Bang-Sheng Wu, Ya-Ru Zhang, Liu Yang, Wei Zhang, Yue-Ting Deng, Shi-Dong Chen, Jian-Feng Feng, Wei Cheng, Jin-Tai Yu
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients rank among the highest levels of comorbidities compared to persons with other diseases. However, it is unclear whether the conditions are caused by shared pathophysiology due to the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes. OBJECTIVE: To figure out the genetic pleiotropy for AD risk genes in a wide range of diseases. METHODS: We estimated the polygenic risk score (PRS) for AD and tested the association between PRS and 16 ICD10 main chapters, 136 ICD10 level-1 chapters, and 377 diseases with cases more than 1,000 in 312,305 individuals without AD diagnosis from the UK Biobank...
November 21, 2022: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Natsuko Tokuhira, Akinori Uchiyama, Taiki Hoshino, Naoko Kubo, Suguru Ishigaki, Yusuke Enokidani, Ryota Sakaguchi, Yukiko Koyama, Yuji Fujino
BACKGROUND: Many patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia experience hyperglycemia. It is often difficult to control blood glucose (BG) levels in such patients using standard intravenous insulin infusion therapy. Therefore, we used an artificial pancreas. This study aimed to compare the BG status of artificial pancreas with that of standard therapy. METHODS: Fifteen patients were included in the study. BG values and the infusion speed of insulin and glucose by the artificial pancreas were collected...
November 28, 2022: Artificial Organs
Yi-Chi Cheng, Hye-Lim Lee, Yunil Hwang, Sung Woo Kim
The objectives were to evaluate the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) His:Lys ratio above the current NRC requirement on growth performance, intestinal health, and mobilization of His-containing proteins, including hemoglobin, carnosine, and trypsinogen, in nursery pigs from 7 to 11 kg body weight (BW). Forty pigs (26 d of age; initial BW of 7.1 ± 0.5 kg) were allotted to 5 dietary treatments based on a randomized block design with sex and initial BW as blocks. Dietary treatments were supplemented with varying SID His to Lys levels of 26, 32, 38, 43, and 49% and fed to pigs for 14 d (SID Lys = 1...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Animal Science
Sinan Sahin, M Gokhan Yerlikaya, Ahmet Ozderya, I Gokhan Cavusoglu, Aysegul Karadeniz, Turhan Turan, Omer Faruk Cirakoglu, Huseyin Karal, Ali Riza Akyuz, Selim Kul, M Rasit Sayin
BACKGROUND: Evidence that individuals with excess fat in the pancreas have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been growing recently. Risk evaluation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients plays a crucial role for both prognosis prediction and decision-making. AIM: The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) and the complexity and severity of coronary artery disease as assessed using the SYNTAX score (SXscore) in ACS patients...
November 2022: Acta Cardiologica Sinica
Tarana Arman, Peter S Nelson
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy affecting men worldwide. While the vast majority of newly diagnosed prostate cancers are categorized as adenocarcinomas, a spectrum of uncommon tumor types occur including those with small cell and neuroendocrine cell features. Benign neuroendocrine cells exist in the normal prostate microenvironment, and these cells may give rise to primary neuroendocrine carcinomas. However, the more common development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer is observed after therapeutics designed to repress the signaling program regulated by the androgen receptor which is active in the majority of localized and metastatic adenocarcinomas...
2022: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Mohammed Al-Beltagi, Nermin Kamal Saeed, Adel Salah Bediwy, Reem Elbeltagi
BACKGROUND: Insulin pump therapy is a real breakthrough in managing diabetes Mellitus, particularly in children. It can deliver a tiny amount of insulin and decreases the need for frequent needle injections. It also helps to maintain adequate and optimal glycemic control to reduce the risk of metabolic derangements in different tissues. Children are suitable candidates for pump therapy as they need a more freestyle and proper metabolic control to ensure adequate growth and development...
November 9, 2022: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Sehrish Javed, Touseef Ahmad Qureshi, Srinivas Gaddam, Lixia Wang, Linda Azab, Ashley Max Wachsman, Wansu Chen, Vahid Asadpour, Christie Younghae Jeon, Beichien Wu, Yibin Xie, Stephen Jacob Pandol, Debiao Li
Early detection of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is complicated as PDAC remains asymptomatic until cancer advances to late stages when treatment is mostly ineffective. Stratifying the risk of developing PDAC can improve early detection as subsequent screening of high-risk individuals through specialized surveillance systems reduces the chance of misdiagnosis at the initial stage of cancer. Risk stratification is however challenging as PDAC lacks specific predictive biomarkers. Studies reported that the pancreas undergoes local morphological changes in response to underlying biological evolution associated with PDAC development...
2022: Frontiers in Oncology
Bin Yao, Baochao Pan, Tian Tian, Xiuhai Su, Shufang Zhang, Hanzhou Li, Wendong Li, Yuansong Wang, Shuquan Lv, Zhaiyi Zhang
Baihu Rensheng decoction (BHRS) can effectively improve insulin resistance (IR) and decrease blood glucose in diabetic patients. However, its specific mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rat model was established using a high-fat diet combined with streptozotocin (STZ) injection and treated with BHRS. Firstly, the therapeutic and anti-inflammatory effects of BHRS on T2DM were evaluated. Secondly, the effects of BHRS on gut permeability were evaluated and western blot was used to detect the changes of TLR4/NF-κB pathway-related protein expressions in liver...
2022: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Petr Vanek, Ondrej Urban, Guru Trikudanathan, Martin L Freeman
In a subset of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis, segmental necrosis affecting the main pancreatic duct may result in a discontinuity between the left-sided pancreas and the duodenum. Such an interruption in the setting of a viable upstream portion of the gland can give rise to the disconnected pancreatic duct syndrome (DPDS). By maintaining its secretory function, the disconnected segment may lead to persistent external pancreatic fistulae, recurrent pancreatic fluid collections, and/or obstructive recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis of the isolated parenchyma...
January 2023: Surgery open science
Wenpeng Huang, Yongbai Zhang, Ge Gao, Liming Li, Qi Yang, Yongkang Qiu, Lei Kang
BACKGROUND: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a common pleomorphic malignant soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents that originates from rhabdomyoblasts or mesenchymal precursor cells. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) mostly occurs in adolescents aged 10-15 years and is characterized by more aggressive behaviors and worse prognosis than other sarcomas, prone to lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis in the early stage as well as metastasizing to breast, testis, pancreas, and other parts...
2022: Frontiers in Medicine
Mustafa A A Osman, Mohamed Alkhouly, Ghada F Elmohaseb, Eman Mostafa Nassef, Ibrahim Ghonim Ramadan Mohamed, Ismail Mohamed El Mancy, Seham Sabry, Marwa M Abdulrehim, Ahmed Eliwa, Yasmine H Eisa, Ahmed Abdel-Ghany, Yasser Abdelghani
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disease affecting women in the reproductive age. Non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) can promote many aspects of pancreatic dysfunction. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFPD and to identify its association with clinical and biochemical parameters in PCOS patients. METHODS: The present study included 150 patients with PCOS and 150 age-matched healthy controls...
2022: International Journal of General Medicine
Bojana Simunov, Anna Mrzljak, Zeljka Jurekovic, Snjezana Zidovec Lepej, Ana Bainrauch, Jadranka Pavicic Saric, Zeljka Hruskar, Leona Radmanic, Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek
BACKGROUND: Parvovirus B19 (B19V) is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations. The major presentation is erythema infectiosum. However, a persistent infection may cause pure red cell aplasia and chronic anemia in immunocompromized patients. The B19V seroprevalence varies with age and geographical location. AIM: To determine the B19V serological status and DNAemia in kidney, liver, and pancreas transplant candidates. METHODS: Patients who underwent kidney, liver, or simultaneous kidney and pancreas/liver transplantation between January 2021 and May 2022 were included in the study...
November 18, 2022: World Journal of Transplantation
Aili Dong, Yajing Zhang, Shujun Lu, Wenli Yu
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) caused by diabetes is the most serious long-term complication. The main cause of death in patients with simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) is cardiovascular disease. Although dexmedetomidine (Dex) has unique advantages in heart protection against ischaemic/reperfusion injury, few clinical studies have been conducted on its cardioprotective effect in SPKT. This study aimed to explore the influence of Dex on myocardial injury in patients undergoing SPKT and to analyze its possible mechanism...
2022: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Betina Pajaziti, Kenneth Yosy, Olga V Steinberg, Martina Düfer
The fibroblast growth factor FGF-23 is a member of the FGF-15/19 subfamily with hormonal functions. Besides its well-known role for bone mineralization, FGF-23 is discussed as a marker for cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether FGF-23 has any effects on the endocrine pancreas of mice by determining insulin secretion, electrical activity, intracellular Ca2+ , and apoptosis. Acute application of FGF-23 (10 to 500 ng/ml, i.e., 0.4 to 20 nM) does not affect insulin release of murine islets, while prolonged exposure leads to a 21% decrease in glucose-stimulated secretion...
November 28, 2022: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Jinfang Ma, Yuqi Liu, Ismael Valladolid Acebes, Patricia Recio López, Ge Peng, Juan Li, Per-Olof Berggren, Lisa Juntti-Berggren, Nanwei Tong
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is closely associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Activating transcription factor 5 (ATF5) is a member of the ATF/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) family whose levels are increased upon stress in pancreatic islets from mice. Intriguingly, ATF5 deficiency has been shown to contribute to increased ER stress and apoptosis in mouse islet micro-organs. We hypothesized that either deficiency or overexpression of ATF5 is equally deleterious for pancreatic islets in terms of ER stress and apoptosis...
November 24, 2022: Cellular Signalling
Hideki Mori, Wout Verbeure, Rina Tanemoto, Emily Ruilova Sosoranga, Jan Tack
Motilin is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by the duodenum. This peptide regulates a characteristic gastrointestinal contraction pattern, called the migrating motor complex, during the fasting state. Motilin also affects the pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter, gastric motility and gastric accommodation in the gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, motilin induces bile discharge into the duodenum by promoting gallbladder contraction, pepsin secretion in the stomach, pancreatic juice and insulin secretion from the pancreas...
November 24, 2022: Peptides
Yiping Wan, Qiuyang Deng, Zhichun Zhou, Yue Deng, Jiannan Zhang, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, regulating a range of physiological functions by activating its receptors (CCK1R and CCK2R). Compared to those in mammals, the CCK gene and its receptors have already been cloned in various birds, such as chickens. However, knowledge regarding their functionality and tissue expression is limited. In this study, we examined the expression of CCK and its 2 receptors in chicken tissues. In addition, the functionality of the 2 receptors was investigated...
October 22, 2022: Poultry Science
Filiz Yarsilikal Guleroglu, Aliye Balkan Ozmen, Isil Turan Bakirci, Sevilay Yavuz Dogu, Ibrahim Yılmaz, Ali Cetin
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the predictive values of fetal pancreas size and maternal serum biomarkers glycated albumin (GA) and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study including 109 pregnant women, the fetal pancreas size and maternal serum biomarkers GA and IRAP were measured at the gestational age of 20-22 weeks and later at the gestational age of 24-28 weeks, in 19 participants of them, GDM was confirmed with the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the fetal pancreas size was measured in all the participants again...
November 27, 2022: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Zhijun Zhou, Anuj K Saluja, Courtney W Houchen, Min Li
BACKGROUND: Replication stress is a prominent hallmark of tumor cells, which is crucial for maintaining genomic integrity. However, it remains poorly understood whether replication stress can serve as a surrogate biomarker to indicate prognosis and treatment response of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: Transcriptomic and clinical data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and literature. An integrated signature of 18 replication-stress associated genes (termed as REST18) was established using the cox proportional hazards regression analysis...
November 21, 2022: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Xiaohua Pan, Liya Ye, Zhengnan Ren, Jiahong Li, Binbin Li, Li-Long Pan, Jia Sun
Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory abdominal disease frequently associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction. Biochanin A (BCA), a dietary isoflavone, has gained increasing interest with its pronounced biological activities. However, its potential beneficial effects on AP have not been demonstrated. Herein, we explored the protective effect of BCA on caerulein-induced AP in BALB/c mice and underlying mechanisms. BCA alleviated AP as evidenced by reduced serum amylase and lipase levels, pancreatic edema, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, and improved pancreatic morphology...
November 23, 2022: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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