Elise Rouault, Corinne Ghnassia, Emmanuelle Filippi-Codaccioni, Nicolas Maillard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 7, 2020: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Luigi Ceci, Flavia Girolami, Maria Teresa Capucchio, Elena Colombino, Carlo Nebbia, Fabio Gosetti, Emilio Marengo, Fabrizio Iarussi, Grazia Carelli
Oleander is a spontaneous shrub widely occurring in Mediterranean regions. Poisoning is sporadically reported in livestock, mainly due to the ingestion of leaves containing toxic cardiac glycosides (primarily oleandrin). In this study, 50 lactating Fleckvieh cows were affected after being offered a diet containing dry oleander pruning wastes accidentally mixed with fodder. Clinical examination, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling were conducted. Dead animals were necropsied, and heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine were submitted to histological investigation...
July 24, 2020: Toxins
Inge J M Slenter, Sylvia C Djajadiningrat-Laanen, Irma de Vries, Marieke A Dijkman
We describe two dogs with persistent visual impairment after initially mild intoxication signs following ingestion of Ornithogalum arabicum plant material. Additionally, a 12-year analysis of the Dutch Poisons Information Centre database additionally reveals that ingestion of Ornithogalum plant material can be potentially life-threatening to companion animals. Further studies are necessary to confirm the involvement of cardiac glycoside-like toxins present in Ornithogalum arabicum and the toxicity of these substances to the retina...
October 2019: Toxicon: X
Koen R Maes, Pieter Depuydt, Joris Vermassen, Peter De Paepe, Walter Buylaert, Cathelijne Lyphout
We report a case of a 19-year-old woman who ingested Digitalis purpurea leaves as a suicide attempt. She developed gastro-intestinal symptoms, loss of colour vision, cardiac conduction disturbances as well as an elevated serum potassium. Treatment was initiated in analogy to medicinal digoxin poisoning by means of digoxin-specific Fab-fragments with a good effect. However during the further course we faced difficulties of prolonged intestinal absorption and inability to estimate the ingested dose or half-life of the vegetal cardiac glycoside compounds...
June 4, 2020: Acta Clinica Belgica
Catherine E Housecroft
Many plants that are classed as poisonous also have therapeutic uses, and this is illustrated using members of the Drimia and Digitalis genera which are sources of cardiac glycosides.
May 27, 2020: Chimia
Jiri Patocka, Eugenie Nepovimova, Wenda Wu, Kamil Kuca
Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside used as drug in case of heart problems, including congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation or flutter, and certain cardiac arrhythmias. It has a very narrow therapeutic window of the medication. Digoxin is toxic substance with well known cardiotoxic effect. In this work, pharmacology and toxicology of digoxin are summarized; Its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, available acute toxicity data (different species, different administration routes) are summarized in this article...
May 7, 2020: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Sean Patrick Nordt, Matt Hendrickson, Kimberly Won, Matthew J Miller, Stuart P Swadron, F Lee Cantrell
Cerbera odollam or "pong-pong" tree contains cardiac glycosides similar to digoxin, oleander and yellow oleander. Cerbera odollam is a common method of suicide in South East Asia and has also been used as a weight loss supplement. We present a case of a 33-year-old female presenting with lethargy, vomiting, bradycardia, severe hyperkalemia of 8.9 mEq/L, slow atrial fibrillation followed by cardiovascular collapse following the ingestion of "pong-pong", the kernel of Cerbera odollam, as a weight loss supplement...
April 21, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Gunasekaran Karthik, Ramya Iyadurai, Ravikar Ralph, Vijay Prakash, K P Prabhakar Abhilash, Sowmya Sathyendra, O C Abraham, Catherine Truman, Alex Reginald
Introduction: Yellow oleander ( Thevetia peruviana ), which belongs to the Apocyanaceae family, is a common shrub seen throughout the tropics. All parts of the plant contain high concentrations of cardiac glycosides which are toxic to cardiac muscle and the autonomic nervous system. Here, we describe the clinical profile of patients with oleander poisoning and their outcomes. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was conducted over a period of 12 months (March 2016 to February 2017)...
January 2020: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Maria Silvia Negroni, Arianna Marengo, Donatella Caruso, Alessandro Tayar, Patrizia Rubiolo, Flavio Giavarini, Simone Persampieri, Enrico Sangiovanni, Franca Davanzo, Stefano Carugo, Maria Laura Colombo, Mario Dell'Agli
Foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea L.) leaves are frequently confused with borage ( Borago officinalis L.), which is traditionally used as a food ingredient. Due to the presence of the cardiac glycosides, mostly digitoxin, foxglove leaves are poisonous to human and may be fatal if ingested. A 55-year-old Caucasian woman complaining weakness, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting was admitted to the Emergency Department. Her symptoms started following consumption of a home-made savory pie with 5 leaves from a plant bought in a garden nursery as borage...
2019: Case Reports in Cardiology
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) poisoning is the most important plant cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. The toxic principle, a bufadienolide, is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine. The aim was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine, proscillaridin and bufalin, were successfully conjugated to hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). There was a low immune response following vaccination of adult male New Zealand White rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA (n = 3) and OVA (n = 3) using Freund's adjuvant in Trial (T) 1...
September 13, 2019: Journal of Immunological Methods
Silva Rubini, Sabina Strano Rossi, Serena Mestria, Sara Odoardi, Sara Chendi, Andrea Poli, Giuseppe Merialdi, Giuseppina Andreoli, Paolo Frisoni, Rosa Maria Gaudio, Anna Baldisserotto, Piergiacomo Buso, Stefano Manfredini, Guido Govoni, Stefania Barbieri, Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Corazzola, Sandro Mazzariol, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an ornamental plant common in tropical and sub-tropical regions that is becoming increasingly widespread, even in temperate regions. Oleander poisoning may occur in animals and humans. The main active components contained in the plant are cardiac glycosides belonging to the class of cardenolides that are toxic to many species, from human to insects. This work describes a case of oleander poisoning that occurred on a small cattle farm and resulted in the fatality of all six resident animals...
July 25, 2019: Toxins
Rania H Abdou, Walaa A Basha, Waleed F Khalil
Nerium oleander ( N. oleander ) is a well-known poisonous shrub that is frequently grown in gardens and public areas and contains numerous toxic compounds. The major toxic components are the cardiac glycosides oleandrin and neriin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the toxic effects of an ethanolic N. oleander leaf extract on haematological, cardiac, inflammatory, and serum biochemical parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the heart. N. oleander extract was orally administered for 14 and 30 consecutive days at doses of 100 and 200 mg of dried extract/kg of body weight in 0...
July 2019: Toxicological Research
Doris L LaRock, Jenna S Sands, Ethan Ettouati, Marine Richard, Paul J Bushway, Eric D Adler, Victor Nizet, Christopher N LaRock
Chronic heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias have high morbidity and mortality, and drugs for the prevention and management of these diseases are a large part of the pharmaceutical market. Among these drugs are plant-derived cardiac glycosides, which have been used by various cultures over millennia as both medicines and poisons. We report that digoxin and related compounds activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages and cardiomyocytes at concentrations achievable during clinical use. Inflammasome activation initiates the maturation and release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the programmed cell death pathway pyroptosis in a caspase-1-dependent manner...
August 23, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) poisoning is the most important cardiac glycoside-induced intoxication in ruminants in South Africa. The toxic principle, 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, is a bufadienolide. To replace the use of sentient animals in toxicity testing, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of epoxyscillirosidine on rat embryonic cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cell line). This in vitro cell model can then be used in future toxin neutralization or toxico-therapy studies. Cell viability, evaluated with the methyl blue thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, indicated that a hormetic dose/concentration response is characterized by a biphasic low dose stimulation and high dose inhibition...
May 21, 2019: Toxins
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Intoxication by Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) in livestock is of great importance in South Africa, ranking top among all plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis. The toxic principle, a bufadienolide, is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine. Treatment of poisoning is challenging and affected livestock often succumbs due to the stress of handling. Manipulating animals to resist poisoning is a potential management strategy. The goal of this study was to explore the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine by raising antibodies against epoxyscillirosidine in sheep and to assess the neutralization ability of the antibodies in vitro...
April 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hesham R El-Seedi, Shaden A M Khalifa, Eman A Taher, Mohamed A Farag, Aamer Saeed, Mohamed Gamal, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Diaa Youssef, Syed G Musharraf, Muaaz M Alajlani, Jianbo Xiao, Thomas Efferth
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+ /K+ -ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation...
December 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ana Flávia M Botelho, Felipe Pierezan, Benito Soto-Blanco, Marília Martins Melo
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are secondary compounds found in plants and amphibians and are widely distributed in nature with potential cardiovascular action. Their mechanism is based on the blockage of the heart's sodium potassium ATPase, with a positive inotropic effect. Some of the most well-known CGs are digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin, and bufalin. They have similar chemical structures: a lactone ring, steroid ring, and sugar moiety. Digoxin, ouabain, and oleandrin are classified as cardenolides, consisting of a lactone ring with five carbons, while bufalin is classified as bufodienolides, with a six-carbon ring...
February 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ryan Misek, Glenn Allen, Valerie LeComte, Nicholas Mazur
Seeds from the mangrove plant Cerbera (C.) odollam , known as the "suicide tree," are responsible for a significant number of plant deaths worldwide but are not well recognized in Western medicine. Cerberin is a cardiac glycoside concentrated in the plant's seeds, which causes disrupted cardiac electrical activity leading to fatal dysrhythmias. We present a fatal case of intentional C. odollam seed ingestion. The patient experienced high-degree heart block and cardiac arrest despite supportive treatment and digoxin immune fab administration...
August 2018: Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine
Anandhi D, Vinay R Pandit, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Soundaravally R, K N J Prakash Raju
BACKGROUND: Consumption of yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) is a popular method of intentional self-harm in South India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities in yellow oleander poisoning and to identify the association between electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac glycoside concentrations at admission and the severity of cardiotoxicity. This study was also designed to identify clinical and biochemical parameters at presentation which predict serious arrhythmias and determinants of mortality...
February 2019: Clinical Toxicology
Mary E Wermuth, Rais Vohra, Nena Bowman, R Brent Furbee, Daniel E Rusyniak
BACKGROUND: A variety of plants contain cardiac glycosides. This has resulted in many of them being used to commit suicide. In southeast Asia, Cerebera odollam (pong-pong or suicide tree) is frequently used for suicidal ingestion. Seeds, or kernels, of this plant can cause hyperkalemia, heart block, and death due to the effects of its cardiac glycosides. CASE REPORT: We describe six cases of pong-pong seed ingestion reported to US poison centers. The most common symptoms were vomiting and bradycardia...
October 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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