Wen Luo, Ayan Roy, Fucheng Guo, David M Irwin, Xuejuan Shen, Junbin Pan, Yongyi Shen
Ebola virus (EBOV) has caused several outbreaks as the consequence of spillover events from zoonotic sources and has resulted in huge death tolls. In spite of considerable progress, a thorough know-how regarding EBOV adaptation in various host species and detailed information about the potential reservoirs of EBOV still remains obscure. The present study was executed to examine the patterns of codon usage and its associated influence in the adaptation of EBOV to potential hosts that dwell in Africa, the origin of the viral outbreaks...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Andrew J Pollard, Odile Launay, Jean-Daniel Lelievre, Christine Lacabaratz, Sophie Grande, Neil Goldstein, Cynthia Robinson, Auguste Gaddah, Viki Bockstal, Aurelie Wiedemann, Maarten Leyssen, Kerstin Luhn, Laura Richert, Christine Bétard, Malick M Gibani, Elizabeth A Clutterbuck, Matthew D Snape, Yves Levy, Macaya Douoguih, Rodolphe Thiebaut
BACKGROUND: To address the unmet medical need for an effective prophylactic vaccine against Ebola virus we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of three different two-dose heterologous vaccination regimens with a replication-deficient adenovirus type 26 vector-based vaccine (Ad26.ZEBOV), expressing Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein, and a non-replicating, recombinant, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector-based vaccine, encoding glycoproteins from Zaire Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Marburg virus, and nucleoprotein from the Tai Forest virus...
November 17, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Amira D Rghei, Laura P van Lieshout, Lisa A Santry, Matthew M Guilleman, Sylvia P Thomas, Leonardo Susta, Khalil Karimi, Byram W Bridle, Sarah K Wootton
Filoviruses are among the deadliest infectious agents known to man, causing severe hemorrhagic fever, with up to 90% fatality rates. The 2014 Ebola outbreak in West Africa resulted in over 28,000 infections, demonstrating the large-scale human health and economic impact generated by filoviruses. Zaire ebolavirus is responsible for the greatest number of deaths to date and consequently there is now an approved vaccine, Ervebo, while other filovirus species have similar epidemic potential and remain without effective vaccines...
November 9, 2020: Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Jason Euren, James Bangura, Aiah Gbakima, Marilyn Sinah, Sylvester Yonda, Christian E Lange, David J McIver, Matthew LeBreton, David Wolking, Corina Grigorescu Monagin, Brian Bird, Karen Saylors
Human contact with bats has been epidemiologically linked to several of the most recent Ebola outbreaks, including the 2014 West Africa epidemic and the 2007 Luebo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, outbreak. While fruit bats remain the likely primary reservoir for Ebola virus (Zaire ebolavirus), recent wildlife surveillance efforts have identified a new species of ebolavirus (Bombali ebolavirus) in microchiropteran insect-eating bats in West and East Africa. Given the role of bats as potential Ebola reservoirs and sources of spillover into human populations, it is critically important to understand the circumstances and behaviors that bring human populations into close contact with bats...
November 11, 2020: EcoHealth
Pedro Rafael Dimbu, Roberta Horth, Ana Luisa M Cândido, Carolina Miguel Ferreira, Felismina Caquece, Luzala Elisabeth Armando Garcia, Kialanda André, Garcia Pembele, Domingos Jandondo, Belmira José Bondo, Benjamin Nieto Andrade, Sarah Labuda, Gabriel Ponce de León, Julia Kelley, Dhruviben Patel, Samaly S Svigel, Eldin Talundzic, Naomi Lucchi, Joana F M Morais, Filomeno Fortes, José Franco Martins, Mateusz M Pluciński
BACKGROUND: Biennial therapeutic efficacy monitoring is a crucial activity for ensuring efficacy of currently used artemisinin-based combination therapy in Angola. METHODS: Children with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum infection in sentinel sites in Benguela, Zaire, and Lunda Sul Provinces were treated with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) or artesunate amodiaquine (ASAQ) and followed for 28 days to assess clinical and parasitological response. Molecular correction was performed using seven microsatellite markers...
November 9, 2020: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Haley L DeMers, Shihua He, Sujata G Pandit, Emily E Hannah, Zirui Zhang, Feihu Yan, Heather R Green, Denise F Reyes, Derrick Hau, Megan E McLarty, Louis Altamura, Cheryl Taylor-Howell, Marcellene A Gates-Hollingsworth, Xiangguo Qiu, David P AuCoin
The 2013-2016 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa and the ongoing cases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo have spurred development of a number of medical countermeasures, including rapid Ebola diagnostic tests. The likelihood of transmission increases as the disease progresses due to increasing viral load and potential for contact with others. Early diagnosis of EBOV is essential for halting spread of the disease. Polymerase chain reaction assays are the gold standard for diagnosing Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, they rely on infrastructure and trained personnel that are not available in most resource-limited settings...
November 2020: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nancy A Niemuth, Thomas L Rudge, Karen A Sankovich, Michael S Anderson, Nicholas D Skomrock, Christopher S Badorrek, Carol L Sabourin
An anti-Zaire Ebola virus (EBOV) glycoprotein (GP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to quantify the serum levels of anti-EBOV IgG in human and non-human primate (NHP) serum following vaccination and/or exposure to EBOV. This method was validated for testing human serum samples as previously reported. However, for direct immunobridging comparability between humans and NHPs, additional testing was warranted. First, method feasibility experiments were performed to assess cross-species reactivity and parallelism between human and NHP serum samples...
2020: PloS One
Minodora Desmirean, Sebastian Rauch, Ancuta Jurj, Sergiu Pasca, Sabina Iluta, Patric Teodorescu, Cristian Berce, Alina-Andreea Zimta, Cristina Turcas, Adrian-Bogdan Tigu, Cristian Moldovan, Irene Paris, Jakob Steinheber, Cedric Richlitzki, Catalin Constantinescu, Olafur Eysteinn Sigurjonsson, Delia Dima, Bobe Petrushev, Ciprian Tomuleasa
Malignant lymphomas are a heterogeneous group of malignancies that develop both in nodal and extranodal sites. The different tissues involved and the highly variable clinicopathological characteristics are linked to the association between the lymphoid neoplastic cells and the tissues they infiltrate. The immune system has developed mechanisms to protect the normal tissue from malignant growth. In this review, we aim to explain how T lymphocyte-driven control is linked to tumor development and describe the tumor-suppressive components of the resistant framework...
October 24, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sahil Jain, Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Manoj Baranwal
Ebolaviruses, discovered in 1976, belongs to the Filoviridae family, which also includes Marburg and Lloviu viruses. They are negative-stranded RNA viruses with six known species identified to date. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a member of Zaire ebolavirus species and can cause the Ebola virus disease (EVD), an emerging zoonotic disease that results in homeostatic imbalance and multi-organ failure. There are three EBOV outbreaks documented in the last six years resulting in significant morbidity (> 32,000 cases) and mortality (> 13,500 deaths)...
October 17, 2020: Pathogens
Ariane Volkmann, Anna-Lise Williamson, Heinz Weidenthaler, Thomas P H Meyer, James S Robertson, Jean-Louis Excler, Richard C Condit, Eric Evans, Emily R Smith, Denny Kim, Robert T Chen
The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety and characteristics of live, recombinant viral vector vaccines. The Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vector system is being explored as a platform for development of multiple vaccines. This paper reviews the molecular and biological features specifically of the MVA-BN vector system, followed by a template with details on the safety and characteristics of an MVA-BN based vaccine against Zaire ebolavirus and other filovirus strains...
October 17, 2020: Vaccine
Ruth Thom, Thomas Tipton, Thomas Strecker, Yper Hall, Joseph Akoi Bore, Piet Maes, Fara Raymond Koundouno, Sarah Katharina Fehling, Verena Krähling, Kimberley Steeds, Anitha Varghese, Graham Bailey, Mary Matheson, Moussa Coné, Balla Moussa Keita, Sekou Kouyate, Amento Richard Ablam, Lies Laenen, Valentijn Vergote, Malcolm Guiver, Joseph Timothy, Barry Atkinson, Lisa Ottowell, Kevin S Richards, Andrew Bosworth, Stephanie Longet, Jack Mellors, Delphine Pannetier, Sophie Duraffour, César Muñoz-Fontela, Oumou Sow, Lamine Koivogui, Edmund Newman, Stephan Becker, Armand Sprecher, Herve Raoul, Julian Hiscox, Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo, Keita Sakoba, N'Faly Magassouba, Stephan Günther, Mandy Kader Konde, Miles W Carroll
BACKGROUND: The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease epidemic in west Africa caused international alarm due to its rapid and extensive spread resulting in a significant death toll and social unrest within the affected region. The large number of cases provided an opportunity to study the long-term kinetics of Zaire ebolavirus-specific immune response of survivors in addition to known contacts of those infected with the virus. METHODS: In this observational cohort study, we worked with leaders of Ebola virus disease survivor associations in two regions of Guinea, Guéckédou and Coyah, to recruit survivors of Ebola virus disease, contacts from households of individuals known to have had Ebola virus disease, and individuals who were not knowingly associated with infected individuals or had not had Ebola virus disease symptoms to serve as negative controls...
October 13, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anna Kocorek
Coridiellus pseudocyclopeltus, a new species of the dinidorid subfamily Dinidorinae, is described from Zaire and is compared with Coridiellus cyclopeltus (Distant, 1890). It is the seventh species of this genus known from Afrotropical Region. A key to all the species of the genus Coridiellus is also provided. Male parameres are used for identification and their photographs are given for the first time for all species of the genus.
April 23, 2020: Zootaxa
Maud Chétiveaux, Mikaël Croyal, Khadija Ouguerram, Fanta Fall, Laurent Flet, Yassine Zair, Estelle Nobecourt, Michel Krempf
The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I during fed and fasted states in humans, and to determine to what extent the intestine contributes to apoA-I production. A stable isotope study was conducted to determine the kinetics of apoA-I in preβ1 high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and α-HDL. Six healthy male subjects received a constant intravenous infusion of 2 H3 -leucine for 14 h. Subjects in the fed group also received small hourly meals. Blood samples were collected hourly during tracer infusion and then daily for 4 days...
September 24, 2020: Scientific Reports
Kevin Minsker, Richard R Rustandi, Sha Ha, John W Loughney
Ebolavirus (EBOV) entry to host cells requires membrane-associated glycoprotein (GP). A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector carrying Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein (rVSV-ZEBOV) was developed as a vaccine against ebolaviruses. The VSV glycoprotein gene was deleted (rVSVΔG) and ZEBOV glycoprotein (GP) was inserted into the deleted VSV glycoprotein open reading frame (ORF) resulting in a live, replication-competent vector (rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP). Automated capillary westerns were used to characterize the rVSVΔG-ZEBOV-GP vaccine (ERVEBO®) manufacturing process with regards to glycoprotein (GP) structure and variants...
September 17, 2020: Vaccine
Kendall B Preston, Connor R Monticello, Teri Ann S Wong, Albert To, Oreola Donini, Axel T Lehrer, Theodore W Randolph
The filoviruses Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Marburg marburgvirus (MARV), and Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) are some of the most lethal infectious agents known. To date, the Zaire ebolavirus vaccine (ERVEBO®) is the only United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved vaccine available for any species of filovirus. However, the ERVEBO® vaccine requires cold-chain storage not to exceed -60°C. Such cold-chain requirements are difficult to maintain in low- and middle-income countries where filovirus outbreaks originate...
September 12, 2020: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Christine Atherstone, Sandra Diederich, Bradley Pickering, Greg Smith, Graham Casey, Kerstin Fischer, Michael P Ward, Dickson Ndoboli, Hana Weingartl, Silvia Alonso, Navneet Dhand, Kristina Roesel, Delia Grace, Siobhan M Mor
In 2008, an outbreak of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) in pigs in the Philippines expanded our understanding of the host range of ebolaviruses. Subsequent experimental infections with the human-pathogenic species Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) confirmed that pigs are susceptible to African species of ebolaviruses. Pig keeping has become an increasingly important livelihood strategy throughout parts of sub-Saharan Africa, driven by increasing demand for pork. The growth in pig keeping is particularly rapid in Uganda, which has the highest per capita pork consumption in East Africa and a history of sporadic human outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD)...
September 11, 2020: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Aaron Kofman, Susanne Linderman, Kaihong Su, Lawrence J Purpura, Elizabeth Ervin, Shelley Brown, Maria Morales-Betoulle, James Graziano, Deborah L Cannon, John D Klena, Rodel Desamu-Thorpe, John Fankhauser, Romeo Orone, Moses Soka, Uriah Glaybo, Moses Massaquoi, Tolbert Nysenswah, Stuart T Nichol, Jomah Kollie, Armah Kiawu, Edna Freeman, Giovanni Giah, Henry Tony, Mylene Faikai, Mary Jawara, Kuku Kamara, Samuel Kamara, Benjamin Flowers, Kromah Mohammed, David Chiriboga, Desmond E Williams, Steven H Hinrichs, Rafi Ahmed, Benjamin Vonhm, Pierre E Rollin, Mary J Choi
INTRODUCTION: Ebola virus (EBOV), species Zaire ebolavirus, may persist in the semen of male survivors of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). We conducted a study of male survivors of the 2014-2016 EVD outbreak in Liberia and evaluated their immune responses to EBOV. We report here findings from the serologic testing of blood for EBOV-specific antibodies, molecular testing for EBOV in blood and semen, and serologic testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a subset of study participants...
September 7, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
Laura Cooper, Adam Schafer, Yangfeng Li, Han Cheng, Bani Medegan Fagla, Zhengnan Shen, Raghad Nowar, Katherine Dye, Manu Anantpadma, Robert A Davey, Gregory Rj Thatcher, Lijun Rong, Rui Xiong
Filoviridae, including Ebola (EBOV) and Marburg (MARV) viruses, are emerging pathogens that pose a serious threat to public health. No agents have been approved to treat filovirus infections, representing a major unmet medical need. The selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) toremifene was previously identified from a screen of FDA-approved drugs as a potent EBOV viral entry inhibitor, via binding to EBOV glycoprotein (GP). A focused screen of ER ligands identified Ridaifen-B as a potent dual inhibitor of EBOV and MARV...
September 4, 2020: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Anupam Banerjee, Pralay Mitra
The Viral Protein 35 (VP35), a crucial protein of the Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV), interacts with a plethora of human proteins to cripple the human immune system. Despite its importance, the entire structure of the tetrameric assembly of EBOV VP35 and the means by which it antagonizes the autophosphorylation of the kinase domain of human protein kinase R (PKRK ) is still elusive. We consult existing structural information to model a tetrameric assembly of the VP35 protein where 93% of the protein is modeled using crystal structure templates...
September 18, 2020: Journal of Proteome Research
Lisa K Koch, Sarah Cunze, Judith Kochmann, Sven Klimpel
The genus Ebolavirus comprises some of the deadliest viruses for primates and humans and associated disease outbreaks are increasing in Africa. Different evidence suggests that bats are putative reservoir hosts and play a major role in the transmission cycle of these filoviruses. Thus, detailed knowledge about their distribution might improve risk estimations of where future disease outbreaks might occur. A MaxEnt niche modelling approach based on climatic variables and land cover was used to investigate the potential distribution of 9 bat species associated to the Zaire ebolavirus...
August 31, 2020: Scientific Reports
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