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Seth K Angmorterh, Andrew England, Jo Webb, Katy Szczepura, Melanie Stephens, Judith Anaman-Torgbor, Eric K Ofori, Peter Hogg
INTRODUCTION: Pressure ulcers present significant trauma to patients and are expensive to manage. In medical imaging (MI), no study has been conducted to rigorously investigate interface pressure (IP) risk on MI table surfaces. IP is defined as the pressure between human body and a supporting surface. The aims of this research were to investigate whether IP risks exist on MI table surfaces and to assess pain and comfort when lying on MI table surfaces. METHODS: A calibrated XSENSOR mat was used to measure IP for three jeopardy areas (head, sacrum, and heels) in healthy volunteers on an x-ray table surface with no mattress, an x-ray table surface with a thin radiolucent mattress, and a computed tomography table surface, after which they completed a pain and comfort questionnaire...
March 2019: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Adrian Kobe, Matthias Zadory, Qeumars M Hamie, Johannes M Froehlich, Markus Klarhöfer, Thilo Elsässer, Thomas Pfammatter, Roman Guggenberger
PURPOSE: To design a spine phantom suitable for fusion of MR neurography (MRN) with interventional flat panel computed tomography (FPCT) images from tissue-equivalent agarose gels and artificial nerves in MRI, including material with equal attenuation to bone in computed tomography (CT). METHODS: T1-/T2-relaxation times of target tissue were determined in vivo (n = 5) using MR mapping-techniques. Serial dilution of castor oil lipogels was performed ex vivo in order to define correct composition for tissue-equivalent relaxation times...
March 2019: European Journal of Radiology
Jun S Kim, Kevin Phan, Zoe B Cheung, Nam Lee, Luilly Vargas, Varun Arvind, Robert K Merrill, Sunder Gidumal, John Di Capua, Samuel Overley, James Dowdell, Samuel K Cho
Study Design: Meta-analysis. Objective: Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a complication of surgical management for adult spinal deformity with a multifactorial etiology. Many risk factors are controversial and their relative importance are not fully understood. We aimed to identify the surgical, radiographic, and patient-related risk factors associated with PJK and proximal junctional failure (PJF). Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and EMBASE...
February 2019: Global Spine Journal
Sravisht Iyer, Han Jo Kim, Alexander Theologis, Venu M Nemani, Todd J Albert, Lawrence G Lenke, Shane Burch, Oheneba Boachie-Adjei, Vedat Deviren, Themistocles S Protopsaltis, Justin S Smith, Justin K Scheer, Jun Mizutani, Eric O Kleinberg, Christopher P Ames
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: Determine the indications, complications, and clinical outcomes in patients requiring fusions from the cervical spine to the pelvis. Several investigators have examined fusions from the thoracic spine to the sacrum, but no similar study has been performed for cervical-to-pelvis fusions. Methods: Patients from 2003 to 2014 with an upper instrumented vertebrae (UIV) in the cervical spine (any level) and a lower instrumented vertebrae (LIV) in the sacrum or pelvis were included in the study...
February 2019: Global Spine Journal
Yu-Guang Zhang, Ke-Bai Wang, Shu-Qing Chen, Di Liu, Hai Xing
Tanius is the earliest named ornithischian genus from China. Since 1929, three species of this genus, namely T. sinensis (the type species), "T. chingkankouensis" and "T. laiyangensis", have been reported based on remains from the Wangshi Group of Shandong, China, and were previously recognized as hadrosaurines. Following the recent achievement of consensus on the phylogenetic placement of T. sinensis outside Hadrosauridae, the assignments of the "T. chingkankouensis" and "T...
February 17, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Reza Akhavan-Sigari, Walter Schulz-Schaeffer, Amanda Angelika Harcej, Veit Rohde
Chordomas is rare malignant bone tumors thought to arise from remnants of embryonic notochord along the spine, frequently at the skull base and sacrum. Although chordoma is slow growing tumors, while are extremely recurrent, and aggressive, as well as the rate of prognosis remains poorly. Radical surgery and high-dose radiation are the most used treatments. Currently, there is no effective chemotherapeutic standard for chordomas. The Hedgehog (HH) pathway adjusts various processes included in expansion and differentiation of tissues and organs throughout the fetus's life, furthermore cell growth and differentiation in the adult organism, of the cell in an adult organism, in which acute anesthesia is involved in multiple cancers...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Sheizi P Sari, Irma H Everink, Eka A Sari, Irvan Afriandi, Yufitriana Amir, Christa Lohrmann, Ruud J Halfens, Jos M Schols
The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and the characteristics of pressure ulcers (PU) in community-dwelling older adults in Indonesia, including specific characteristics of the PU patients and their use of formal and informal care. A cross-sectional design was used for the study, with 325 participants aged 60 years or older, randomly chosen from the general community. The overall PU prevalence and the PU prevalence excluding category 1 were 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5...
February 15, 2019: International Wound Journal
Stephen Sprigle, Sharon Eve Sonenblum, Chen Feng
Pressure ulcers, by definition, are caused by external forces on the tissues, often in the regions of bony prominences. Wheelchair users are at risk to develop sitting-acquired pressure ulcers, which occur in the regions of the ischial tuberosities, sacrum/coccyx or greater trochanters. As a means to prevent pressure ulcers, instruction on performing pressure reliefs or weight shifts are a part of the rehabilitation process. The objective of this study was to monitor the weight shift activity of full-time wheelchair users with acute spinal cord injury over multiple epochs of time in order to determine consistency or routine within and across epochs...
2019: PloS One
Courtney R Sparks, Ian Robertson, Natasha J Olby
BACKGROUND: There is an association between Chiari malformations, syringomyelia (CMSM) and tethered cord syndrome (TCS) in people, suggesting Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) with CMSM could also have TCS. Currently there are no data on the position of the caudal spinal cord structures in CKCS. OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare location of spinal cord termination in CKCS with weight-matched controls and to examine the relationship between SM and spinal cord termination...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Hugo Massé-Alarie, Sauro E Salomoni, Paul W Hodges
Noxious stimuli induce a nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) to protect the tissue from injury. Although the NWR was once considered as a stereotyped response, previous studies report distinct responses depending on the stimulation site and context for limbs. We aimed to determine whether noxious stimuli over the trunk produced adaptable complex NWR. We hypothesized that organization of the NWR of the trunk muscle would vary with the site of noxious input and would differ between body and spine postures, which modify the potential for specific muscles to remove threat...
February 11, 2019: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jiannan Li, Xiaowei Song, Jian Shi, Kai Zhang, Tongjun Liu
RATIONALE: Tailgut cysts are a type of very rare congenital polycystic lesions that are always located posterior to the rectum and anterior to the sacrum. The symptoms of tailgut cysts are nonspecific and misleading. Therefore, a full understanding of the characteristics of tailgut cysts is important for their diagnosis and treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 46-year-old female with a sacrococcygeal mass that had been present for about 2 years. DIAGNOSES: Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicated several cystic masses, the largest of which had a diameter of about 2...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Brett D Crist, Ferris M Pfeiffer, Michael S Khazzam, Rebecca A Kueny, Gregory J Della Rocca, William L Carson
Background: Pelvic ring-comminuted transforaminal sacral fracture injuries are rotationally and vertically unstable and have a high rate of failure. Objective: Our study purpose was to use three-dimensional (3D) optical tracking to detect onset location of bone-implant interface failure and measure the distances and angles between screws and line of applied force for correlation to strength of pelvic fracture fixation techniques. Methods: 3D relative motion across sacral-rami fractures and screws relative to bone was measured with an optical tracking system...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Dominic Amara, Praveen V Mummaneni, Christopher P Ames, Bobby Tay, Vedat Deviren, Shane Burch, Sigurd H Berven, Dean Chou
OBJECTIVEMany options exist for the surgical management of adult spinal deformity. Radiculopathy and lumbosacral pain from the fractional curve (FC), typically from L4 to S1, is frequently a reason for scoliosis patients to pursue surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of limited fusion of the FC only versus treatment of the entire deformity with long fusions.METHODSAll adult scoliosis patients treated at the authors' institution in the period from 2006 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Wei Fan, Li-Xin Guo
Previous studies have compared the effects of different interbody fusion approaches on biomechanical responses of the lumbar spine to static loadings. However, very few have dealt with the whole body vibration (WBV) condition that is typically present in vehicles. This study was designed to determine the biomechanical differences among anterior, posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF, PLIF and TLIF) under vertical WBV. A previously developed and validated finite element (FE) model of the intact L1-sacrum human lumbar spine was modified to simulate ALIF, PLIF and TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation at L4-L5...
February 4, 2019: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Isis Juliene Rodrigues Leite Navarro, Bruna Nichele da Rosa, Cláudia Tarragô Candotti
BACKGROUND: Surface topography is a radiation-free examination that provides relevant information for the evaluation of patients with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS). However, its usage is not standardized, which restricts the applicability of this instrument. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: (a) To identify the anatomical reference markers used on surface topography; (b) to identify the parameters used on surface topography; and (c) to pool correlation and reproducibility results...
January 2, 2019: Gait & Posture
Hiroshi Kunimura, Masakazu Matsuoka, Naoki Hamada, Koichi Hiraoka
Humans make an effort to stabilize the body when a stable eye position is required to improve visibility. Perceiving the position of one visual object relative to another appearing close is relatively difficult compared with perceiving those objects appearing at a distance. Thus, humans must make an effort to stabilize their body to improve visibility when they attempt to perceive the position of one object relative to another appearing close. This process may enhance the response to postural perturbation. The present study tested this hypothesis...
February 6, 2019: Neuroreport
Peter C Raffalt, Jenny A Kent, Shane R Wurdeman, Nicholas Stergiou
The present study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the Wolf et al. (LyE_W) and Rosenstein et al. largest Lyapunov Exponent (LyE_R) algorithms to differentiate data sets with distinctly different temporal structures. The three-dimensional displacement of the sacrum was recorded from healthy subjects during walking and running at two speeds; one low speed close to the preferred walking speed and one high speed close to the preferred running speed. LyE_R and LyE_W were calculated using four different time series normalization procedures...
January 30, 2019: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
C G Salib, N Reina, K I Perry, M J Taunton, D J Berry, M P Abdel
AIMS: Concurrent hip and spine pathologies can alter the biomechanics of spinopelvic mobility in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study examines how differences in pelvic orientation of patients with spine fusions can increase the risk of dislocation risk after THA. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 84 patients (97 THAs) between 1998 and 2015 who had undergone spinal fusion prior to primary THA. Patients were stratified into three groups depending on the length of lumbar fusion and whether or not the sacrum was involved...
February 2019: Bone & Joint Journal
Dafna Schwartz, Amit Gefen
Patients who are immobile endure prolonged bodyweight-related compressive, tensional and shear loads at their body-support contact areas that over time may lead to the onset of pressure ulcers (PUs). Approximately, one-third of the common sacral PUs are severe and classified as category 3 or 4. If a PU has occurred, off-loading is the basic, commonly accepted clinical intervention; however, in many situations, complete off-loading of sacral PUs is not possible. Minimising the exposure of wounds and their surroundings to elevated mechanical loads is crucial for healing...
January 29, 2019: International Wound Journal
Seyda Toprak Celenay, Derya Ozer Kaya
OBJECTIVE: Postural control of patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) is usually impaired. Effects of treatment applications on postural stability have not been well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of kinesio taping on pain and postural stability in patients with CLBP. METHODS: One hundred and one patients with CLBP (age: 53.00 (10.69) years, body mass index (BMI): 31.52 (5.57) kg/m2 ) were included in this study...
January 2019: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
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