keyword
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33482682/x-ray-micro-tomosynthesis-of-unstained-pathology-tissue-samples
#1
David T Nguyen, Thomas C Larsen, Muyang Wang, Russel H Knutsen, Zhihong Yang, Eric E Bennett, Dumitru Mazilu, Zu-Xi Yu, Xi Tao, Danielle R Donahue, Ahmed Gharib, Christopher K E Bleck, Joel Moss, Alan T Remaley, Beth A Kozel, Han Wen
In pathology protocols, a tissue block, such as one containing a mouse brain or a biopsy sample from a patient, can produce several hundred thin sections. Substantial time may be required to analyze all sections. In cases of uncertainty regarding which sections to focus on, non-invasive scout imaging of intact blocks can help in guiding the pathology procedure. The scouting step is ideally done in a time window of minutes without special sample preparation that may interfere with the pathology procedures. The challenge is to obtain some visibility of unstained tissue structures at sub-10 μm resolution...
January 22, 2021: Journal of Microscopy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481961/correction-cardiovascular-risk-and-response-to-lipid-lowering-therapy-in-patients-with-hiv-infection-according-to-different-recommendations
#2
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0244675.].
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481933/malaria-and-intestinal-parasite-co-infection-and-its-association-with-anaemia-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-buea-southwest-cameroon-a-community-based-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Sorelle Mekachie Sandie, Irene Ule Ngole Sumbele, Martin Mih Tasah, Helen Kuokuo Kimbi
BACKGROUND: Both malaria and intestinal parasites are endemic in Cameroon, and their co-infection can be of great impact on anaemia among people living with HIV (PLWH). This community-based retrospective cohort study determined the prevalence and association of infections with anaemia in PLWH and HIV-negative individuals in Buea, Cameroon from March to August 2019. METHODS: The study population comprised of 190 PLWH and 216 consenting HIV-negative individuals from the Buea community...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481931/provision-of-hiv-viral-load-testing-services-in-zimbabwe-secondary-data-analyses-using-data-from-health-facilities-using-the-electronic-patient-monitoring-system
#4
Tsitsi Apollo, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Andrew Phillips, Chiratidzo Ndhlovu, Frances M Cowan
INTRODUCTION: Routine viral load (VL) testing among persons living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV) enables earlier detection of sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and for appropriate management of treatment failure. Since adoption of this policy by Zimbabwe in 2016, the extent of implementation is unclear. Therefore we set out to determine among PLHIV ever enrolled on ART from 2004-2017 and in ART care for ≥12 months at health facilities providing ART in Zimbabwe: numbers (proportions) with VL testing uptake, VL suppression and subsequently switched to 2nd-line ART following confirmed virologic failure...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481878/exploring-perceptions-of-low-risk-behaviour-and-drivers-to-test-for-hiv-among-south-african-youth
#5
Tshifhiwa Muravha, Christopher J Hoffmann, Claire Botha, Wellington Maruma, Salome Charalambous, Candice M Chetty-Makkan
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevalence among South African youth is high, yet HIV testing remains suboptimal. We explored how perceptions of HIV risk and behaviours informed decisions to test for HIV. This study was conducted from April 2018 to March 2019 in Ekurhuleni district, Gauteng Province with males and females aged between 15-24 years. Twenty-five youth with unknown HIV status participated in in-depth interviews (IDIs); while four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with those that previously tested for HIV...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481855/integrating-gestational-diabetes-and-type-2-diabetes-care-into-primary-health-care-lessons-from-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv-in-south-africa-a-mixed-methods-study
#6
Jean Claude Mutabazi, Pascal Roland Enok Bonong, Helen Trottier, Lisa Jayne Ware, Shane A Norris, Katherine Murphy, Naomi Levitt, Christina Zarowsky
BACKGROUND: Implementation of the programmes for the Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) into antenatal care over the last three decades could inform implementation of interventions for other health challenges such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study assessed PMTCT outcomes, and how GDM screening, care, and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) prevention were integrated into PMTCT in Western Cape (WC), South Africa. METHODS: A convergent mixed methods and triangulation design were used...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481852/perceived-barriers-to-the-uptake-of-health-services-among-first-year-university-students-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#7
Nozipho Orykah Musakwa, Jacob Bor, Cornelius Nattey, Elisabet Lönnermark, Peter Nyasulu, Lawrence Long, Denise Evans
BACKGROUND: Young people face many barriers to accessing appropriate health care services including screening for HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The study aimed to identify perceived barriers to the uptake of health services among young adults entering the tertiary education system in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among first-year students aged 18-25 years, registered at one of three universities in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2017. Participants completed a self-administered paper-based questionnaire...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481839/renal-function-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-infected-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-an-outpatient-setting-in-ethiopia
#8
Temesgen Fiseha, Angesom Gebreweld
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of abnormal renal function among Ethiopian HIV-infected patients at baseline prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and during follow-up. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study of HIV infected patients who initiated ART at the outpatient ART clinic of Mehal Meda Hospital of North Shewa, Ethiopia from January 2012 to August 2018. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical records of patients...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481813/role-and-effects-of-zinc-supplementation-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-immunovirological-discordance-a-randomized-double-blind-case-control-study
#9
Macarena Silva, Carmen G Montes, Andrea Canals, Maria J Mackenna, Marcelo Wolff
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that between 15% and 18% of patients who start antiretroviral therapy (ART) do not achieve a successful immune recovery despite complete virological suppression. In the literature this phenomenom is known as poor immune recovery or immunovirological discordance (IVD). Zinc has an immunomodulatory role associated with T lymphocytes and its supplementation could enhance immune recovery. OBJECTIVE: To determine if zinc supplementation on IVD patients prevents immune failure after 12 months of supplementation...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481806/gastrointestinal-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-descriptive-and-comparative-study
#10
Mathieu Nacher, Audrey Valdes, Antoine Adenis, Romain Blaizot, Philippe Abboud, Magalie Demar, Félix Djossou, Loïc Epelboin, Caroline Misslin, Balthazar Ntab, Dominique Louvel, Kinan Drak Alsibai, Pierre Couppié
Disseminated histoplasmosis is one the main AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in HIV-infected patients, notably in Latin America. The non-specific and proteiform clinical presentation leads to diagnostic delays that may lead to fatal outcomes. This retrospective multicentric study aimed to describe the frequency and manifestations of gastrointestinal histoplasmosis in French Guiana, and to compare patients with disseminated histoplasmosis with or without gastrointestinal involvement. Between January 1, 1981 and October 1, 2014 co-infections with HIV and histoplasmosis were enrolled...
January 22, 2021: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481787/benign-ethnic-neutropenia-in-a-south-african-population-and-its-association-with-hiv-acquisition-and-adverse-event-reporting-in-an-hiv-vaccine-clinical-trial
#11
Rephaim Mpofu, Kennedy Otwombe, Koleka Mlisana, Maphoshane Nchabeleng, Mary Allen, James Kublin, M Juliana McElrath, Linda-Gail Bekker, Gavin Churchyard, Glenda Gray, Fatima Laher
Benign ethnic neutropenia (BEN) is defined as a neutrophil count of <1.5×109 cells/L in healthy individuals and is more common in populations of certain ethnicities, e.g. African or Middle Eastern ethnicity. Neutrophil values are commonly included in eligibility criteria for research participation, but little is known about the relationship between BEN, HIV acquisition, and the occurrence of adverse events during clinical trials. We investigated these relationships using data from an HIV vaccine efficacy trial of healthy adults from 5 South African sites...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481784/deer-predict-software-for-efficient-calculation-of-spin-labeling-epr-and-nmr-data-from-conformational-ensembles
#12
Giulio Tesei, João M Martins, Micha B A Kunze, Yong Wang, Ramon Crehuet, Kresten Lindorff-Larsen
Owing to their plasticity, intrinsically disordered and multidomain proteins require descriptions based on multiple conformations, thus calling for techniques and analysis tools that are capable of dealing with conformational ensembles rather than a single protein structure. Here, we introduce DEER-PREdict, a software program to predict Double Electron-Electron Resonance distance distributions as well as Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement rates from ensembles of protein conformations. DEER-PREdict uses an established rotamer library approach to describe the paramagnetic probes which are bound covalently to the protein...
January 22, 2021: PLoS Computational Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481776/integrated-psychosocial-economic-strengthening-and-clinical-service-delivery-to-improve-health-and-resilience-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-and-their-caregivers-findings-from-a-prospective-cohort-study-in-zambia
#13
Joseph G Rosen, Lyson Phiri, Mwelwa Chibuye, Edith S Namukonda, Michael T Mbizvo, Nkomba Kayeyi
BACKGROUND: Children and youth are profoundly impacted groups in Zambia's HIV epidemic. To evaluate delivery of integrated psychosocial, economic strengthening, and clinical services to HIV-affected households through the Zambia Family (ZAMFAM) Project, a prospective cohort study compared socio-economic, psychosocial, and health outcomes among ZAMFAM beneficiaries to non-beneficiaries. METHODS: In July-October 2017, 544 adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) aged 5-17 years and their adult caregivers were recruited from Central (ZAMFAM implementation sites) and Eastern (non-intervention sites) Provinces...
2021: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481465/it-cannot-happen-never-a-qualitative-study-exploring-youth-views-on-disclosure-of-hiv-diagnosis-to-their-sexual-partners-in-southern-malawi
#14
Maggie Zgambo, Diana Arabiat, Deborah Ireson
With the availability of antiretroviral therapy, more children living with HIV live longer than before and grow into young adulthood. This study examined the concerns of youth about disclosure of an HIV diagnosis to their sexual partners and attempted to gain an understanding of their HIV status disclosure experiences, views, and plans. A focused ethnography was undertaken. Using semi-structured interviews, data were collected from 20 youth between the ages of 15 and 24 years who were attending an HIV clinic...
January 20, 2021: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481464/purely-behavioral-a-scoping-review-of-nonpharmacological-behavioral-and-lifestyle-interventions-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-in-persons-living-with-hiv
#15
S Raquel Ramos, Olivia M O'Hare, Ailene Hernandez Colon, Susan Kaplan Jacobs, Brynne Campbell, Trace Kershaw, Allison Vorderstrasse, Harmony R Reynolds
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for 900,000 deaths annually. People living with HIV are at a higher risk of developing CVD. We conducted a scoping review guided by the Joanna Briggs Institute Manual for Evidence Synthesis. In July 2020, six databases were searched: PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, as well as reference lists of relevant studies and key journals...
January 20, 2021: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481463/telehealth-exercise-intervention-in-older-adults-with-hiv-protocol-of-a-multisite-randomized-trial
#16
Krisann K Oursler, Vincent C Marconi, Brandon C Briggs, John D Sorkin, Alice S Ryan
People with HIV (PWH) have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, but a high intensity, easily disseminated exercise program has not yet been successfully developed in older PWH. The purpose of this article is to describe a synchronous telehealth exercise intervention in older PWH, delivered from one medical center to two other centers. Eighty older PWH (≥50 years) on antiretroviral therapy will be randomized to exercise or delayed entry control groups. Functional circuit exercise training, which does not entail stationary equipment, will be provided by real-time videoconferencing, 3 times weekly for 12 weeks, to small groups...
January 20, 2021: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481359/preference-for-using-a-variety-of-future-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-products-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-three-us-cities
#17
Gordon Mansergh, Krishna Kiran Kota, Rob Stephenson, Sabina Hirshfield, Patrick Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is available and recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM) at risk for HIV infection. Other HIV prevention products are being developed, including long-acting injectable (LAI) and event-based oral and topical formulations. Understanding preferences for potential products by MSM can help direct further development of prevention messaging. METHODS: We present baseline data from HIV-negative participants enrolled in the US Mobile Messaging for Men (M-cubed) Study...
January 2021: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33481034/assessment-of-knowledge-of-hiv-aids-and-association-with-socioeconomic-disparities-among-young-women-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-2003-to-2018
#18
Fan Yang, Zhihui Li, S V Subramianian, Chunling Lu
Importance: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among the younger population is crucial for long-term control. Little research has been done on which groups of young women (aged 15-24 years) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have been left behind with respect to obtaining this knowledge. Objective: To provide an up-to-date assessment of the levels of and changes in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and its associations with socioeconomic disparity among young women in LMICs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys with available data on HIV/AIDS knowledge in 51 LMICs between 2003 and 2018...
January 4, 2021: JAMA Network Open
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33480667/intraocular-silicone-oil-removed-after-23-years-in-situ-clinicopathologic-correlation
#19
Yingna Liu, M D Özgü Canbolat, Greg J Bever, Jay M Stewart
PURPOSE: To report the clinicopathologic correlation and biochemical analysis of silicone oil removed after 23 years in an eye. METHODS: A 63-year-old man with a history of HIV/AIDS and CMV retinitis, status post retinal detachment repair with silicone oil at the age of 39 years old, presented with several weeks of worse vision. He was found to have a shallow fovea-off tractional retinal detachment. After the silicone oil was removed during retinal detachment repair, it was analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
January 18, 2021: Retina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33480662/preterm-birth-and-antiretroviral-exposure-in-infants-hiv-exposed-uninfected
#20
Micah Piske, Annie Q Qiu, Evelyn J Maan, Laura J Sauvé, John C Forbes, Ariane Alimenti, Patricia A Janssen, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
BACKGROUND: Infants HIV-exposed and uninfected (IHEU) who are born to women living with HIV are at an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB). Antenatal exposure to certain maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens has been associated with PTB, although existing studies in this domain are limited and report discordant findings. We determined odds of PTB among IHEU by antenatal ART regimens and timing of exposure, adjusting for maternal risk factors. METHODS: We retrospectively studied IHEU born in British Columbia (BC), Canada between 1990 and 2012 utilizing provincial health administrative databases...
January 21, 2021: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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