Takashi Murayama, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takuro Numaga-Tomita, Takuya Kobayashi, Satoru Okazaki, Kyosuke Yamashiro, Tsutomu Nakada, Shuichi Mori, Ryosuke Ishida, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Mitsuhiko Yamada, Takashi Sakurai
In skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling, depolarization of the plasma membrane triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), referred to as depolarization-induced Ca2+ release (DICR). DICR occurs through the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), which physically interacts with the dihydropyridine receptor Cav1.1 subunit in specific machinery formed with additional essential components including β1a, Stac3 adaptor protein, and junctophilins. Exome sequencing has accelerated the discovery of many novel mutations in genes encoding DICR machinery in various skeletal muscle diseases...
December 5, 2022: Journal of General Physiology
Javier Reig-López, Matilde Merino-Sanjuan, Alfredo García-Arieta, Victor Mangas-Sanjuán
Atorvastatin is the most prescribed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor used to lower cardiovascular risk and constitutes one of the best-selling drugs world-wide. Several physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been developed to assess its non-straightforward pharmacokinetics (PK) as well as that of its metabolites and have been only applied to assess drug-drug interactions (DDI). Here we present a full PBPK model for atorvastatin and its metabolites able to predict within a 2-fold error their PK after the administration of a solid oral dosage form containing the calcium salt of atorvastatin in single and multiple dosing schedules at 20, 40, and 80 mg and 10 mg dose levels, respectively...
October 26, 2022: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Yuqi Si, Fenli Su, Haoxiang Wu, Chuangpeng Shen
Anti-thyroid drugs (ATDs), such as methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU), are the most common treatment options for hyperthyroidism. Although effective, well-known adverse effects include agranulocytosis, toxic hepatitis, vasculitis, and arthralgias. Myalgia and elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) are relatively rare, with an unclear mechanism. Rapid decrease in the thyroid hormone level may be associated with ATD-related myopathy; however, direct effects of the drug on muscle tissue cannot be excluded...
September 2, 2022: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mohammed Dashti, Abdullah Al-Matrouk, Arshad Channanath, Fahd Al-Mulla, Thangavel Alphonse Thanaraj
Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP), which are encoded by SLCO genes, participate in the hepatic elimination of drugs and xenobiotics. SLCO1B1 is an important pharmacogenomic gene (encoding OATP1B1) associated with response to the uptake of endogenous compounds, such as statin and bilirubin. Ethnicity of the patient modulates the response to these drugs; the frequency and haplotype data for SLCO1B1 genetic variants in the Arab population is lacking. Therefore, we determined the frequencies of two well-characterized SLCO1B1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and haplotypes that affect the OATP1B1 drugs transportation activity in Qatari population...
September 1, 2022: Scientific Reports
Silvia Attardo, Olimpia Musumeci, Daniele Velardo, Antonio Toscano
Statins are drugs widely prescribed in high-risk patients for cerebrovascular or cardiovascular diseases and are, usually, safe and well tolerated. However, these drugs sometimes may cause neuromuscular side effects that represent about two-third of all adverse events. Muscle-related adverse events include cramps, myalgia, weakness, immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy and, more rarely, rhabdomyolysis. Moreover, they may lead to peripheral neuropathy and induce or unmask a preexisting neuromuscular junction dysfunction...
July 28, 2022: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shalini Bhaskar, Mohammed Fauzi Bin Abdul Rani
Introduction: Muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) antibody positive myasthenia gravis (MuSK-MG) is a rare clinical disorder, and diagnosing it can be challenging. Most of the patients present with predominant facial, oculo-bulbar, and neck muscle weakness along with respiratory muscle involvement. Such a presentation can be mistaken for bulbar onset motor neuron disease or as one of the rare oculopharyngeal myopathies. Case Report . We present a young female patient, who reported to us with neck muscle weakness, ocular and bulbar muscle paralysis, and breathing difficulty...
2022: Case Reports in Medicine
F Wang, S Li, T Y Wang, G A Lopez, I Antoshechkin, T F Chou
Mutations in p97/VCP cause two motor neuron diseases: inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. How p97 mutations lead to motor neuron degeneration is, however, unknown. Here we used patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells to generate p97 mutant motor neurons. We reduced the genetic background variation by comparing mutant motor neurons to its isogenic wild type lines. Proteomic analysis reveals that p97R155H/+ motor neurons upregulate several cell cycle proteins at Day 14, but this effect diminishes by Day 20...
2022: Brain communications
Leo Tsui, Peiying Ye, Shiling Xu, Yuan Lin, Bin Chen, Sy-Ping Chen, Ruoh-Yi Cheng
BACKGROUND: The baseline incidence of the adverse events of statin therapy varies between countries. Notably, Chinese patients seem more susceptible to myopathy induced by simvastatin. OBJECTIVES: This research studies the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of statin therapy in China by analysing trial-based data from the Anti-hyperlipidaemic Drug Database built by the China National Medical Products Administration Information Centre. METHODS: All clinical trials involving statin therapy (including simvastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin and rosuvastatin) in China from 1989 to 2019 were screened...
June 21, 2022: European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Science and Practice
Siamak Moghadam-Kia, Chester V Oddis
As treatment of refractory idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) has been challenging, there is growing interest in assessing new therapies that target various pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of IIM. In the largest clinical trial to date, rituximab was studied in adult and juvenile myositis, but the primary outcome was not met despite 83 percent of subjects with refractory myositis meeting the definition of improvement. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently granted approval to Octagam 10% immune globulin intravenous (IVIg), for the treatment of adult dermatomyositis based on impressive results from a double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
August 2022: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Keisuke Takada, Yukiyoshi Sada, Masaru Samura, Masashi Matsuura, Naoki Hirose, Takenori Kurata, Fumio Nagumo, Junichi Ishii, Sakura Koshioka, Masaki Uchida, Junki Inoue, Koji Tanikawa, Hiroyuki Kunishima
BACKGROUND Rhabdomyolysis is a condition in which intracellular components are released into the blood and urine. Rhabdomyolysis can be caused by drug-related complications and COVID-19; however, the underlying mechanism is not clear. In this study, we report a case of rhabdomyolysis complicated by COVID-19, in which we presumed that the cause of rhabdomyolysis was related to prior administration of haloperidol by assessment of the drug history and progression of myopathy. CASE REPORT A 52-year-old man with schizophrenia experienced worsening insomnia 10 days before admission...
June 20, 2022: American Journal of Case Reports
Chris Lindsay, Maria Musgaard, Angela J Russell, Rebecca Sitsapesan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Statins, inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, are mainstay treatment for hypercholesterolemia. However, muscle pain and weakness prevent many patients from benefiting from their cardioprotective effects. We previously demonstrated that simvastatin activates skeletal ryanodine receptors (RyR1), an effect that could be important in initiating myopathy. We therefore investigated if RyR1 activation is a standard property of commonly-prescribed statins. Using a range of structurally-diverse statin analogues we examined structural features associated with RyR1 activation, aiming to identify statins lacking this property...
June 15, 2022: British Journal of Pharmacology
Akari Utsumi, Yuri Goto, Takaaki Suzuki, Chiaki Imai, Shinichiro Matsui, Emiko Sakaida, Itsuko Ishii
BACKGROUND: Nelarabine is an antineoplastic purine analog used for the treatment of refractory or relapsed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The most prominent side effect of nelarabine are neurotoxicity and hematologic disorder, which are considered dose-limiting factors. Although clinical studies have reported myopathy due to nelarabine, actual detailed outcomes were not well-known initial approval. The incidence of nelarabine induced rhabdomyolysis has been reported at 2% in study in children...
June 11, 2022: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Care and Sciences
Zephan Melville, Haikel Dridi, Qi Yuan, Steven Reiken, Anetta Wronska, Yang Liu, Oliver B Clarke, Andrew R Marks
The ryanodine receptor (RyR)/calcium release channel on the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is required for excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Inherited mutations and stress-induced post-translational modifications result in an SR Ca2+ leak that causes skeletal myopathies, heart failure, and exercise-induced sudden death. A class of therapeutics known as Rycals prevent the RyR-mediated leak, are effective in preventing disease progression and restoring function in animal models, and are in clinical trials for patients with muscle and heart disorders...
July 7, 2022: Structure
María Sainz-Gil, Nieves Merino Kolly, Verónica Velasco-González, Zoraida Verde Rello, Ana M Fernandez-Araque, Rosario Sanz Fadrique, Luis H Martín Arias
BACKGROUND: The use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in the first COVID-19 epidemic wave raised safety concerns. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adverse reactions (ADR) suspected to be induced by HCQ and submitted to the Spanish Pharmacovigilance Database were studied. A disproportionality analysis was performed to determine adverse effects reported in non-Covid and Covid patients. To explore potential drug-drug interactions, Omega (Ω) statistics was calculated. RESULTS: More severe cases were reported when used in COVID-19...
May 19, 2022: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Chuang-Wei Wang, Ivan Arni C Preclaro, Wei-Hsiang Lin, Wen-Hung Chung
Adverse drug reactions (ADR) remain the major problems in healthcare. Most severe ADR are unpredictable, dose-independent and termed as type B idiosyncratic reactions. Recent pharmacogenomic studies have demonstrated the strong associations between severe ADR and genetic markers, including specific HLA alleles (e.g., HLA-B*15:02/HLA-B*57:01/HLA-A*31:01 for carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions [SCAR], HLA-B*58:01 for allopurinol-SCAR, HLA-B*57:01 for abacavir-hypersensitivity, HLA-B*13:01 for dapsone/co-trimoxazole-induced SCAR, and HLA-A*33:01 for terbinafine-induced liver injury), drug metabolism enzymes (such as CYP2C9*3 for phenytoin-induced SCAR and missense variant of TPMT / NUDT15 for thiopurine-induced leukopenia), drug transporters (e...
2022: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Anja Holm, Stine N Hansen, Henrik Klitgaard, Sakari Kauppinen
RNA therapeutics comprise a diverse group of oligonucleotide-based drugs such as antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) that can be designed to selectively interact with drug targets currently undruggable with small molecule-based drugs or monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, RNA-based therapeutics have the potential to modulate entire disease pathways, and thereby represent a new modality with unprecedented potential for generating disease-modifying drugs for a wide variety of human diseases, including central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
2022: RNA Biology
Sara Ruga, Rebecca Galla, Claudia Penna, Claudio Molinari, Francesca Uberti
BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease and statins, the HMGCoA inhibitors, are the most prescribed drugs. Statins reduce the production of hepatic cholesterol, leading to greater expression of the LDL receptor and greater absorption of circulating LDL, reducing peripheral LDL levels. Unfortunately, statins are believed to induce myopathy and other severe diseases. To overcome this problem, safe nutraceuticals with the same activity as statins could hold great promise in the prevention and treatment of hypercholesterolemia...
March 30, 2022: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Manuela Stella, Erica Biassoni, Chiara Fiorillo, Marina Grandis, Francesca Mattioli, Massimo Del Sette
Inflammatory myopathies, including immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), are a rare and heterogeneous group of autoimmune diseases which can even involve extramuscular districts and seriously impact patients' quality of life. We report the case of a 76-year-old woman who developed muscle weakness, fatigue, and increased CK, following treatment with dapagliflozin, a sodium/glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, and metformin. Neurophysiology, muscle biopsy, and antibody dosage confirmed the diagnosis of IMNM...
July 2022: Neurological Sciences
S Assar, M Pournazari, P Soufivand, D Mohamadzadeh
Neutrophilic myositis (NM) is an inflammatory disorder predominantly characterized by neutrophilic infiltration in the muscles, which is suggested to be an extracutaneous manifestation of neutrophilic dermatosis (ND). NM is a rare disorder which has been occasionally reported in association with hematologic and inflammatory disorders. This case report describes a 45-year-old woman who presented with gradual muscle weakness developed after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Electromyography and nerve conduction velocity findings were compatible with inflammatory myopathy and muscle biopsy revealed neutrophilic infiltration...
February 7, 2022: Reumatismo
Moussa Al Megalli, Shahid Bashir, Hanaa Qadah, Omar Ameen, Talal M Al-Harbi
Colchicine-induced myopathy has been described in patients with chronic renal failure and patients who are using a concomitant drug like a statin. However, pure myopathy caused by colchicine has never been reported in Saudi Arabia. A 64-year-old patient received colchicine for his gout arthritis disease and developed upper and lower limb weakness. He had a proximal weakness, and his muscle enzymes were very high. Furthermore, the needle electromyography (EMG) examination showed abundant fibrillations, myotonic discharges, and myopathic motor units...
December 2021: Curēus
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