Sarika Pattanasin, Frits van Griensven, Philip A Mock, Wichuda Sukwicha, Santi Winaitham, Kesinee Satumay, Siobhan O'Connor, Andrew C Hickey, Taweesap Siraprapasiri, Joseph V Woodring, Pachara Sirivongrangson, Timothy H Holtz, Eileen F Dunne
OBJECTIVES: We assessed HIV-1 infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) attending Silom Community Clinic (SCC) in Bangkok, Thailand from 2005-2018. Since 2014, Thailand increased implementation of HIV prevention strategies including pre-exposure prophylaxis and Treatment as Prevention. METHODS: MSM attending SCC were tested for HIV using rapid tests. We assessed trends in HIV prevalence, incidence and compared incidence before and after 2014. RESULTS: From 2005-2018, 14,034 clients attended SCC for HIV testing...
July 10, 2020: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
David L DeMets, Thomas R Fleming
Best practices of Data Monitoring Committees (DMCs) in randomized clinical trials are well established. Independent oversight provided by DMCs is particularly important in trials conducted in public health emergencies, such as in HIV/AIDS or coronavirus epidemics. Special considerations are needed to enable DMCs to effectively address novel circumstances they face in such settings. In the COVID-19 pandemic, these include the remarkable speed in which data regarding benefits and risks of interventions are accumulated...
July 10, 2020: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
Helena M Viola, Ashay A Shah, Jessica A Kretzmann, Cameron W Evans, Marck Norret, K Swaminathan Iyer, Livia C Hool
Therapeutic approaches for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MI) have been ineffective due to limited bioavailability and poor specificity. We have previously shown that a peptide that targets the α-interaction domain of the cardiac L-type calcium channel (AID-peptide) attenuates MI when tethered to transactivator of transcription sequence (TAT) or spherical nanoparticles. However some reservations remain regarding use of these delivery platforms due to the relationship with human immunodeficiency virus, off-target effects and toxicity...
July 10, 2020: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Nicolas Venisse, Gilles Peytavin, Stephane Bouchet, Marie-Claude Gagnieu, Rodolphe Garraffo, Romain Guilhaumou, Caroline Solas
In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, several drugs have been repurposed as potential candidates for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. While preliminary choices were essentially based on in vitro potency, clinical translation into effective therapies may be challenging due to unfavorable in vivo pharmacokinetic properties at the doses chosen for this new indication of COVID-19 infection. However, available pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic studies suffer from severe limitations leading to unreliable conclusions, especially in term of dosing optimization...
July 10, 2020: Antiviral Research
Jie Shi
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to ascertain the current conditions and development in the past three years of clinical transfusion practice in Nanjing, Jiangsu province, China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood quality control practices and the blood production scrap rate from 2015-2017 were monitored and measured using different quality statistics and management tools. RESULTS: The causes of unqualified and scrapped blood during blood collection and supply were analyzed and evaluated...
July 10, 2020: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Scott D Rhodes, Lilli Mann-Jackson, Jorge Alonzo, Jennifer Nall, Florence M Simán, Eunyoung Y Song, Manuel Garcia, Amanda E Tanner, Eugenia Eng
Latinx men in the southern United States are affected disproportionately by HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, few evidence-based prevention interventions exist to promote health equity within this population. Developed by a well-established community-based participatory research partnership, the HoMBReS por un Cambio intervention decreases sexual risk among Spanish-speaking, predominately heterosexual Latinx men who are members of recreational soccer teams in the United States. Scale-up and spread, an implementation science framework, was used to study the implementation of this evidence-based community-level intervention within three community organizations that represent typical community-based providers of HIV and STI prevention interventions (i...
July 2020: American Journal of Men's Health
Elias B Chahine, Spencer H Durham
Objective: To review the efficacy and safety of ibalizumab (IBA) in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Data Sources: A literature search was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar (2010 to mid-June 2020) with the search terms TMB-355, TNX-355 , and ibalizumab . Other resources included abstracts presented at recent conferences and the manufacturer's website and prescribing information. Study Selection and Data Extraction: All relevant English-language articles of studies assessing the efficacy and safety of IBA were included...
July 13, 2020: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Song Weiyue, Li Ying, Taisei Kanamoto, Daisuke Asai, Hiromu Takemura, Hideki Nakashima, Kensuke Miyazaki, Takashi Yoshida
Three new spherical sulfated cellobiose-polylysine dendrimers of increasing generations bearing negatively charged sulfate groups were prepared by sulfating the corresponding cellobiose-polylysine dendrimers. The first, second, and third-generation derivatives exhibited potent anti-HIV activity with EC50 values of 3.7, 0.6, and 1.5 μg/mL, respectively, in constant to sulfated oligosaccharides with low anti-HIV activity, while the second-generation sulfated dendrimer was the most active. Surface plasmon resonance measurements with poly-l-lysine bearing positively charged amino acids as a model of the HIV surface glycoprotein gp120, indicated that the second-generation dendrimer had the lowest dissociation constant (KD  = 1...
June 24, 2020: Carbohydrate Research
Emily A Rogena, Anthony Waruru, Peter W Young, Pheena Abade, Lilly M Nyagah, Edwin O Walong
BACKGROUND: The cause of death (COD) statement is a vital statistic that refers to the disease(s) and process(es) that lead to death. Obtaining accurate COD is valuable for mortality prevention priorities. The statements are formulated using International Classification of Diseases and related health problems, version 10 (ICD-10) system. However, physicians may be unfamiliar with these standards or fail to use them and instead refer to mechanisms or manner of death when stating COD. We present results of an of assessment of quality of COD statements in decedent cases reviewed during a one-month mortuary-based surveillance at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) and the City mortuaries in Nairobi, Kenya in 2015...
July 2020: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Semra Oz, Mustafa Altindis, Hande Toptan, Mehmet Koroglu, Oguz Karabay
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is usually an acute self-limiting disease, which causes rapidly progressive cirrhosis and chronic infection in patients with hematological malignancies, patients requiring chemotherapy, and HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the positivity of hepatitis E IgM and IgG in HIV positive patients with the recently introduced Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA) commercial kits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 126 patients who were followed up by the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Clinic of Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital between October 2017 and December 2018 for HIV positivity...
July 1, 2020: Clinical Laboratory
Erik Ehinger, Yanal Ghosheh, Akula Bala Pramod, Juan Lin, David B Hanna, Karin Mueller, Christopher P Durant, Livia Baas, Qibin Qi, Tao Wang, Konrad Buscher, Kathryn Anastos, Jason M Lazar, Wendy J Mack, Phyllis C Tien, Mardge H Cohen, Igho Ofotokun, Stephen Gange, Sonya L Heath, Howard N Hodis, Russell P Tracy, Alan L Landay, Robert C Kaplan, Klaus Ley
AIMS: During virally-suppressed chronic HIV infection, persistent inflammation contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), a major comorbidity in people living with HIV (LWH). Classical blood monocytes (CMs) remain activated during antiretroviral therapy and are a major source of pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic factors that contribute to atherosclerotic plaque development and instability. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we identify transcriptomic changes in circulating CMs in peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples from participants of the Women's Interagency HIV Study, selected by HIV and subclinical CVD (sCVD) status...
July 13, 2020: Cardiovascular Research
Kathleen E Ryan, Jason Asselin, Chistopher K Fairley, Judy Armishaw, Luxi Lal, Long Nguyen, Dean Murphy, Michael Traeger, Margaret Hellard, Jennifer Hoy, Mark Stoové, Edwina Wright
OBJECTIVE: Scale-up of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has raised concerns regarding its impact on clinic capacity and access to HIV testing. We describe enrolment in PrEPX, a large PrEP implementation study in Victoria, Australia, and the impact of PrEP uptake and maintenance on existing health services. METHODS: We describe enrolment between July 26, 2016, and March 31, 2018, and trends in HIV testing among PrEPX participating and nonparticipating gay and bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) at 5 study clinics participating in a sentinel surveillance system (ACCESS)...
August 2020: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Diana M Tordoff, Lindley A Barbee, Christine M Khosropour, James P Hughes, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: Clinicians and health departments would ideally undertake targeted efforts to promote HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and frequent HIV testing using data-based criteria to identify populations at elevated risk for HIV. We developed an HIV risk prediction score for men who have sex with men (MSM) to identify individuals at substantial risk for HIV acquisition. METHODS: We created a retrospective cohort of MSM who tested HIV-negative at the STD clinic in Seattle, Washington from 2001-2015, and identified seroconversions using HIV surveillance data...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Randy Stalter, Kenneth Mugwanya, Katherine Thomas, Deborah Donnell, Andrew Mujugira, Kenneth Ngure, Connie Celum, Lara Kidoguchi, Elizabeth Bukusi, Jared Baeten, Renee Heffron
BACKGROUND: A strategy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) transitioning to treatment as prevention is highly efficacious and cost-effective for prevention of HIV transmission within HIV serodiscordant couples. We assessed whether couples who adopted this strategy experienced changes in sexual behaviors after HIV-negative partners discontinued PrEP and transitioned to rely primarily on their partner's adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention. SETTING: Kenya and Uganda METHODS:: Data are from the Partners Demonstration Project, a prospective, open-label evaluation of PrEP and ART use for HIV prevention...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anna H Boerwinkle, Jeremy F Strain, Tricia Burdo, John Doyle, Jon Christensen, Yi Su, Julie K Wisch, Sarah A Cooley, Florin Vaida, Mandy D Smith, Hussain Jafri, Robert H Paul, Tammie L S Benzinger, Beau M Ances
OBJECTIVE: Despite combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), neuroinflammation may persist in persons living with HIV (PLWH) and contribute to cognitive impairment in this population. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging targeting 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO) has been used to localize neuroinflammation. We aimed to use TSPO-PET imaging to evaluate neuroinflammation in PLWH. DESIGN: Twenty-four virologically suppressed PLWH on cART and thirteen HIV-negative (HIV-) controls completed TSPO-PET imaging using the radiotracer [C]PBR28...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sarah Brumfield, Albert Dube, Georges Reniers, Stephane Helleringer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 8, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Alejandro Vallejo, Sonia Molina-Pinelo, Beatriz De Felipe, María Abad-Fernández, María Francisca González-Escribano, Manuel Leal, Natalia Soriano-Sarabia
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the association of the presence of common polymorphisms (SNPs) on Toll-like receptors (TLR), such as TLR9-1635A/G, TLR2-1892A/C, TLR2-2258G/A, TLR4-899A/G, TLR4-1196C/T, with the viral rebound after stopping antiretroviral treatment (ART). CCR5-Δ32 deletion and HLA-A/HLA-B alleles were also analyzed. DESIGN: Interruption of ART may be required to investigate the outcome of strategies aimed to achieve drug-free HIV remission or cure...
July 8, 2020: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Jelani Kerr, Lesley Harris, Elizabeth Glass, Tasha Golden, Timothy Crawford
Remediating racial/ethnic HIV inequities necessitates addressing HIV-related stigma. Arts- and media-based approaches demonstrate potential for effective knowledge translation and HIV-related stigma reduction. This study employs 5 monologues portraying lived experiences of older African Americans living with HIV to do this. Monologues were developed on the basis of qualitative research, actors performed them for live and online audiences, and surveys were distributed to gauge their potential for raising awareness about HIV-related stressors, reducing HIV-related stigma, and entertainment value...
July 10, 2020: Family & Community Health
Brianne Olivieri-Mui, Jean McGuire, John Griffith, Sean Cahill, Becky Briesacher
Persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are living long enough to need age-related and HIV-related nursing home (NH) care. Nursing home quality of care has been associated with risk for hospitalization, but it is unknown if quality of HIV care in NHs affects hospitalization in this population. We assessed HIV care quality with four national measures adapted for the NH setting. We applied the measures to 2011-2013 Medicare claims linked to Minimum Data Set assessments of resident health, prescription dispensing data, and national reports of NH characteristics...
July 8, 2020: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Tiffany L Breger, Jessie K Edwards, Stephen R Cole, Daniel Westreich, Brian W Pence, Adaora A Adimora
Illustrations of the g-computation algorithm to evaluate population average treatment and intervention effects have been predominantly implemented in settings with complete exposure information. Thus, worked examples of approaches to handle missing data in this causal framework are needed to facilitate wider use of these estimators. We illustrate two-stage g-computation estimators that leverage partially observed information on the full study sample and complete exposure information on a subset to estimate causal effects...
July 1, 2020: Epidemiology
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