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Ruby K Prakasam, Martin Röhlig, Dagmar-C Fischer, Aline Götze, Anselm Jünemann, Heidrun Schumann, Oliver Stachs
Purpose To analyze the use of deviation maps (DevMs) to understand thickness changes of inner retinal layers in optical coherence tomography (OCT) data. To test a new visual analytics (VA) method with reduced complexity of OCT data analysis by comparing the layer thickness of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) to matched controls. METHODS: OCT was performed on unilateral eyes of 26 children with T1DM without diabetic retinopathy and 29 healthy children to obtain macular volume scans...
March 20, 2019: Current Eye Research
Ke-Yun Chao, Yu-Wen Lin, Chen-En Chiang, Chi-Wei Tseng
Smoke inhalation injury is a major morbidity and cause of mortality in patients with burns. Damage caused by inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants, including toxic fumes and chemicals, leads to respiratory cilia and epithelial cell injuries, which turn to severe bronchospasm and alveolar damage and results in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Respiratory management plays a vital role in the treatment of smoke inhalation injury. In this review, we provide an overview of smoke inhalation injury with emphasis on respiratory management, including aerosol therapy, bronchial hygiene therapy, advanced ventilation modes, and heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
M Giray Ersoz, Mumin Hocaoglu, Isil Sayman Muslubas, Serra Arf, Murat Karacorlu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the foveal avascular zone area and its perimeter, the acircularity index of the foveal avascular zone, the vessel density surrounding the foveal avascular zone, and the vessel density in the foveal, parafoveal, and perifoveal areas and their associations with best-corrected visual acuity, central foveal average thickness, and volume of ellipsoid zone-retinal pigment epithelium in patients with macular telangiectasia Type 2 (MacTel 2)...
March 12, 2019: Retina
Kosuke Kato, Brian H Song, Carol L Howe, Eugene H Chang
OBJECTIVE: Airway mucins are the major constituents of mucus and one of the first lines of host defense against inhaled pathogens. However, aberrant expression of mucins is associated with mucus hypersecretion resulting in chronic nasal drainage, a common complaint from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our goal in this systematic review was to determine (1) expression profiles, (2) regulatory mechanisms, and (3) the pathologic roles of mucins associated with CRS. METHODS: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials...
March 20, 2019: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Neil N Patel, Vasiliki Triantafillou, Ivy W Maina, Alan D Workman, Charles C L Tong, Edward C Kuan, Peter Papagiannopoulos, John V Bosso, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Michael A Kohanski, De'Broski R Herbert, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) are rare epithelial cells enriched in nasal polyps and are the primary source of interleukin-25 (IL-25), an innate cytokine eliciting T-helper 2 (Th2) immune response. Although it is proposed that SCCs are stimulated by antigens released by upper airway pathogens, the exogenous triggers of human SCCs remain elusive. We studied patients with noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis to determine whether extracts of Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata stimulate SCC proliferation as an early event in type 2 inflammation...
March 20, 2019: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Ufuk Düzenli, Nazim Bozan, Yasin Sonkaya, Yaser Said Çetin, Halit Demir
INTRODUCTION: Nasal septum deviation (NSD) may lead to chronic hypoxia and increased oxidative stress.The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NSD on malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH) levels. METHODS: There were 30 patients with NSD and 30 healthy subjects in this study. Malondialdehyde, CAT, SOD, and GSH levels were determined in the control and study groups. The measurements were done preoperatively and postoperatively...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Asli Cakir Cetin, Ozgur Kumus, Pembe Keskinoglu, Semih Sutay, Mustafa Cenk Ecevit
OBJECTIVES: The Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT)-22 is a widely used health-related quality of life questionnaire. This study aimed to conduct a translation and validation study of the SNOT-22 in the Turkish language. DESIGN: We achieved a convenient translation and cultural adaptation process to translate the original SNOT-22 into the Turkish language (observational prospective cohort study). SETTING: This study was conducted in a single tertiary-level university hospital...
March 19, 2019: Clinical Otolaryngology
K Kristina Drake, Christina M Aiello, Lizabeth Bowen, Rebecca L Lewison, Todd C Esque, Kenneth E Nussear, Shannon C Waters, Peter J Hudson
Immune function plays an important role in an animal's defense against infectious disease. In reptiles, immune responses may be complex and counterintuitive, and diagnostic tools used to identify infection, such as induced antibody responses are limited. Recent studies using gene transcription profiling in tortoises have proven useful in identifying immune responses to various intrinsic and extrinsic stressors. As part of a larger experiment with Mojave desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii ), we facilitated the transmission of the pathogenic bacteria, Mycoplasma agassizii (Myag), to naïve adults and measured innate and induced immune reactions over time...
March 2019: Ecology and Evolution
E Kavitha, R Srikumar
BACKGROUND: Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is very common among health care workers, and treatment with mupirocin is one of the choicest antibiotics available. But with the rampant usage of mupirocin like other antibiotics, the emergence of mupirocin resistance is also on rise. This resistance is both low level as well as high level among the isolated strains. AIM: To screen for the high-level mupirocin resistance among the isolated Staphylococcus strains by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method...
March 19, 2019: Pharmacology
Nicolò Bertozzi, Francesco Simonacci, Michele Pio Greco, Eugenio Grignaffini, Edoardo Raposio
AIM: Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) alone accounts for 80% of cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), which characteristically develops on sun-exposed skin. Indeed the most common site of BCC is the head and neck region (80%). The purpose of this study to review the experience of our center with BCC in the head and neck region to report the sites of occurrence and treatment. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed 77 patients with BCC of the head and neck, who revived surgical treatment within our plastic surgery division...
January 22, 2019: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Kijeong Lee, Yeji Hong, Jimi Choi, Sang Hag Lee, Tae Hoon Kim
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of life-long endogenous estrogen exposure on prevalence of chronic rhinitis including allergic rhinitis (AR) in the postmenopausal period. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 3,043 postmenopausal women who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V were included. Participants with symptoms including sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, or nasal itching were considered to have chronic rhinitis...
March 18, 2019: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Lin He, Xueyuan Yu, Xiangyu Liu, Wendy Chen, Maoguo Shu
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, many surgeons have reported their perspectives on microform cleft lip repair, including techniques for incision placement and size, philtral reconstruction, and nasal base reconstruction. This interest demonstrates continued controversy in the repair of microform cleft lip. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort of patients from 2010 to 2016. The authors included patients with microform cleft lip repaired by our described technique who had both preoperative photographs, as well as photographs taken at >1-year follow-up...
March 14, 2019: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Olga Krysko, Andrea Teufelberger, Sharon Van Nevel, Dmitri V Krysko, Claus Bachert
S. aureus is being recognized as a major co-factor in atopic diseases such as atopic dermatitis, chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, and asthma. The understanding of the relationship between S. aureus virulence factors and the immune system is continuously improving. Although the precise mechanism of the host's immune response adaptation to the variable secretion profile of S. aureus strains continues to be a matter of debate, an increasing number of studies have reported on central effects of S. aureus secretome in allergy...
March 19, 2019: Allergy
Murat Dogan, Mustafa Sahin, Cigdem Yenisey
OBJECTIVE: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a chronic inflammatory disease. The surrogate indicating biomarkers in patients with CRSwNP need further evaluation. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and amphiregulin (AREG) cytokines in patients with CRSwNP. METHODS: Sinonasal tissue samples were collected from 33 patients with CRSwNP and 29 controls. Levels of AREG, IL-19, IL-21, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in nasal polyp and control sinonasal tissues were determined following the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method...
March 19, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
B Rochwerg, D Granton, D X Wang, Y Helviz, S Einav, J P Frat, A Mekontso-Dessap, A Schreiber, E Azoulay, A Mercat, A Demoule, V Lemiale, A Pesenti, E D Riviello, T Mauri, J Mancebo, L Brochard, K Burns
BACKGROUND: This systematic review and meta-analysis summarizes the safety and efficacy of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science. We identified randomized controlled trials that compared HFNC to conventional oxygen therapy. We pooled data and report summary estimates of effect using relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference or standardized mean difference for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals...
March 19, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Jean-Damien Ricard, Cesare Gregoretti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Gérald Chanques, Samir Jaber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Fatih Irmak, Merdan Serin, Selami Serhat Sirvan, Sevgi Kurt Yazar, Ismail Kuran, Kamuran Zeynep Sevim, Semra Karsidag
BACKGROUND: Middle crura support deficiency and short middle crura can usually cause insufficient definition and projection of the tip and can sometimes result in a flat tip. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a new technique involving a tip reinforcement flap to strengthen the middle crura and to achieve a well-projected and defined tip. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients who underwent primary open-approach rhinoplasty that included the use of tip reinforcement flaps were included in the study...
January 15, 2019: Annals of Plastic Surgery
L-H Cheng, J-C Lee, P-C Wu, Y-Y Lin, Y-H Chu, H-W Wang
BACKGROUND: Azelastine hydrochloride (azelastine) nasal spray is a histamine receptor-1 (H1) antagonist often used in treating allergic rhinitis to relieve its symptoms. However, the effects of azelastine to influence decongestion on human nasal mucosa in patients with allergic rhinitis are not yet fully explored and merit further exploration. The effects of azelastine on the vasocontractile responses generated by smooth muscles in the vascular structures of human nasal mucosa were investigated directly in vitro...
March 19, 2019: Rhinology
Ali Yurtseven, Caner Turan, Eren Erseven, Eylem Ulas Saz
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the heated humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) flow rate of 1-L·kg·min-1 (1 L) with 2-L·kg·min -1 (2 L) in patients with severe bronchiolitis presenting to the pediatric emergency department. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a study in which all patients were allocated to receive these two flow rates. The primary outcome was admitted as treatment failure, which was defined as a clinical escalation in respiratory status...
March 18, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
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