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Verbal learning

Katherine Poinsatte, Emily E Smith, Vanessa O Torres, Sterling B Ortega, Ryan M Huebinger, C Munro Cullum, Nancy L Monson, Rhong Zhang, Ann M Stowe
Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) experience cognitive declines in learning and memory greater than expected for normal aging, and are at a high risk of dementia. We previously reported that sedentary aMCI patients exhibited neuroinflammation that correlated with brain amyloid beta (Aβ) burden, as determined by 18F-florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET). These aMCI patients enrolled in a one-year randomized control trial (AETMCI, NCT01146717) to test the beneficial effects of 12 months of moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise training (AET) or stretching/toning (ST) control intervention on neurocognitive function...
2019: Exercise Immunology Review
Mitzi M Gonzales, Ramon A Durazo-Arvizu, Shruti Sachdeva, Terry G Unterman, Matthew J O'Brien, Linda C Gallo, Gregory A Talavera, Robert C Kaplan, Jianwen Cai, Neil Schneiderman, Rebeca A Espinoza Giacinto, Hector M González, Martha L Daviglus, Melissa Lamar
AIMS: Insulin resistance (IR) adversely impacts memory and executive functioning in non-Hispanic whites without diabetes. Less is known in Hispanics/Latinos, despite the fact that Hispanics/Latinos have higher rates of insulin resistance than non-Hispanic whites. We investigated the association between IR and cognition and its variation by age. METHODS: Data from 5,987 participants 45-74 years old without diabetes from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos...
February 16, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Cesare Cornoldi, Rachele Di Caprio, Giulio De Francesco, Enrico Toffalini
Children with a specific learning disorder (SLD) are often characterized by marked intellectual strengths and weaknesses. In the last few years, research has focused on a common discrepancy between low working memory and processing speed on the one hand, and high verbal and visuoperceptual intelligence on the other. SLD profiles featuring a specific discrepancy between verbal and visuoperceptual abilities have been only marginally considered, however, and their systematic comparison vis-à-vis typically-developing (TD) populations has yet to be conducted...
February 14, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Yufeng Ke, Ningci Wang, Jiale Du, Linghan Kong, Shuang Liu, Minpeng Xu, Xingwei An, Dong Ming
Working memory (WM) is a fundamental cognitive ability to support complex thought, but it is limited in capacity. WM training has shown the potential benefit for those in need of a higher WM ability. Many studies have shown the potential of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to transiently enhance WM performance by delivering a low current to the brain cortex of interest, via electrodes on the scalp. tDCS has also been revealed as a promising intervention to augment WM training in a few studies...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Isabelle E Bauer, Robert Suchting, Tamsyn E Van Rheenen, Mon-Ju Wu, Benson Mwangi, Danielle Spiker, Giovana B Zunta-Soares, Jair C Soares
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairments are primary hallmarks symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD). Whether these deficits are markers of vulnerability or symptoms of the disease is still unclear. This study used a component-wise gradient (CGB) machine learning algorithm to identify cognitive measures that could accurately differentiate pediatric BD, unaffected offspring of BD parents, and healthy controls. METHODS: 59 healthy controls (HC; 11.19 ± 3.15 yo; 30 girls), 119 children and adolescents with BD (13...
February 18, 2019: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Charlotte Wray, Natalie Saunders, Courtenay Frazier Norbury
Gesture plays an important role in early language development, as how parents respond to their children's gestures may help to facilitate language acquisition. Less is known about whether parental responses facilitate language learning later in childhood and whether responses vary depending on children's language ability. This study explored parental responses to extending gestures in a sample of school-aged children (aged six to eight years) with developmental language disorder, low-language and educational concerns, and typically developing children...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Child Language
Annalisa Guarini, Paola Bonifacci, Valentina Tobia, Rosina Alessandroni, Giacomo Faldella, Alessandra Sansavini
BACKGROUND: Very preterm (VPT) children showed delays in reading, spelling and maths, but their academic achievement profile is not clearly understood. AIMS: VPT children were compared with children with specific learning disorders (SLD) and typically developing (TD) children on academic achievement, considering cognitive and linguistic phenotypic markers. A learning profile analysis was also performed. METHODS: We included 170 10-year old monolingual Italian-speaking children (37 VPT, 28 SLD, 105 TD) assessing cognitive, linguistic and academic skills...
February 14, 2019: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Dennis Norris, Jane Hall, Susan E Gathercole
Following Conrad (1965, Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4, 161-169) it is often assumed that backward verbal serial recall is performed by repeated forward scans through the list and then recalling the last remaining item. Direct evidence for this peel-off strategy is relatively weak, and there has to date been no examination of its potential role in the recall of spatial sequences. To examine the role of this strategy in both verbal and spatial domains, two experiments examined response output times for forward and backward recall...
February 15, 2019: Memory & Cognition
Hongjing Lu, Ying Nian Wu, Keith J Holyoak
By middle childhood, humans are able to learn abstract semantic relations (e.g., antonym, synonym, category membership) and use them to reason by analogy. A deep theoretical challenge is to show how such abstract relations can arise from nonrelational inputs, thereby providing key elements of a protosymbolic representation system. We have developed a computational model that exploits the potential synergy between deep learning from "big data" (to create semantic features for individual words) and supervised learning from "small data" (to create representations of semantic relations between words)...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bart Doyen, Peter Vlerick, Heidi Maertens, Frank Vermassen, Isabelle Van Herzeele
BACKGROUND: This monocentric study aimed to explore whether key non-technical attributes can be reliably measured in a mixed population of candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff and to identify any differences between these groups. MATERIALS & METHODS: Candidates applying for surgical training, surgical trainees and staff from four surgical specialties (general surgery, orthopedics, plastic surgery or urology) at a tertiary academic teaching hospital were all sent an online self-report questionnaire...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Surgery
Jingjing Xu, Minming Zhang
PURPOSE: To determine the association between functional connectivity (FC) of functional-segmented anterior and posterior portions of the hippocampus and performance on verbal and visual memory tests in a young, healthy population. METHODS: We recruited 100 healthy participants in the age of 19-29. Resting state fMRI data were acquired and voxel-wise correlation analysis was performed to functionally divide the hippocampus. We investigated the inter-hemispheric hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity after the participants took the assessment of episodic memory using verbal (California Verbal Learning Test II, CVLT-II) and visual subtests (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, ROCF)...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Rebecca K Campbell, Katrina L Devick, Brent A Coull, Whitney Cowell, Talia Askowitz, Brandon Goldson, Robert O Wright, Rosalind J Wright
Women's experience of trauma may cause lifelong alterations in physiological stress regulation, which can be transmitted to offspring in utero. We investigated, in a prospective pregnancy cohort, associations among maternal lifetime interpersonal trauma (IPT) history, prenatal cortisol dysregulation, and children's memory domains. Sex-specific effects were also explored. Pregnant women were enrolled from Brigham & Women's Hospital and affiliated clinics near Boston, MA, in 2002-2007. IPT was assessed with the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, short form...
February 15, 2019: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Xuan Zhang, Zhiyi Song, Jingyi Ye, Ying Fu, Jinying Wang, Lei Su, Xiaodong Zhu, Meiyun Zhang, Yan Cheng, Wei Wu, Rong Xue
OBJECTIVES: To compare the sleep characteristics and cognition between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients and non-RBD (nRBD) healthy control subjects and to determine the correlation between sleep and cognition in RBD patients. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed to confirm and exclude RBD. Fifteen iRBD patients, 12 PD with RBD patients, and 23 matched nRBD healthy control subjects were enrolled. Subjective sleep and neuropsychological evaluations were performed...
February 14, 2019: Brain and Behavior
Jasmin M Kizilirmak, Björn H Schott, Hannes Thuerich, Catherine M Sweeney-Reed, Anni Richter, Kristian Folta-Schoofs, Alan Richardson-Klavehn
Sudden comprehension-or insight-during problem-solving can enhance learning, but the underlying neural processes are largely unknown. We investigated neural correlates of learning from sudden comprehension using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a verbal problem-solving task. Solutions and "solutions" to solvable and unsolvable verbal problems, respectively, were presented to induce sudden comprehension or continued incomprehension. We found activations of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and striatum during sudden comprehension...
February 11, 2019: Consciousness and Cognition
Björn Lindström, Armita Golkar, Simon Jangard, Philippe N Tobler, Andreas Olsson
In today's world, mass-media and online social networks present us with unprecedented exposure to second-hand, vicarious experiences and thereby the chance of forming associations between previously innocuous events (e.g., being in a subway station) and aversive outcomes (e.g., footage or verbal reports from a violent terrorist attack) without direct experience. Such social threat, or fear, learning can have dramatic consequences, as manifested in acute stress symptoms and maladaptive fears. However, most research has so far focused on socially acquired threat responses that are expressed as increased arousal rather than active behavior...
February 13, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
S Andrea Wijtenburg, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Stephanie A Korenic, Roger J Mullins, Joyce Tran, Frank E Gaston, Shuo Chen, Maja Mustapic, L Elliot Hong, Laura M Rowland
Memory is robustly impaired in schizophrenia (SZ) and related to functional outcome. Memory dysfunction has been shown to be related to altered brain glucose metabolism and brain insulin resistance in animal models and human studies of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, differences in brain glucose using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and blood Extracellular Vesicle (EV) biomarkers of neuronal insulin resistance (i.e. Akt and signaling effectors) between SZ and controls were investigated, as well as whether these measures were related to memory impairments...
February 11, 2019: Schizophrenia Research
David S Knopman, Emily S Lundt, Terry M Therneau, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, Jon Graff-Radford, Sabrina M Albertson, Christopher G Schwarz, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
As more biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and age-related brain conditions become available, more sophisticated analytic approaches are needed to take full advantage of the information they convey. Most work has been done using categorical approaches but the joint relationships of tau PET, amyloid PET and cortical thickness in their continuous distributions to cognition have been under-explored. We evaluated non-demented subjects over age 50 years in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, 2037 of whom had undergone 3 T MRI scan, 985 amyloid PET scan with 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) and MRI, and 577 PIB-PET, 18F-AV1451 flortaucipir PET and MRI...
February 12, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Lene Haldbo-Classen, Ali Amidi, Lisa M Wu, Slavka Lukacova, Gorm von Oettingen, Hanne Gottrup, Robert Zachariae, Morten Høyer
BACKGROUND: The extent of radiation therapy (RT)-induced changes in cognitive function is unknown. RT with protons instead of photons spares the healthy brain tissue more and is believed to reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction. There is modest knowledge on which parts of the brain we need to spare, to prevent cognitive dysfunction. To uncover which cognitive domains is most affected, we compared cognitive functioning in brain tumor patients treated with neurosurgery and RT with brain tumor patients treated with neurosurgery alone...
February 13, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Christiane Baadte, Bozana Meinhardt-Injac
We tested whether semantic relatedness between to-be-remembered items and item presentation format (pictorial vs. verbal) affects associative recall. Fifty-nine children (11-13 years old) and forty young adults (age 18-30) completed a learning and recall task for semantically related (e.g., padlock-key) and unrelated (e.g., lemon-piano) picture-picture, word-picture, and word-word pairs. The data revealed memory advantage for semantically related item pairs, and for pictures compared to words. A picture superiority effect was found exclusively for pure picture pairs...
February 12, 2019: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Mi-Kyoung Cho, Hee Chong Baek, Gisoo Shin
Verbal bullying among adolescents, which has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, often involves swearing or sexually ridiculing one's family members or peers. Because many factors underlying the initiation of verbal bullying remain unknown, Giorgi's phenomenological method was used to examine the essence and meaning of verbal bullying among adolescents, which is an urgent issue in the field of nursing in South Korea. In this descriptive phenomenological study, researchers examined the behavior of 16 adolescents...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
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