Anna Goddi, Liesl Schroedl, Eric M Brey, Ronald N Cohen
Laminins are extracellular matrix proteins that reside in the basement membrane and provide structural support in addition to promoting cellular adhesion and migration. Through interactions with cell surface receptors, laminins stimulate intracellular signaling cascades which direct specific survival and differentiation outcomes. In metabolic tissues such as the pancreas, adipose, muscle, and liver, laminin isoforms are expressed in discrete temporal and spatial patterns suggesting that certain isoforms may support the development and function of particular metabolic cell types...
April 12, 2021: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Sophie Hallakou-Bozec, Micheline Kergoat, David E Moller, Sébastien Bolze
Objectives: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is driven by progressive dysfunction and loss of pancreatic β-cell mass. Imeglimin is a first-in-class novel drug candidate that improves glycaemia and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in preclinical models and patients. Given evidence that imeglimin can attenuate β-cell dysfunction and protect β cells in vitro , we postulated that imeglimin could also exert longer term effects to prevent pancreatic β-cell death and preserve functional β-cell mass in vivo ...
April 2021: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism
Tomoyuki Wakahara, Kiyonori Kanemitsu, Susumu Miura, Shinobu Tsuchida, Takeshi Iwasaki, Mitsuru Sasako
Purpose: While the amylase concentration of the drainage fluid (dAmy) has been reported to be a predictor of postoperative pancreas-related complications (PPRC), the optimal timing for its measurement has not been fully investigated. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathological data of 387 patients who underwent elective gastrectomy for gastric cancer were reviewed. Laboratory data, including dAmy on postoperative days 1 (dAmy1) and 3 (dAmy3), and serum C-reactive protein (sCRP) concentrations on postoperative days 1 (sCRP1) and 3 (sCRP3) were compared between patients with PPRC and without PPRC...
March 2021: Journal of Gastric Cancer
Diana Zagirova, Rebecca Autenried, Morgan E Nelson, Khosrow Rezvani
Targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) - in particular, the proteasome complex - has emerged as an attractive novel cancer therapy. While several proteasome inhibitors have been successfully approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of hematological malignancies, the clinical efficacy of these inhibitors is unexpectedly lower in the treatment of solid tumors due to the functional and structural heterogeneity of proteasomes in solid tumors. There are ongoing trials to examine the effectiveness of compound and novel proteasome inhibitors that can target solid tumors either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents...
2021: Journal of Cancer
Stefano Partelli, Claudio Ricci, Lorenzo Cinelli, Roberto Maria Montorsi, Carlo Ingaldi, Valentina Andreasi, Stefano Crippa, Laura Alberici, Riccardo Casadei, Massimo Falconi
BACKGROUND: The cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) is still a matter of debate. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of open (ODP), laparoscopic (LDP) and robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP). METHODS: Pubmed, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Studies comparing cost-effectiveness of ODP and MIDP were included. RESULTS: A total of 1052 titles were screened and 16 articles were included in the study, 2431 patients in total...
April 7, 2021: American Journal of Surgery
Bradley R Hall, Zachary H Egr, Robert W Krell, James C Padussis, Valerie K Shostrom, Chandrakanth Are, Bradley N Reames
BACKGROUND: The optimal type of operative drainage following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains unclear. Our objective is to investigate risk associated with closed drainage techniques (passive [gravity] vs. suction) after PD. METHODS: We assessed operative drainage techniques utilized in patients undergoing PD in the ACS-NSQIP pancreas-targeted database from 2016 to 2018. Using multivariable logistic regression to adjust for characteristics of the patient, procedure, and pancreas, we examined the association between use of gravity drainage and postoperative outcomes...
April 14, 2021: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Ildem Akerman, Miguel Angel Maestro, Elisa De Franco, Vanessa Grau, Sarah Flanagan, Javier García-Hurtado, Gerhard Mittler, Philippe Ravassard, Lorenzo Piemonti, Sian Ellard, Andrew T Hattersley, Jorge Ferrer
Despite the central role of chromosomal context in gene transcription, human noncoding DNA variants are generally studied outside of their genomic location. This limits our understanding of disease-causing regulatory variants. INS promoter mutations cause recessive neonatal diabetes. We show that all INS promoter point mutations in 60 patients disrupt a CC dinucleotide, whereas none affect other elements important for episomal promoter function. To model CC mutations, we humanized an ∼3.1-kb region of the mouse Ins2 gene...
April 13, 2021: Cell Reports
Robert A Saxton, Lukas T Henneberg, Marco Calafiore, Leon Su, Kevin M Jude, Alan M Hanash, K Christopher Garcia
Interleukin-22 (IL-22) acts on epithelial cells to promote tissue protection and regeneration, but can also elicit pro-inflammatory effects, contributing to disease pathology. Here, we engineered a high-affinity IL-22 super-agonist that enabled the structure determination of the IL-22-IL-22Rα-IL-10Rβ ternary complex to a resolution of 2.6 Å. Using structure-based design, we systematically destabilized the IL-22-IL-10Rβ binding interface to create partial agonist analogs that decoupled downstream STAT1 and STAT3 signaling...
April 13, 2021: Immunity
Katelyn E Madigan, David A Leiman, Deepak Palakshappa
BACKGROUND: Colorectal (CRC) and other digestive cancer survivors are at increased risk of depression, which can negatively affect health outcomes. Food insecurity (FI), the lack of consistent access to enough food, can also contribute to these health complications. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between FI and depressive symptoms within this population. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey...
April 13, 2021: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
B Wang, Q Huang, S Li, J Wu, X Yuan, H Sun, L Tang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the dynamic changes of guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) in the colon tissues of rats with intestinal injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). OBJECTIVE: Thirty-six SD rats were randomized equally into two groups to receive either sham operation or retrograde pumping of 5% sodium taurocholate (0.1 mL/100 g) into the pancreaticobiliary duct following laparotomy to induce SAP. At 12, 24, and 48 h after modeling, 6 rats from each group were euthanized and the colon tissues were collected for Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR to determine the changes in GC-C expression, and the lowest GC-C expression was deemed to indicate the most serious intestinal injury and the time window for intervention...
March 25, 2021: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
L Zhao, X Zhang, J Feng, Z Xiao, Y Liu, H Long, X Chen, W Tang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of exenatide on the expression of ABCA1 and cholesterol metabolism in the pancreas of obese diabetic rats. OBJECTIVE: Twenty-four normal male SD rats and 18 obese diabetic rats (induced by high-fat feeding and STZ injection) were both divided equally into 2 groups for injections of saline or exenatide. After treatment for a week, the expression of ABCA1, cholesterol metabolism, and islet function of the rats were examined using real-time PCR, Western blotting, oil red O staining, cholesterol content determination, and HE staining...
March 25, 2021: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Dorinne Desposito, Ina Maria Schiessl, Georgina Gyarmati, Anne Riquier-Brison, Audrey Izuhara, Hiroyuki Kadoya, Balint Der, Urvi Nikhil Shroff, Young-Kwon Hong, Janos Peti-Peterdi
Endothelial cells are important in the maintenance of healthy blood vessels and in the development of vascular diseases. However, the origin and dynamics of endothelial precursors and remodeling at the single-cell level have been difficult to study in vivo due to technical limitations. We aimed to develop a direct visual approach to track the fate and function of single endothelial cells over several days-weeks in the same vascular bed in vivo using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) of transgenic Cdh5-Confetti mice and the kidney glomerulus as a model...
April 13, 2021: JCI Insight
Masato Kayahara, Ichiro Onishi, Naoki Makita, Shunsuke Kano, Masayoshi Munemoto, Yasumichi Yagi, Makiko Minami, Noriaki Orita, Takuya Komura, Nozomu Kurose
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma (PACC) is a rare exocrine malignant tumor. Its widespread intraductal extension into the main pancreatic duct (MPD) is also rare. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 71-year-old man with PACC with MPD extension. The patient was assessed with laboratory and radiographic investigations that facilitated a preoperative diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and dynamic thin-slice multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) were useful for determining the resection line of the pancreas...
April 13, 2021: Surgical Case Reports
MeiLin Zhu, ChuanDe Zhang, JingXin Yan, Ju Sun, XinYi Zhao, LuShun Zhang, LongLin Yin
BACKGROUND: A variety of imaging techniques can be used to evaluate diffusion characteristics to differentiate malignant and benign pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic performance of diffusion parameters has not been systematic assessed. PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for pancreatic lesions. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies from inception to March 30, 2020, which involves the quantitative diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) in the pancreas...
April 13, 2021: European Radiology
Soudabeh Moradi, Arash Moradi, Vahid Atabaigi Elmi, Mohammad Reza Abdollahi
The effects of corn particle size and dietary fibre on the performance, coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) and intestinal characteristics in broiler starters fed pelleted diets were studied. The experiment included 10 treatments arranged as a 2 × 5 factorial with two corn particle sizes (GMD of 1071 [CGC] vs. 534 [FGC]) and five diets that consisted in a low-fibre diet and four extra diets resulting from the inclusion of insoluble fibre sources (10 g/kg of lignocellulose (LC), and 30 g/kg of oat hulls; OH, rice hulls; RH, and sunflower hulls; SFH)...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Jeffrey S Chang, Li-Tzong Chen, Yan-Shen Shan, Pei-Yi Chu, Chia-Rong Tsai, Hui-Jen Tsai
The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) has been increasing in recent decades. Previously, we reported the incidence and survival of NETs in Taiwan by analyzing the 1996-2008 data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry. Here we performed an updated analysis on the incidence and survival of NETs in Taiwan from 1996 to 2015. The incidence of NETs was 0.244 per 100,000 in 1996 and increased to 3.162 per 100,000 in 2015. The most common site of NETs was rectum (29.65%), followed by lung/bronchus (17.22%), and pancreas (10...
April 12, 2021: Scientific Reports
A Turunen, K Kuuliala, A Kuuliala, T Tervahartiala, H Mustonen, P Puolakkainen, L Kylänpää, T Sorsa
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has high morbidity and mortality but there are no widely accepted predictive biomarkers in clinical use. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are active in tissue destruction and inflammatory responses. We studied whether serum levels of activated MMP-8 (aMMP-8), MMP-9 and their regulators tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) could predict the development of SAP. METHODS: The study comprised 214 AP patients (revised Atlanta classification: 142 mild, MAP; 54 moderately severe, MSAP; 18 SAP) referred to Helsinki University Hospital...
April 7, 2021: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Ryan F Wang, Erica J Fagelman, Natalie K Smith, Tetsuro Sakai
In 2020, we identified and screened over 490 peer-reviewed publications on pancreatic transplantation, over 500 on intestinal transplantation, and over 5000 on kidney transplantation. The liver transplantation section specially focused on clinical trials and systematic reviews published in 2020 and featured selected articles. This review highlights noteworthy literature pertinent to anesthesiologists and critical care physicians caring for patients undergoing abdominal organ transplantation. We explore a wide range of topics, including COVID-19 and organ transplantation, risk factors and outcomes, pain management, artificial intelligence, robotic donor surgery, and machine perfusion...
April 13, 2021: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Jun Jie Fan, Qi Xiang Mei, Guo Ying Deng, Ze Hua Huang, Yang Fu, Jun Hui Hu, Chun Lan Huang, Ying Ying Lu, Lun Gen Lu, Xing Peng Wang, Yue Zeng
OBJECTIVE: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common digestive tract disease caused by gall stone obstruction, alcoholism and other factors. Pancreatitis may develop into severe pancreatitis, which has a relatively high mortality rate. Thus, effective methods for treating it need to be developed. Our study tried to assess the protective effect of Se@SiO2 nanospheres on AP. METHODS: Cerulein injection was used to induce acute pancreatitis. C57bl/6 mice were pretreated with Se@SiO2 nanocomposites at 1 and 2 mg/kg...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Jennifer H Foster, Andrew Sher, Victor Seghers, Jay Poston, Donald Wells, Ebrahim S Delpassand, Samara Potter, Priya Mahajan, Rajkumar Venkatramani
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the pancreas and midgut are extremely rare in children, and patients presenting with metastatic disease have poor survival. Given this rarity, treatments are extrapolated from guidelines for adults with NET. Recent clinical trials in adults with NETs have shown that the addition of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177 Lu-DOTATATE resulted in a disease control rate of nearly 80%, with minimal side effects. We report our experience using 177 Lu-DOTATATE to treat two pediatric patients with metastatic NET...
April 12, 2021: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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