Agricola Odoi, Ronita Samuels, Craig N Carter, Jackie Smith
BACKGROUND: Inappropriate antimicrobial use (AMU) is a global concern. Opinions of veterinarians regarding AMU and its role in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) may influence their prescription practices. It is important to understand these opinions, prescription practices and their potential impact on the development of AMR in order to guide efforts to curb the problem. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial prescription practices and opinions of veterinarians in Kentucky regarding AMU and AMR...
2021: PloS One
Raiko Blondonnet, Audrey Quinson, Céline Lambert, Jules Audard, Thomas Godet, Ruoyang Zhai, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel Futier, Jean-Etienne Bazin, Jean-Michel Constantin, Matthieu Jabaudon
BACKGROUND: Current intensive care unit (ICU) sedation guidelines recommend strategies using non-benzodiazepine sedatives. This survey was undertaken to explore inhaled ICU sedation practice in France. METHODS: In this national survey, medical directors of French adult ICUs were contacted by phone or email between July and August 2019. ICU medical directors were questioned about the characteristics of their department, their knowledge on inhaled sedation, and practical aspects of inhaled sedation use in their department...
2021: PloS One
Ann Van Heest, Aaron M Brandt, George Dyer, Cole J Homer, Peter M Murray
The COVID-19 crisis has challenged the U.S. health-care system in a variety of ways, including how we teach and train orthopaedic surgery residents and fellows. During the spring of 2020, the cessation of all elective surgical procedures and the diminished number of outpatient visits challenged graduate medical education. While residency programs in less affected areas may not have had to make many dramatic adjustments, some of those located in pandemic hotspots had to redirect trainees from orthopaedic rotations to COVID-19 units...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Jai Prashar, Chavini Ranasinghe, Chirag Bussa Rao
Disruption to healthcare settings can present a significant challenge to traditional, face-to-face models of learning in medical education. Reductions in undergraduate medical students' clinical exposure, whether due to periods of increased healthcare demand, localised service changes or infectious disease outbreaks, are likely to result in fewer opportunities to develop key clinical and practical skills. Proficiency in these skills is often essential to progression and future practice, creating a broad incentive for students to develop techniques to maintain and refine their clinical skills during disrupted placements...
April 15, 2021: Medical Teacher
Wayne Shelton, Lisa Campo-Engelstein
We describe a virtue ethics approach and its application in a four-year, integrated, longitudinal, and required undergraduate medical education course that attempts to address some of the challenges of the hidden curriculum and minimize some of its adverse effects on learners. We discuss how a curriculum grounded in virtue ethics strives to have the practical effect of allowing students to focus on their professional identity as physicians in training rather than merely on knowledge and skills acquisition. This orientation, combined with a student-generated curriculum, is designed to prepare students to identify and face challenges during their clinical years, further nurturing their professional growth...
April 15, 2021: Journal of Medical Humanities
Donnchadh Martin O'Sullivan, Ross Foley, Kate Proctor, Sarah Gallagher, Aoife Deery, Benjamin W Eidem, Colin Joseph McMahon
Virtual reality (VR) is a relatively new technology that allows an individual to experience a virtual world. This new immersive video type may be of particular usefulness in procedure-based healthcare settings. We hypothesized that VR echocardiography was non-inferior to live demonstration. Our aim was to assess the usefulness of a VR echocardiographic approach in teaching echocardiography to pediatric trainees compared to live demonstration. This was a single center, cross-sectional observational design. We used a Garmin VIRB® 360 and a head-mount display to record live echocardiography exams in a pediatric population...
April 15, 2021: Pediatric Cardiology
M Yiasemidou, J Tomlinson, I Chetter, Biyani C Shenkar
BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had a profound impact on surgical services, potentially having a detrimental impact on training opportunities. The aim of this global survey was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on surgical training and to develop a framework for recovery. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted. This was designed by a steering committee of medical educationalists and validated by a group of trainees before dissemination...
March 5, 2021: BJS Open
Ronald P McLarty, Julius P Alloyce, Grace G Chitema, Levina J Msuya
Objective: To determine the factors associated with poor glycemic control in children (1-10 years), adolescents (11-18 years) and young adults (19-40 years) with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) in Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center (KCMC) in Moshi, Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH) and Meru District Hospital (MDH) in Arusha, Tanzania. Methods: Cross sectional study of 150 participants conducted from January to June 2019, data was collected by structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23...
April 2021: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism
James Padley, Sarah Boyd, Alison Jones, Lucie Walters
Context: Work readiness is often described in terms of the clinical competence medical graduates bring to day 1 of internship. Despite being increasingly viewed as a key graduate outcome, work readiness has remained poorly defined. Objective: This narrative review draws on the international literature to explore how different research methods provide differing insight into what constitutes work readiness of medical graduates. From this, we explored contributory factors and developed a conceptual framework to better understand work readiness...
June 2021: Health Science Reports
Meredith M Nichols, Genevieve M Crane
The following fictional case is intended as a learning tool within the Pathology Competencies for Medical Education (PCME), a set of national standards for teaching pathology. These are divided into three basic competencies: Disease Mechanisms and Processes, Organ System Pathology, and Diagnostic Medicine and Therapeutic Pathology. For additional information, and a full list of learning objectives for all three competencies, see .
January 2021: Academic Pathology
Moon Young Oh, Eun Joo Kim, Hongbeom Kim, Yoonhyeong Byun, Youngmin Han, Yoo Jin Choi, Jae Seung Kang, Wooil Kwon, Jin-Young Jang
Purpose: Quality of life (QoL) is widely known to be poor after total pancreatectomy (TP) due to the loss of pancreatic function and poor nutritional status, but prospective studies on changes in QoL over time are lacking. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, changes in nutritional status, and their associated effects on QoL after TP. Methods: Prospective data were collected from patients who underwent TP between 2008 and 2018...
April 2021: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
Mohd Iskandar Jumat, Firdaus Hayati, Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim, Sahipudin Saupin, Khamisah Awang Lukman, Mohammad Saffree Jeffree, Helen Benedict Lasimbang, Fairrul Kadir
Occupational lung diseases are lung conditions caused or made worse by materials when a person is exposed to a workplace. The diagnosis of an occupational disease is important for workers' decision to continue work and for their eligibility under compensation programmes. We revisit the existing lung diseases that are closely associated with the occupation at the workplace namely occupational asthma, silicosis, black lung disease, farmers' lung disease, asbestos-linked disease, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis...
April 2021: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Amjad O Aljohani, Reyan H Merdad, Anas I Alserif, Layan S Alhemayed, Noor Z Farsi, Thamer A Alsufyani, Haddad H Alkaf, Ameen Z Alherabi, Sherif K Abdelmonim, Mohammad A Alessa
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most prevalent type of thyroid cancer. It is one of the most common types of malignancy of the thyroid that spreads to cervical lymph nodes. Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is an important factor when determining recurrence risk, and determining the extent of lymph node involvement can guide treatment. Our main objective is to evaluate the association between the size of the tumor and the number of lymph node metastases in patients with PTC. METHODS: We conducted an electronic retrospective chart review of 125 patients with PTC followed in the Head and Neck Department at KAMC from 2009 to 2020...
April 2021: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Andrew Burchell
This article mobilises archival material from local authorities in England to assess the shifting role of psychologists within local school health services from the 1930s through to the reorganisation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1974. It argues that psychologists were increasingly positioned between therapist, diagnostician and social worker, that this was bound together with a local discourse of children's emotional well-being and that the increasing fluidity of the psychologist's role emerged from local policies designed to stress the 'educational' nature of their role...
February 2021: Social History of Medicine: the Journal of the Society for the Social History of Medicine
Takashi Watari, Masaki Tago, Kiyoshi Shikino, Shun Yamashita, Naoko E Katsuki, Motoshi Fujiwara, Shu-Ichi Yamashita
Purpose: The training of generalist physicians in university hospitals needs to emphasize development of their research role in order to continue improving their research capacity and their standing in academic hospitals in Japan. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to survey departments of general medicine (GM) in university hospitals in Japan to identify the research areas and themes pursued by academic generalist physicians. Patients and Methods: The heads of the departments of GM from 71 university hospitals in Japan were enrolled...
2021: International Journal of General Medicine
Dumisani Enricho Nkhoma, Charles Jenya Soko, Kondwani Joseph Banda, David Greenfield, Yu-Chuan Jack Li, Usman Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: To conduct systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies to investigate the impact of diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) apps on adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Scopus and ProQuest were searched, in addition to references of identified articles and similar reviews. Experimental studies, reported in English, assessing DSMES app intervention's impact on adherence and clinical outcomes of patients with T2D compared with usual care were included...
April 2021: BMJ health & care informatics
Yan-Bo Zhang, Chen Chen, Xiong-Fei Pan, Jingyu Guo, Yanping Li, Oscar H Franco, Gang Liu, An Pan
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether overall lifestyles mediate associations of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the extent of interaction or joint relations of lifestyles and SES with health outcomes. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (US NHANES, 1988-94 and 1999-2014) and UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: 44 462 US adults aged 20 years or older and 399 537 UK adults aged 37-73 years...
April 14, 2021: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Marianne Bakke Johnsen, Ewa Roos, Dorte Thalund Grønne, Lars Christian Haugli Bråten, Søren Thorgaard Skou
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of educational level and employment status on change in pain intensity after treatment among patients with knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We analysed 22 588 patients participating in the Good Life with osteoArthritis in Denmark (GLA:D). GLA:D consists of two patient education sessions and 12 supervised exercise sessions. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Baseline educational level and employment status were used as exposures...
April 14, 2021: BMJ Open
Wesley Sparkmon, Marie Barnard, Meagen Rosenthal, Shane Desselle, Erin Holmes
BACKGROUND: Pharmacists have struggled to find time to spend on clinical tasks. As such, regulatory steps have been taken by some states to expand the scope of practice for community pharmacy technicians. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine what settings and characteristics predict pharmacists' comfort levels with technicians giving or receiving verbal prescriptions, performing nonclinical medication therapy management tasks, administering vaccinations, and verifying prescriptions...
March 26, 2021: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Hanna Wijk, Kristiina Heikkilä, Sari Ponzer, Lars Kihlström, Jonas Nordquist
INTRODUCTION: Leaders in postgraduate medical education are responsible for implementing educational change. Although difficulties in implementing change are described both in the general leadership literature as well as in the field of medical education, knowledge of what characterises successful change leadership in postgraduate medical education is limited. The aim of this study is to explore the process used by educational leaders in successful change implementation in postgraduate medical education...
April 14, 2021: BMC Medical Education
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