokho Kim, Xueying Gu, Mollie S H Friedlander, Seung K Kim
The physiological functions of many vital tissues and organs continue to mature after birth, but the genetic mechanisms governing this postnatal maturation remain an unsolved mystery. Human pancreatic β cells produce and secrete insulin in response to physiological cues like glucose, and these hallmark functions improve in the years after birth. This coincides with expression of the transcription factors SIX2 and SIX3, whose functions in native human β cells remain unknown. Here, we show that shRNA-mediated SIX2 or SIX3 suppression in human pancreatic adult islets impairs insulin secretion...
January 14, 2021: Genes & Development
Laura Massoz, Marie Alice Dupont, Isabelle Manfroid
Regeneration is defined as the ability to regrow an organ or a tissue destroyed by degeneration or injury. Many human degenerative diseases and pathologies, currently incurable, could be cured if functional tissues or cells could be restored. Unfortunately, humans and more generally mammals have limited regenerative capabilities, capacities that are even further declining with age, contrary to simpler organisms. Initially thought to be lost during evolution, several studies have revealed that regenerative mechanisms are still present in mammals but are latent and thus they could be stimulated...
January 12, 2021: Biomedicines
Elena Muñoz Fabra, José-Luis Díez, Jorge Bondia, Alejandro José Laguna Sanz
Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) has been a springboard of new diabetes management technologies such as integrated sensor-pump systems, the artificial pancreas, and more recently, smart pens. It also allows patients to make better informed decisions compared to a few measurements per day from a glucometer. However, CGM accuracy is reportedly affected during exercise periods, which can impact the effectiveness of CGM-based treatments. In this review, several studies that used CGM during exercise periods are scrutinized...
January 12, 2021: Sensors
Mohamad Mahseeri, Ahmad Alqaiseieh, Du'a Alkhader, Hala Halbony, Mutaz Albreazat, Saleh Abualhaj
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is a rare pancreatic disorder that usually affects young women with no or nonspecific clinical manifestation. It accounts for approximately 1% of pancreatic neoplasms. The incidence of SPN is increasing, owing to improved imaging techniques and better recognition of this entity. Although most patients with SPNs have a favorable prognosis after radical resection, local recurrence or metastasis still occurs after surgery...
January 6, 2021: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Choonsik Lee, Jiamin Liu, Keith Griffin, Les Folio, Ronald M Summers
We aimed to determine feasibility in calculating patient-specific organ doses for abdominal computed tomography (CT) exams using an automated segmentation technique dedicated to abdominal organs combined with Monte Carlo simulation of a clinical CT scanner. We conducted the automated segmentation of five major abdominal organs (left and right kidneys, pancreas, spleen, and liver) for ten adult patients and calculated organ-specific doses for each patient. We observed significant variability (Coefficient of Variation up to 32%) in organ mass across the ten patients, which was up to two-fold greater or smaller than the reference organ mass for the ICRP reference adult male and female...
June 12, 2020: Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express
Jennifer Chen, Jenny E Gunton
Islet transplantation, a therapeutic option to treat type 1 diabetes, is not yet as successful as whole-pancreas transplantation as a treatment for diabetes. Mouse models are commonly used for islet research. However, it is clear disparities exist between islet transplantation outcomes in mice and humans. Given the shortage of transplant-grade islets, it is crucial that we further our understanding of factors that determine long-term islet survival and function post-transplantation. In turn, that may lead to new therapeutic targets and strategies that to improve transplant outcomes...
January 1, 2021: Journal of Endocrinology
Dóra Illés, Emese Ivány, Gábor Holzinger, Klára Kosár, M Gordian Adam, Beate Kamlage, Gábor Zsóri, Máté Tajti, Márk M Svébis, Viktor Horváth, Ilona Oláh, Katalin Márta, Szilárd Váncsa, Noémi Zádori, Andrea Szentesi, Bálint Czakó, Péter Hegyi, László Czakó
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a dismal prognosis with an overall 5-year survival of approximately 8%. The success in reducing the mortality rate of PDAC is related to the discovery of new therapeutic agents, and to a significant extent to the development of early detection and prevention programmes. Patients with new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) represent a high-risk group for PDAC as they have an eightfold higher risk of PDAC than the general population. The proposed screening programme may allow the detection of PDAC in the early, operable stage...
November 19, 2020: BMJ Open
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