Daniele D'Arrigo, Manuela Salerno, Luca De Marziani, Angelo Boffa, Giuseppe Filardo
The currently available osteoarthritis (OA) treatments offer symptoms' relief without disease-modifying effects. Increasing evidence supports the role of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to drive beneficial effects provided by their secretome and extracellular vesicles (EVs), which includes trophic and biologically active factors. Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro literature to understand the potential of human secretome and EVs for OA treatment and identify trends, gaps, and potential translational challenges...
June 23, 2024: Human Cell
Xiaopei Zhang, Hannah Taylor, Alain Valdivia, Rajaneekar Dasari, Andrew Buckley, Emily Bonacquisti, Juliane Nguyen, Krishna Kanchi, David L Corcoran, Laura E Herring, Dennis A Steindler, Albert Baldwin, Shawn Hingtgen, Andrew Benson Satterlee
Transdifferentiation (TD), a somatic cell reprogramming process that eliminates pluripotent intermediates, creates cells that are ideal for personalized anti-cancer therapy. Here, we provide the first evidence that extracellular vesicles (EVs) from TD-derived induced neural stem cells (Exo-iNSCs) are an efficacious treatment strategy for brain cancer. We found that genetically engineered iNSCs generated EVs loaded with the tumoricidal gene product TRAIL at nearly twice the rate of their parental fibroblasts, and TRAIL produced by iNSCs was naturally loaded into the lumen of EVs and arrayed across their outer membrane (Exo-iNSC-TRAIL)...
June 20, 2024: Journal of Controlled Release
Fernando Rivero-Pino, Elvira Marquez-Paradas, Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid-bound membrane vesicles released from cells, containing active compounds, which can be found in different foods. In this review, the role of food-derived vesicles (FDVs) as immunomodulatory drivers is summarized, with a focus on sources, isolation techniques and yields, as well as bioavailability and potential health implications. In addition, gaps and perspectives detected in this research field have been highlighted. FDVs have been efficiently extracted from different sources, and differential ultracentrifugation seems to be the most adequate isolation technique, with yields ranging from 108 to 1014 EV particles/mL...
June 20, 2024: Food Chemistry
Kensuke Kakiuchi, Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Taiki Sawai, Shigeki Arawaka
Cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein (α-syn) pathology underlies the spread of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease. α-Syn secretion is an important factor in the transmission of α-syn pathology. However, it is unclear how α-syn secretion is therapeutically modulated. Here, we investigated effects of monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor selegiline on α-syn secretion. Treatment with selegiline promoted α-syn secretion in mouse primary cortical neuron cultures, and this increase was kept under glial cell-eliminated condition by Ara-C...
June 14, 2024: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dongmei Sun, Farag M A Altalbawy, Alexey Yumashev, Ahmed Hjazi, Soumya V Menon, Mandeep Kaur, Mahamedha Deorari, Alzahraa S Abdulwahid, Maha Noori Shakir, Baneen Chasib Gabal
Exosomes are the primary category of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which are lipid-bilayer vesicles with biological activity spontaneously secreted from either normal or tansformed cells. They serve a crucial role for intercellular communication and affect extracellular environment and the immune system. Tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs) enclose high levels of immunosuppressive proteins, including programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). PD-L1 and its receptor PD-1 act as crucial immune checkpoint molecules, thus facilitating tumor advancement by inhibiting immune responses...
June 22, 2024: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
Alireza Fazeli, Kasun Godakumara
Mammalian reproduction relies on precise maternal-fetal communication, wherein immune modifications foster tolerance toward the semi-allogeneic embryo. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have emerged as crucial mediators, transporting molecules like microRNAs securely. EVs influence various reproductive stages, from gamete maturation to implantation, and impact pathologies like pregnancy loss. In the embryo-maternal dialogue, EVs notably affect oviductal interactions, gene expression, and the embryo-endometrial interface, crucial for successful implantation...
June 21, 2024: Communications Biology
Yan Hu, Mengqing Wang, Jing Xie, Luojia Jiao, Yi Ding, Yinhe Luo
Although various anti-inflammatory medications, such as ephedrine, are employed to manage cough-variant asthma, their underlying mechanisms are yet to be fully understood. Recent studies suggest that exosomes derived from airway epithelial cells (AECs) contain components like messenger RNAs (mRNAs), micro-RNAs (miRNAs), and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), which play roles in the occurrence and progression of airway inflammation. This study investigates the influence of AEC-derived exosomes on the efficacy of ephedrine in treating cough-variant asthma...
June 2024: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
Friederike I Schoettler, Ali Fatehi Hassanabad, Anshul S Jadli, Vaibhav B Patel, Paul W M Fedak
The potential of the pericardial space as a therapeutic delivery tool for cardiac fibrosis and heart failure (HF) treatment has yet to be elucidated. Recently, miRNAs and exosomes have been discovered to be present in human pericardial fluid (PF). Novel studies have shown characteristic human PF miRNA compositions associated with cardiac diseases and higher miRNA expressions in PF compared to peripheral blood. Five key studies found differentially expressed miRNAs in HF, angina pectoris, aortic stenosis, ventricular tachycardia, and congenital heart diseases with either atrial fibrillation or sinus rhythm...
June 19, 2024: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Xin-Chen Peng, Ling-Li Ma, Jie-Yu Miao, Sheng-Qian Xu, Zong-Wen Shuai
INTRODUCTION: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) dysregulation is key in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the role of exosomal lncRNAs in SLE has not been well studied. We elucidated the profiles of plasma exosomal lncRNAs expression in patients with SLE and predictd their potential clinical significance in SLE. METHODS: In the screening stage, six newly diagnosed and untreated patients with SLE and six healthy controls were examined by high-throughput sequencing technology, and differential exosomal lncRNA profiles were constructed...
June 19, 2024: Gene
Xiaojuan Tang, Yuan Ren, Wen Zeng, Xiaoting Feng, Min He, Yuan Lv, Yongmin Li, Yongheng He
Malignant tumors and central nervous system (CNS) disorders are intricately linked to a process known as "aberrant cell cycle re-entry," which plays a critical role in the progression of these diseases. Addressing the dysregulation in cell cycles offers a promising therapeutic approach for cancers and CNS disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role as regulators of gene expression in cell cycle transitions, presenting a promising therapeutic avenue for treating these disorders and their comorbidities...
June 20, 2024: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Qing Nian, Rongxing Liu, Jinhao Zeng
BACKGROUND: Myelosuppression is a serious and common complication of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in cancer patients and is characterized by a reduction of peripheral blood cells. This condition not only compromises the efficacy of treatment but also increases the risk of patient death. Natural products are emerging as promising adjuvant therapies due to their antioxidant properties, ability to modulate immune responses, and capacity to stimulate haematopoietic stem cell proliferation...
June 8, 2024: Phytomedicine
Jacques Donnez, Marie-Madeleine Dolmans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Human Reproduction Open
Xuancheng Zhang, Yuxu Wu, Kang Han, Zhaoyi Fang, Eunshinae Cho, Yihe Hu, Xiaoqiao Huangfu, Jinzhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Unrepairable massive rotator cuff tears (UMRCTs) are challenging to surgeons owing to the severely retracted rotator cuff musculotendinous tissues and extreme defects in the rotator cuff tendinous tissues. PURPOSE: To fabricate a tendon stem cell-derived exosomes loaded scaffold (TSC-Exos-S) and investigate its effects on cellular bioactivity in vitro and repair in a rabbit UMRCT model in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
June 21, 2024: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jingxia Du, Yibo Dong, Jingjing Song, Hanqi Shui, Chengyao Xiao, Yue Hu, Shiyao Zhou, Shanshan Wang
Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a significant challenge in the management of myocardial ischemic disease. Extensive evidence suggests that the macrophage‑mediated inflammatory response may play a vital role in MIRI. Mesenchymal stem cells and, in particular, exosomes derived from these cells, may be key mediators of myocardial injury and repair. However, whether exosomes protect the heart by regulating the polarization of macrophages and the exact mechanisms involved are poorly understood...
August 2024: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yanru Meng, Mengxin Zhang, Xinli Li, Xinxin Wang, Qian Dong, Hu Zhang, Yuanjun Zhai, Qin Song, Fuchu He, Chunyan Tian, Aihua Sun
Stable infiltration of myeloid cells, especially tumor-associated M2 macrophages, acts as one of the essential features of the tumor immune microenvironment by promoting the malignant progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the factors affecting the infiltration of M2 macrophages are not fully understood. In this study, we found the molecular subtypes of HCC with the worst prognosis are characterized by immune disorders dominated by myeloid cell infiltration. Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) was significantly elevated in the most aggressive subtype and exhibited a positively correlation with M2 infiltration and HCC metastasis...
2024: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Feiyu Lu, Mujie Ye, Yikai Shen, Yanling Xu, Chunhua Hu, Jinhao Chen, Ping Yu, Bingyan Xue, Danyang Gu, Lin Xu, Lingyi Chen, Yi Ding, Jianan Bai, Ye Tian, Qiyun Tang
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent a predominant cellular component within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). There is a growing body of evidence highlighting the critical role of exosomes in facilitating communication between tumor cells and TAMs, thereby contributing to the establishment of the premetastatic niche. Nonetheless, the specific mechanisms through which exosomes derived from tumor cells influence macrophage polarization under hypoxic conditions in pNENs, and the manner in which these interactions support cancer metastasis, remain largely unexplored...
2024: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Hangfei Jin, Xiao Wen, Ran Sun, Yanzhen Yu, Zaiwen Guo, Yunxi Yang, Linbin Li, Bingwei Sun
BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections pose a considerable threat to skin wounds, particularly in the case of challenging-to-treat diabetic wounds. Systemic antibiotics often struggle to penetrate deep wound tissues and topically applied antibiotics may lead to sensitization, necessitating the development of novel approaches for effectively treating germs in deep wound tissues. Neutrophils, the predominant immune cells in the bloodstream, rapidly release an abundance of molecules via degranulation upon activation, which possess the ability to directly eliminate pathogens...
2024: Burns and Trauma
Hao Zhang, Yue Tang, Yingshun Zhou, Yiguo Wang, Haibin Si, Lu Li, Bo Tang
Methylation of microRNAs (miRNAs) is a post-transcriptional modification that affects miRNA activity by altering the specificity of miRNAs to target mRNAs. Abnormal methylation of miRNAs in cancer suggests their potential as a tumor marker. However, the traditional methylated miRNA detection mainly includes mass spectrometry, sequencing and others; complex procedures and reliance on large instruments greatly limit their application in point-of-care testing (POCT). Based on this, we developed DNAzyme-RCA-based gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colorimetric and lateral flow dipstick (LFD) assays to achieve convenient detection of exosomal 5-methylcytosine miRNA-21 (m5C-miRNA-21) for the first time...
June 19, 2024: Chemical Science
Swastika Paul, Shrikrishna Bhagat, Lipsa Dash, Himadri Das Mohapatra, Sarita Jena, Suresh K Verma, Abhishek Dutta
Chemotherapy drugs like doxorubicin (Dox) are widely used in middle-income countries around the world to treat various types of cancers, including breast cancer. Although they are toxic, they are still widely used to treat cancer. Delivering chemotherapy drugs directly to cancer cells to reduce side effects remains a challenge. Moreover, modern research gave rise to cancer stem cell theory, which implicated cancer stem cells in tumor initiation, progression, and relapse. This makes it imperative to target cancer stem cells to achieve complete remission...
2024: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Xiaobo Yang, Shaodian Zhang, Jinwei Lu, Xiaoling Chen, Tian Zheng, Rongxin He, Chenyi Ye, Jianbin Xu
Skeletal diseases impose a considerable burden on society. The clinical and tissue-engineering therapies applied to alleviate such diseases frequently result in complications and are inadequately effective. Research has shifted from conventional therapies based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to exosomes derived from MSCs. Exosomes are natural nanocarriers of endogenous DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids and have a low immune clearance rate and good barrier penetration and allow targeted delivery of therapeutics...
2024: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
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