Massimiliano Lanzafame, Giovanni Mori, Emanuela Lattuada, Donatella Visentin, Luisa Carraro, Roberta Gargano, Pirous Fatehmoghadam, Maria Grazia Zuccali
Migrants have accounted for more than 40% of new HIV diagnoses in Europe in 2022. Among the population of asylum seekers currently present in the Trento Province, screening for HIV infection is poorly carried out for various reasons. Here we report our experience about screening for HIV infection in asylum seekers present in that area using rapid self HIV-testing.
April 18, 2024: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
Tugce Inan, Robin Flinko, George K Lewis, Alexander D MacKerell, Ozge Kurkcuoglu
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a critical target for the treatment of several cancer types and HIV-1 infections. While orthosteric and allosteric modulators have been developed targeting its extracellular or transmembrane regions, the intramembrane region of CXCR4 may also include allosteric binding sites suitable for the development of allosteric drugs. To investigate this, we apply the Gaussian Network Model (GNM) to the monomeric and dimeric forms of CXCR4 to identify residues essential for its local and global motions located in the hinge regions of the protein...
April 22, 2024: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Daniel Thoresen, Kenta Matsuda, Akane Urakami, Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Takushi Nomura, Meng Ling Moi, Yuri Watanabe, Momoko Ishikawa, Trang Thi Thu Hau, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Yuriko Suzaki, Yasushi Ami, Jonathan F Smith, Tetsuro Matano, Kouichi Morita, Wataru Akahata
Dengue virus (DENV) represents a significant global health burden, with 50% of the world's population at risk of infection, and there is an urgent need for next-generation vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccines, which mimic the antigenic structure of the virus but lack the viral genome, are an attractive approach. Here, we describe a dengue VLP (DENVLP) vaccine which generates a neutralizing antibody response against all four DENV serotypes in 100% of immunized non-human primates for up to 1 year...
April 22, 2024: Journal of Virology
Stephanie Sweitzer, Joseph Sharp, Dylan Baker, Alexis Lynch, Meredith A Stauch, Matthew Wheatley, Meredith Lora, Valeria D Cantos, Judah Gruen
BACKGROUND: HIV and syphilis disproportionately impact communities with low access to primary care, who often utilize urgent care centers (UCC) for sexual healthcare. UCC visits represent an opportunity for identification and treatment of syphilis and linkage to HIV testing and prevention services. We describe a universal, opt-out syphilis screening program pilot at an Atlanta UCC. METHODS: A chart review was performed on patients 18 years and older who were offered opt-out syphilis screening and had a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test collected from 9/1/21 to 12/31/21...
April 19, 2024: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Jennifer Tang, Addie Crawley, Kelly Jamison, Athena Wong, Stephen Eng, Caroline Zhang, Isabella Navia, Carlos Cubas, Preeti Pathela
BACKGROUND: Public health emergencies can lead to reduced or suspended services in sexual health clinics (SHCs), raising questions about optimal ways to maintain access to care. We examined changes in sexual behaviors, HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use, telehealth preference, and correlates of delayed sexual health care among patients attending New York City (NYC) publicly funded SHCs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: 470 patients from four SHCs (July-September 2021) completed a self-administered survey that collected data on access to sexual health care, overall and over three distinct time periods [Spring 2020 (COVID-19 wave 1), Summer 2020, Fall 2020/Winter 2021 (COVID-19 wave 2)]...
April 19, 2024: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Divya T Chemparathy, Sudipta Ray, Chase Ochs, Natasha Ferguson, Dinesh Y Gawande, Shashank M Dravid, Shannon Callen, Susmita Sil, Shilpa Buch
Our previous findings demonstrated that astrocytic HIF-1α plays a major role in HIV-1 Tat-mediated amyloidosis which can lead to Alzheimer's-like pathology-a comorbidity of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND). These amyloids can be shuttled in extracellular vesicles, and we sought to assess whether HIV-1 Tat stimulated astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) containing the toxic amyloids could result in neuronal injury in vitro and in vivo. We thus hypothesized that blocking HIF-1α could likely mitigate HIV-1 Tat-ADEV-mediated neuronal injury...
April 2024: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
Merve Baysal, Abdullah Burak Karaduman, Büşra Korkut Çelikateş, Özlem Atlı-Eklioğlu, Sinem Ilgın
The human immunodeficiency virus continues to pose a significant global public health challenge, affecting millions of individuals. The current treatment strategy has incorporated the utilization of combinations of antiretroviral drugs. The administration of these drugs is associated with many deleterious consequences on several physiological systems, notably the reproductive system. This study aimed to assess the toxic effects of abacavir sulfate, ritonavir, nevirapine, and zidovudine, as well as their combinations, on TM3 Leydig and TM4 Sertoli cells...
April 22, 2024: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yuhui Li, Xinhui Zhang, Yang Huang, Lei Gao, Zhan Gao, Miao He
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection through transfusion has been an imperative challenge for blood safety. Despite the implementation of screening strategies, there was still the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV. Considering that the prevalence of HIV infection in blood donors is significant for evaluating blood safety and potential risks to the population, meta-analysis was applied to investigate the HIV prevalence among voluntary blood donors during the past 27 years to characterize the epidemiology and related risk factors of HIV in blood donors...
April 2024: Journal of Medical Virology
Nimish Patel, Sheldon Morris, Leah Burke, Karen Chow, Deedee Pacheco, Peter Anderson, Frank Stancyzk, Jill Blumenthal
AIMS: Many transgender and gender diverse (TGD) individuals have expressed concerns about the potential for oral pre-exposure prophylaxis to affect hormonal concentrations achieved from taking gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT). The purpose of this study was to understand the bidirectional effects between hormone and intraerythrocytic tenofovir diphosphate concentrations when switching from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) to tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine (TAF/FTC) in TGD users/nonusers of GAHT...
April 22, 2024: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Mieko Tokano, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuo Imai, Hiroshi Yamaguchi, Masaaki Takeji, Fumito Inayoshi, Keita Okamoto, Nobuhito Okumura, Shigefumi Maesaki
Malignant syphilis (MS) is a rare variant of secondary syphilis. Also known as rupioid syphilis, MS is characterized by the presence of multiple papules, papulopustules, black lamellate crust that may resemble an oyster shell, or nodules with ulceration lacking central clearing. MS is often associated with immunodeficiency and frequently co-occurs with HIV infection. We here report a case of MS in a patient with HIV infection. HIV infection can cause atypical clinical symptoms of syphilis. In this case, unlike previous cases, cutaneous lesions of MS were limited to the face, making the diagnosis challenging based on clinical findings alone...
2024: IDCases
Catalina Argandona Lopez, Amanda M Brown
HIV-infection of microglia and macrophages (MMs) induces neuronal injury and chronic release of inflammatory stimuli through direct and indirect molecular pathways. A large percentage of people with HIV-associated neurologic and psychiatric co-morbidities have high levels of circulating inflammatory molecules. Microglia, given their susceptibility to HIV infection and long-lived nature, are reservoirs for persistent infection. MMs and neurons possess the molecular machinery to detect pathogen nucleic acids and proteins to activate innate immune signals...
2024: Frontiers in Immunology
Cuiming Sun, Ying Wen, Jin Zhou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2024: Frontiers in Oncology
Ethar N Ibrahim, Soha Kannan, Laith Al Habahbeh, Omar H Makhamreh, Eman Khreisat, Martin Kakich, Issa Khoury, Mohammad Abu Kaff, Amro Odah, Anees Hjazeen, Saif A Jabali, Rami Alqroom
Introduction Sharp object injuries in the medical field present a considerable occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs), encompassing a spectrum of consequences from immediate discomfort to enduring health consequences. These injuries may expose HCWs to potential infections. Despite efforts to control sharp object injuries in healthcare environments, they are present at every stage involving using or disposing of medical sharp instruments. In Jordan, limited research has focused on sharp object injuries, with most data included from studies concentrating on practicing nurses or nursing students...
March 2024: Curēus
Shreya H Dhume, Kayode Balogun, Ambalika Sarkar, Sebastian Acosta, Howard T J Mount, Lindsay S Cahill, John G Sled, Lena Serghides
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in pregnancy has been pivotal in improving maternal health and reducing perinatal HIV transmission. However, children born HIV-exposed uninfected fall behind their unexposed peers in several areas including neurodevelopment. The contribution of in utero ART exposure to these deficits is not clear. Here we present our findings of neurocognitive outcomes in adult mice exposed in utero to ART. METHODS: Dams were treated with a combination of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir with either abacavir plus lamivudine (ABC/3TC + ATV/r) or tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine (TDF/FTC + ATV/r), or water as a control, administered daily from day of plug detection to birth...
2024: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Amy Samson, Shaegan Irusen
An HIV-negative 9-year-old female was admitted to the pediatric ward at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa for investigation of a suspected rheumatic disorder complicated by proteinuria. She was subsequently diagnosed with pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by class IV lupus nephritis. Further into her admission, the patient developed hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection with mild clinical symptoms. Three weeks after her initial COVID-19 diagnosis, the patient developed multisystemic inflammatory syndrome...
2024: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Mendrika Fifaliana Rakotoarisaona, Tsiory Iarintsoa Razafimaharo, Fandresena Arilala Sendrasoa, Malalaniaina Andrianarison, Naina Harinjara Razanakoto, Volatantely Tobiniaina Ratovonjanahary, Onivola Raharolahy, Irina Mamisoa Ranaivo, Lala Soavina Ramarozatovo, Fahafahantsoa Rapelanoro Rabenja
BACKGROUND: Leprosy and tuberculosis are two of the oldest and most common mycobacterial infections, caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacteium lepramatosis for leprosy and Mycobacterium tuberculosis for tuberculosis. Dual infections have been known since ancient times; however, cases remain rarely reported in the literature, even in countries where both diseases are endemic, such as Madagascar. PURPOSE: We report a case series of simultaneous occurrence of leprosy and tuberculosis...
2024: Infection and Drug Resistance
Gerald Pierone, Laurence Brunet, Jennifer S Fusco, Cassidy E Henegar, Supriya Sarkar, Jean Van Wyk, Vani Vannappagari, Michael B Wohlfeiler, Gregory P Fusco
PURPOSE: Two-drug regimens (2DR) may address drug-drug interactions and toxicity concerns. Dolutegravir/lamivudine (DTG/3TC) 2DR was approved in the US for both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced individuals with a viral load <50 copies/mL. This study describes real-world DTG/3TC 2DR treatment outcomes among treatment-experienced individuals, stratified by age, sex, and race. METHODS: From the OPERA® cohort, people with HIV with a viral load <50 copies/mL who switched from a commonly used three-drug regimen to DTG/3TC 2DR as per the label between April 8, 2019 and April 30, 2021 were included...
2024: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Mashudu Lucas Bidzha, Nicholas Ngepah, Talita Greyling
Although there is sufficient evidence in the epidemiological literature that antiretroviral treatment (ART) reduces child mortality, there is limited evidence of its effect in the socio-economic determinants of child mortality literature. Furthermore, evidence on the effect of child focused unconditional cash transfers (UCTs) on child mortality is limited, especially in the African context. Using South Africa's provincial level data over the period 2001 to 2019, we evaluate the effect of ART and child focused UCTs on child mortality...
June 2024: SSM—Population Health
Yulia Kvasnevska, Mariia Faustova, Kseniia Voronova, Yaroslav Basarab, Yaroslava Lopatina
INTRODUCTION: Statistical data indicate a link between war and the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), then it is necessary to carefully analyze the factors that directly affect the identified pattern in order to overcome this problem. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to systematically analyze the factors that influence the spread of STIs during war. METHODS: The study included all original research articles and meta-analyses on the impact of war on the spread of sexually transmitted infections that met the following eligibility criteria: (1) articles published exclusively in English; (2) articles published in the period 2013-2023; (3) studies with quantitative, qualitative or mixed design...
2024: Frontiers in Public Health
Judith Ndongo Embola Torimiro, Kerina Duri, Nadège M Goumkwa, Solange M Atah, Juliette-Laure Ndzie Ondigui, Cindy Lobe, Marielle Bouyou, Bénédicte Ndeboko, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Camengo Police, Patrick Awoumou, Puinta Peyonga, Prisca V Djivida, Assah Felix, Godwin W Nchinda, Brigitte Wandji, Rachel K Simo, Sylvie Agnès Moudourou, Ana Gutierrez, Rosi Garcia, Isabelle Fernandez, Evelyn Mah, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Robinson Mbu
The WHO African Region had 81 million people with chronic hepatitis B in 2019, which remains a silent killer. Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis delta virus (HDV), and HIV can be transmitted from the mother to child. If the HBV infection is acquired at infancy, it may lead to chronic hepatitis B in 90% of the cases. WHO reports that 6.4 million children under 5 years live with chronic hepatitis B infection worldwide. The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HBV is therefore critical in the global elimination strategy of viral hepatitis as we take lessons from PMTCT of HIV programs in Africa...
2024: Frontiers in Public Health
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