Direk Aekthammarat, Panot Tangsucharit, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, Thanaporn Sriwantana, Nathawut Sibmooh
A mass of evidence has identified a promoting of nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells using natural products as a potential strategy to prevent and treat hypertension. This study investigated whether the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE) could lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) and relax mesenteric arterial beds in rats via stimulating endothelium-derived NO production. Intravenous administration of MOE (1-30 mg/kg) caused a dose-dependent reduction in MAP in anesthetized rats. In rats pretreated with the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 mg/kg, i...
August 8, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Kevin J Schneider, Cecilia N Hollenhorst, Autumn N Valicevic, Leslie M Niziol, Michele Heisler, David C Musch, Stephen M Cain, Paula-Anne Newman-Casey
PURPOSE: To assess the Support, Educate, Empower (SEE) personalized glaucoma coaching program impact on 1) eye drop instillation technique and 2) eye drop instillation self-efficacy. DESIGN: A prospective pre-post pilot study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with a diagnosis of glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking ≥ 1 glaucoma medication, ≥40 years old, spoke English, self-administered their eye drops, and ≤80% adherent to their glaucoma medication by electronic monitoring...
August 8, 2020: Ophthalmology. Glaucoma
Julie Maslowsky, Haley Stritzel, Leila Al-Hamoodah, C Emily Hendrick, Daniel Powers, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez, John Santelli
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Repeat teenage mothers, those who give birth to a second or higher order infant prior to age 20, are at elevated risk for adverse perinatal outcomes compared to first-time teenage mothers. The objective of the current study was to compare the prevalence of negative pregnancy-related behaviors and gestational health conditions in the national United States population of first-time and repeat teenage mothers. DESIGN: Setting, and Participants: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study using annual US birth data files from 2015-2018, N=799,756 (84...
August 8, 2020: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Shyam J Kurian, Waseem Wahood, Yagiz Ugur Yolcu, Elena Blaginykh, Anshit Goyal, Arjun S Sebastian, Mohamad Bydon
BACKGROUND: NSQIP and NRD are two widely used databases that provide valuable information regarding the quality of healthcare. However, the two differ in sampling methodology, which may result in conflicting findings when utilized for research studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences regarding predictors of 30-day readmissions after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and posterior lumbar fusion (PLF). METHODS: In this case-control study, NSQIP and NRD were queried for patients undergoing elective ACDF and PLF between 2014 and 2015...
August 8, 2020: World Neurosurgery
Dorota Rogacka, Irena Audzeyenka, Agnieszka Piwkowska
Podocytes are unique, highly specialized, terminally differentiated cells that form an essential, integral part of the glomerular filter. These cells limit the outside border of the glomerular basement membrane, forming a tight barrier that prevents significant protein loss from the capillary space. The slit diaphragm formed by podocytes is crucial for maintaining glomerular integrity and function. They are the target of injury in many glomerular diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Accumulating studies have revealed that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an essential cellular energy sensor, might play a fundamental role in regulating podocyte metabolism and function...
August 8, 2020: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Iñaki Robles-Vera, Néstor de la Visitación, Marta Toral, Manuel Sánchez, Miguel Romero, Manuel Gómez-Guzmán, Tao Yang, José L Izquierdo-García, Eduardo Guerra-Hernández, Jesús Ruiz-Cabello, Mohan K Raizada, Francisco Pérez-Vizcaíno, Rosario Jiménez, Juan Duarte
Many probiotics that affect gut microbial ecology have been shown to produce beneficial effects on renin-angiotensin-dependent rodent models and human hypertension. We hypothesized that Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 (BFM) would attenuate hypertension in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rats, a renin-independent model of hypertension. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, DOCA-salt, treated DOCA-salt-BFM, treated DOCA-salt-butyrate, and treated DOCA-salt-acetate, for 5 weeks. BFM prevented the increase in systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight, and renal damage induced by DOCA-salt...
August 11, 2020: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Alfonso Diaz, Guadalupe Muñoz-Arenas, Karen Caporal-Hernandez, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo Lopez-Lopez, Anna Kozina, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Samuel Treviño, Jorge Guevara
Metabolic syndrome (MS) results from excessive consumption of high-calorie foods and sedentary lifestyles. Clinically, insulin resistance, abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and hypertension are observed. MS has been considered a risk factor in the development of dementia. In the brain, a metabolically impaired environment generates oxidative stress and excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that deteriorate the morphology and neuronal function in the hippocampus, leading to cognitive impairment...
August 11, 2020: Synapse
Kristel K Leung, Paul D James, Arash Jaberi, Gideon M Hirschfield
Variceal bleeding is the most severe complication of portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. Management of refractory variceal bleeding is a challenging but commonplace scenario, in which usual endoscopic therapies including variceal ligation and/or sclerotherapy are unsuccessful in controlling the bleed. Portosystemic shunt creation is one effective treatment in prevention of treatment failure and rebleeding. We present a unique case of refractory esophageal varices in which an esophageal stent was placed as a temporizing measure to stop bleeding prior to creation of an alternative portosystemic shunt...
August 11, 2020: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Seungjae Lee, Tark Kim, Eunjung Lee, Cheolgu Lee, Hojung Kim, Heejeong Rhee, Se Yoon Park, Hyo-Ju Son, Shinae Yu, Jung Wan Park, Eun Ju Choo, Suyeon Park, Mark Loeb, Tae Hyong Kim
Importance: There is limited information about the clinical course and viral load in asymptomatic patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objective: To quantitatively describe SARS-CoV-2 molecular viral shedding in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective evaluation was conducted for a cohort of 303 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 6 and March 26, 2020...
August 6, 2020: JAMA Internal Medicine
Xin Rou Teh, Ming Tsuey Lim, Seng Fah Tong, Masliyana Husin, Noraziani Khamis, Sheamini Sivasampu
INTRODUCTION: Adequate control of hypertension is a global challenge and is the key to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study evaluates management of hypertensive patients in primary care clinics in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 13 784 medical records from 20 selected public primary care clinics in Malaysia was performed for patients aged ≥30 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension and had at least one visit between 1st November 2016 and 30th June 2019...
2020: PloS One
Lara Jehi, Xinge Ji, Alex Milinovich, Serpil Erzurum, Amy Merlino, Steve Gordon, James B Young, Michael W Kattan
BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is a pandemic that is straining healthcare resources, mainly hospital beds. Multiple risk factors of disease progression requiring hospitalization have been identified, but medical decision-making remains complex. OBJECTIVE: To characterize a large cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19, their outcomes, develop and validate a statistical model that allows individualized prediction of future hospitalization risk for a patient newly diagnosed with COVID-19...
2020: PloS One
Priscila Berti Zanella, Camila Coutinho Àvila, Fernanda Cardoso Chaves, Marcelo Basso Gazzana, Danilo Cortozi Berton, Marli Maria Knorst, Carolina Guerini de Souza
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the value of phase angle (PhA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) and its association with nutritional and functional parameters. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 77 patients under follow-up at the pulmonary outpatient clinic of a public hospital. Anthropometric measurements and functional assessments of physical and pulmonary capacity were performed, and a regular physical activity questionnaire was administered...
August 11, 2020: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Rong Hui, Pan Jing-Jing, Zou Yun-Su, Zhou Xiao-Yu, Chen Xiao-Qing, Yang Yang
BACKGROUND: Surfactant lavage seems to have a good application prospect both in experimental models and patients with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). Data regarding the effect of surfactant lavage on pulmonary complications of MAS are conflicting. In view of these uncertainties, an updated meta-analysis including the latest literatures is performed. METHODS: A search was conducted by two investigators involved in this research in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for studies in English and other languages, in Wanfang, VIP, and Cnki databases for Chinese studies (all last launched on December 18, 2018)...
August 2020: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Lisa P Spees, Stephanie B Wheeler, Xi Zhou, Krutika B Amin, Christopher D Baggett, Jennifer L Lund, Benjamin Y Urick, Joel F Farley, Katherine E Reeder-Hayes, Justin G Trogdon
BACKGROUND: Approximately 40% of patients with cancer also have another chronic medical condition. Patient-centered medical homes (PCMHs) have improved outcomes among patients with multiple chronic comorbidities. The authors first evaluated the impact of a cancer diagnosis on chronic medication adherence among patients with Medicaid coverage and, second, whether PCMHs influenced outcomes among patients with cancer. METHODS: Using linked 2004 to 2010 North Carolina cancer registry and claims data, the authors included Medicaid enrollees who were diagnosed with breast, colorectal, or lung cancer who had hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and/or diabetes mellitus...
August 11, 2020: Cancer
Gonzalo Labarca, Jorge Dreyse, Constanza Salas, Francisca Letelier, Alexia Schmidt, Francisca Rivera, Jorge Jorquera
It is unclear if oximetric parameters, such as total time of SpO2  <90%, (T90), oxygen desaturation index-3% (ODI), minimum SpO2 , are able to describe a high-risk subtype of cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities in patients with Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) beyond the apnea-hypopnea index. OBJECTIVE: To analyzed oximetric variables in patients with moderate-severe OSA to assess their predictive value regarding as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary heart disease (CHD) and CV mortality...
August 11, 2020: Clinical Respiratory Journal
B J Bouma, G T Sieswerda, M C Post, T Ebels, R van Kimmenade, R J de Winter, B J Mulder
Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects 0.8% of live births and over the past decades technical improvements and large-scale repair has led to increased survival into adulthood of over 95% of the new-born. A new group of patients, those who survived their congenital heart defect, has emerged but late complications including heart failure, pulmonary hypertension (PH), arrhythmias, aneurysms and endocarditis appeared numerous, with a huge impact on mortality and morbidity. However, innovations over the past years have changed the landscape of adult CHD dramatically...
August 2020: Netherlands Heart Journal
L Boersma, M Rienstra, J R de Groot
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is part of a vicious cycle that includes multiple cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidity which can promote atrial remodelling and AF progression. Most AF-related risk factors-hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnoea, obesity and sedentary lifestyle-are in essence modifiable which may prevent AF development. Treatment of associated cardiovascular conditions may prevent both symptoms and future cardiovascular events. For advanced forms of symptomatic AF refractory to lifestyle management and optimal medication, invasive ablation therapies have become a cornerstone...
August 2020: Netherlands Heart Journal
Jingbo Chen, Yan Zhou, Shuying Liu, Chaohong Li
Biomechanical stresses are closely associated with cardiovascular development and diseases. In vivo, vascular smooth muscle cells are constantly stimulated by biomechanical factors caused by increased blood pressure leading to the non-specific activation of cell transmembrane proteins. Thus, various intracellular signal molecules are simultaneously activated via signaling cascades, which are closely related to alterations in the differentiation, phenotype, inflammation, migration, pyroptosis, calcification, proliferation, and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells...
August 11, 2020: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Charalampos I Liakos, Dimitrios P Papadopoulos, Elias A Sanidas, Maria I Markou, Erifili E Hatziagelaki, Charalampos A Grassos, Maria L Velliou, John D Barbetseas
The prevalence of arterial hypertension is high in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). When DM and hypertension coexist, they constitute a dual cardiovascular threat and should be adequately controlled. Novel antihyperglycemic agents, including sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, have recently been used in the treatment of DM. Beyond their glucose-lowering effects, these drugs have shown beneficial pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, including lowering of arterial blood pressure (BP), as acknowledged in the 2019 European Society of Cardiology/European Association for the Study of Diabetes guidelines on diabetes, prediabetes, and cardiovascular diseases...
August 11, 2020: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Elie Azoulay, Muriel Fartoukh, Michael Darmon, Guillaume Géri, Guillaume Voiriot, Thibault Dupont, Lara Zafrani, Lola Girodias, Vincent Labbé, Martin Dres, Alexandra Beurton, Antoine Vieillard-Baron, Alexandre Demoule
PURPOSE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is creating an unprecedented healthcare crisis. Understanding the determinants of mortality is crucial to optimise intensive care unit (ICU) resource use and to identify targets for improving survival. METHODS: In a multicentre retrospective study, we included 379 COVID-19 patients admitted to four ICUs between 20 February and 24 April 2020 and categorised according to time from disease onset to ICU admission. A Cox proportional-hazards model identified factors associated with 28-day mortality...
August 11, 2020: Intensive Care Medicine
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