Cardiac glycoside poisoning

Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) poisoning is the most important plant cardiac glycoside toxicosis in South Africa. The toxic principle, a bufadienolide, is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine. The aim was to investigate the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine. Epoxyscillirosidine, proscillaridin and bufalin, were successfully conjugated to hen ovalbumin (OVA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). There was a low immune response following vaccination of adult male New Zealand White rabbits with epoxyscillirosidine-OVA (n = 3) and OVA (n = 3) using Freund's adjuvant in Trial (T) 1...
September 13, 2019: Journal of Immunological Methods
Silva Rubini, Sabina Strano Rossi, Serena Mestria, Sara Odoardi, Sara Chendi, Andrea Poli, Giuseppe Merialdi, Giuseppina Andreoli, Paolo Frisoni, Rosa Maria Gaudio, Anna Baldisserotto, Piergiacomo Buso, Stefano Manfredini, Guido Govoni, Stefania Barbieri, Cinzia Centelleghe, Giorgia Corazzola, Sandro Mazzariol, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
Oleander (Nerium oleander) is an ornamental plant common in tropical and sub-tropical regions that is becoming increasingly widespread, even in temperate regions. Oleander poisoning may occur in animals and humans. The main active components contained in the plant are cardiac glycosides belonging to the class of cardenolides that are toxic to many species, from human to insects. This work describes a case of oleander poisoning that occurred on a small cattle farm and resulted in the fatality of all six resident animals...
July 25, 2019: Toxins
Rania H Abdou, Walaa A Basha, Waleed F Khalil
Nerium oleander ( N. oleander ) is a well-known poisonous shrub that is frequently grown in gardens and public areas and contains numerous toxic compounds. The major toxic components are the cardiac glycosides oleandrin and neriin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the toxic effects of an ethanolic N. oleander leaf extract on haematological, cardiac, inflammatory, and serum biochemical parameters, as well as histopathological changes in the heart. N. oleander extract was orally administered for 14 and 30 consecutive days at doses of 100 and 200 mg of dried extract/kg of body weight in 0...
July 2019: Toxicological Research
Doris L LaRock, Jenna S Sands, Ethan Ettouati, Marine Richard, Paul J Bushway, Eric D Adler, Victor Nizet, Christopher N LaRock
Chronic heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias have high morbidity and mortality, and drugs for the prevention and management of these diseases are a large part of the pharmaceutical market. Among these drugs are plant-derived cardiac glycosides, which have been used by various cultures over millennia as both medicines and poisons. We report that digoxin and related compounds activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages and cardiomyocytes at concentrations achievable during clinical use. Inflammasome activation initiates the maturation and release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and the programmed cell death pathway pyroptosis in a caspase-1-dependent manner...
August 23, 2019: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) poisoning is the most important cardiac glycoside-induced intoxication in ruminants in South Africa. The toxic principle, 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine, is a bufadienolide. To replace the use of sentient animals in toxicity testing, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of epoxyscillirosidine on rat embryonic cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cell line). This in vitro cell model can then be used in future toxin neutralization or toxico-therapy studies. Cell viability, evaluated with the methyl blue thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay, indicated that a hormetic dose/concentration response is characterized by a biphasic low dose stimulation and high dose inhibition...
May 21, 2019: Toxins
Hamza Ibrahim Isa, Gezina Catharina Helena Ferreira, Jan Ernst Crafford, Christoffel Jacobus Botha
Intoxication by Moraea pallida Bak. (yellow tulp) in livestock is of great importance in South Africa, ranking top among all plant-induced cardiac glycoside toxicosis. The toxic principle, a bufadienolide, is 1α, 2α-epoxyscillirosidine. Treatment of poisoning is challenging and affected livestock often succumbs due to the stress of handling. Manipulating animals to resist poisoning is a potential management strategy. The goal of this study was to explore the potential to develop a vaccine against epoxyscillirosidine by raising antibodies against epoxyscillirosidine in sheep and to assess the neutralization ability of the antibodies in vitro...
April 1, 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Hesham R El-Seedi, Shaden A M Khalifa, Eman A Taher, Mohamed A Farag, Aamer Saeed, Mohamed Gamal, Mohamed-Elamir F Hegazy, Diaa Youssef, Syed G Musharraf, Muaaz M Alajlani, Jianbo Xiao, Thomas Efferth
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are a class of naturally occurring steroid-like compounds, and members of this class have been in clinical use for more than 1500 years. They have been used in folk medicine as arrow poisons, abortifacients, heart tonics, emetics, and diuretics as well as in other applications. The major use of CGs today is based on their ability to inhibit the membrane-bound Na+ /K+ -ATPase enzyme, and they are regarded as an effective treatment for congestive heart failure (CHF), cardiac arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation...
December 20, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Ana Flávia M Botelho, Felipe Pierezan, Benito Soto-Blanco, Marília Martins Melo
Cardiac glycosides (CGs) are secondary compounds found in plants and amphibians and are widely distributed in nature with potential cardiovascular action. Their mechanism is based on the blockage of the heart's sodium potassium ATPase, with a positive inotropic effect. Some of the most well-known CGs are digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin, and bufalin. They have similar chemical structures: a lactone ring, steroid ring, and sugar moiety. Digoxin, ouabain, and oleandrin are classified as cardenolides, consisting of a lactone ring with five carbons, while bufalin is classified as bufodienolides, with a six-carbon ring...
February 2019: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ryan Misek, Glenn Allen, Valerie LeComte, Nicholas Mazur
Seeds from the mangrove plant Cerbera (C.) odollam , known as the "suicide tree," are responsible for a significant number of plant deaths worldwide but are not well recognized in Western medicine. Cerberin is a cardiac glycoside concentrated in the plant's seeds, which causes disrupted cardiac electrical activity leading to fatal dysrhythmias. We present a fatal case of intentional C. odollam seed ingestion. The patient experienced high-degree heart block and cardiac arrest despite supportive treatment and digoxin immune fab administration...
August 2018: Clinical Practice and Cases in Emergency Medicine
Anandhi D, Vinay R Pandit, Tamilarasu Kadhiravan, Soundaravally R, K N J Prakash Raju
BACKGROUND: Consumption of yellow oleander (Cascabela thevetia) is a popular method of intentional self-harm in South India. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to identify the cardiac arrhythmias and electrolyte abnormalities in yellow oleander poisoning and to identify the association between electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac glycoside concentrations at admission and the severity of cardiotoxicity. This study was also designed to identify clinical and biochemical parameters at presentation which predict serious arrhythmias and determinants of mortality...
August 3, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
Mary E Wermuth, Rais Vohra, Nena Bowman, R Brent Furbee, Daniel E Rusyniak
BACKGROUND: A variety of plants contain cardiac glycosides. This has resulted in many of them being used to commit suicide. In southeast Asia, Cerebera odollam (pong-pong or suicide tree) is frequently used for suicidal ingestion. Seeds, or kernels, of this plant can cause hyperkalemia, heart block, and death due to the effects of its cardiac glycosides. CASE REPORT: We describe six cases of pong-pong seed ingestion reported to US poison centers. The most common symptoms were vomiting and bradycardia...
October 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Ritesh G Menezes, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Syed Ather Hussain, Mohammed Madadin, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Huda Fatima, Pradhum Ram, Syed Bilal Pasha, S Senthilkumaran, Tooba Qadir Fatima, Sushil Allen Luis
Cerbera odollam is a plant species of the Apocynaceae family. It is often dubbed the 'suicide tree' due to its strong cardiotoxic effects, which make it a suitable means to attempt suicide. The plant grows in wet areas in South India, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia; and its common names include Pong-Pong and Othalanga. The poison rich part of the plant is the kernel which is present at the core of its fruit. The bioactive toxin in the plant is cerberin, which is a cardiac glycoside of the cardenolide class...
August 2018: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Anurag A Agrawal, Aliya Ali, M Daisy Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Dylan Burge, Marjorie G Weber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) is a genus of iconic stem-succulent and poisonous plants endemic to Madagascar and southern Africa. We tested hypotheses about the mode of action and macroevolution of toxicity in this group. We further hypothesized that while monarch butterflies are highly resistant to cardenolide toxins (a type of cardiac glycoside) from American Asclepias, they may be negatively affected by Pachypodium defenses, which evolved independently. METHODS: We grew 16 of 21 known Pachypodium spp...
April 2018: American Journal of Botany
Adrienne Hughes, Robert G Hendrickson, Betty Chia-Chi Chen, Matthew Valento
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2018: Clinical Toxicology
I-Lin Wu, Jiun-Hao Yu, Chih-Chuan Lin, Chen-June Seak, Kent R Olson, Hsien-Yi Chen
CONTEXT: Accidental ingestion of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) can cause significant cardiac toxicity. We report a patient who ingested foxglove mistaking it for comfrey and developed refractory ventricular arrhythmias. The patient died despite treatment with digoxin-specific antibody fragments (DSFab) and veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). CASE DETAILS: A 55-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with nausea, vomiting and generalized weakness eight hours after drinking "comfrey" tea...
August 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Mathew Kurian Vithayathil, Matthew Edwards
A previously well woman aged 63 years presents to the emergency department with vomiting, palpitations and 3 presyncopal episodes. She had no previous medical or cardiac history, with the patient stating that she tried a herbal remedy of boiled comfrey leaves for insomnia 18 hours before arrival to the department. Her ECG showed multiple abnormalities, including bradycardia, second-degree atrioventricular node block, Mobitz Type 2, a shortened QT interval, downsloping ST depression and presence of U waves...
December 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Seema Patel
Cardiac glycosides, the cardiotonic steroids such as digitalis have been in use as heart ailment remedy since ages. They manipulate the renin-angiotensin axis to improve cardiac output. However; their safety and efficacy have come under scrutiny in recent times, as poisoning and accidental mortalities have been observed. In order to better understand and exploit them as cardiac ionotropes, studies are being pursued using different cardiac glycosides such as digitoxin, digoxin, ouabain, oleandrin etc. Several cardiac glycosides as peruvoside have shown promise in cancer control, especially ovary cancer and leukemia...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Işıl Bavunoğlu, Musa Balta, Zeynep Türkmen
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in herbal products as a self-medication method in recent years. Some plant extracts either turn into drugs over time or are consumed directly without treatment. One of these plants is Nerium oleander L., which is a potentially lethal plant, since it has cardiac glycosides. However, numerous researches of its extracts have been performed against cancer cell lines in recent literature. This contradiction leads to misinterpretation and induces the prevalence of intoxication or fatal cases...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Christo Botha
Bufadienolide-type cardiac glycosides have a worldwide distribution and are mainly synthesized by plants, but there are also animal sources. In South Africa, members of three genera of the Crassulaceae (Cotyledon, Tylecodon and Kalanchoe) cause a unique chronic form of cardiac glycoside poisoning, predominantly in small stock. This paretic/paralytic condition is referred to as "krimpsiekte", cotyledonosis or "nenta". "Krimpsiekte" is a plant poisoning only reported from South Africa and is regarded as the most important plant poisoning of small stock in the semi-arid Little Karoo and southern fringes of the Great Karoo...
March 16, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Renée M Janssen, Mattias Berg, Daniel H Ovakim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2016: Canadian Medical Association Journal: CMAJ
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