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HIV

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/32227745/utilisation-of-medical-services-and-outcomes-at-adult-rape-clinic-at-parirenyatwa-group-of-hospitals-zimbabwe
#1
Kudzai Kufa, Tapiwa Magure, Gerald Shambira, Notion Tafara Gombe, Tsitsi Patience Juru, Peter Nsubuga, Margaret Borok, Virginia Iliff, Timothy Mushambi, Mafuta Tshimanga
Sexual violence is a major public health problem due to the associated risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, behavioural disorders and risk of committing suicide. The Adult Rape Clinic (ARC) was established at Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare in 2009 with the objective of providing medical and support services for survivors of sexual violence in a safe and private environment. The data collected had never been analysed since the establishment of the clinic. We described the clients' profile and the services offered at the clinic to identify gaps in service provision and areas of improvement...
December 2019: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32227737/experiences-of-hiv-infected-mothers-regarding-exclusive-breast-feeding-in-the-first-six-months-of-the-infant-s-life-in-mangaung-south-africa
#2
Selloane Phakisi, Johanna M Mathibe-Neke
In 2011, the Department of Health in South Africa committed to promote, support and protect breast-feeding. Subsequently, the supply of free formula milk to HIV-infected mothers was discontinued, with these mothers encouraged to breast-feed. This was also in compliance with the WHO's call for countries to adopt a single-feeding practice for HIV-infected mothers. This study explored the experiences of HIV-infected mothers regarding exclusive breast-feeding in the first six months following an infant's birth...
December 2019: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32227124/hiv-2-a-summary-of-present-standard-of-care-and-treatment-options-for-hiv-2-infected-individuals-living-in-western-europe
#3
Dirk Berzow, Diane Descamps, Martin Obermeier, Charlotte Charpentier, Rolf Kaiser, Lutz Guertler, Josef Eberle, Annemarie Wensing, Saleta Sierra, Jean Ruelle, Perpetua Gomes, Kamal Mansinho, Ninon Taylor, Björn Jensen, Matthias Döring, Martin Stürmer, Jürgen Rockstroh, Ricardo Camacho
HIV-2 infection is endemic in some countries in West Africa. Due to the lower prevalence in industrialized countries, there is limited experience and knowledge on management of HIV-2 infected individuals in Europe. Compared to HIV-1, there are differential characteristics of HIV-2 regarding diagnostic procedures, clinical course and, most importantly, antiretroviral therapy. We integrated the published literature on HIV-2 (studies and reports on epidemiology, diagnostics, clinical course, treatment) as well as expert experience in diagnosing and clinical care of HIV-2 infected to provide recommendations for a present standard of medical care of HIV- infected in Western European countries, including an overview of strategies for diagnosis, monitoring and treatment, with suggestions for effective drug combinations for first- and second line treatment, post-exposure prophylaxis and prevention of mother-to-child transmission as well as listings of mutations related to HIV-2 drug resistance- and CCR5/CRCX4 co-receptor tropism...
March 30, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32227115/long-term-experience-and-outcomes-of-programmatic-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-2-infection-in-senegal-west-africa
#4
Dana N Raugi, Selly Ba, Ousseynou Cisse, Khardiata Diallo, Ibrahima Tito Tamba, Cheikh Ndour, Ndeye Mery Dia Badiane, Louise Fortes, Mouhamadou Baïla Diallo, Dominique Faye, Robert A Smith, Fatima Sall, Macoumba Toure, ElHadji Ibrahima Sall, Habibatou Diallo Agne, Khadim Faye, Jean Philippe Diatta, Marie Pierre Sy, Ming Chang, Binetou Diaw, Jacques Sambou, Raphael Bakhoum, Mame Demba Sy, Alassane Niang, Jean Jacques Malomar, Robert W Coombs, Stephen E Hawes, Ibra Ndoye, Nancy B Kiviat, Papa Salif Sow, Moussa Seydi, Geoffrey S Gottlieb
INTRODUCTION: Programmatic treatment outcome data for people living with HIV-2 in West Africa, where the virus is most prevalent, are scarce. METHODS: HIV-2-infected adults initiating or receiving ART through the Senegalese national AIDS program were invited to participate in this prospective, longitudinal observational cohort study. We analyzed HIV-2 viral loads, CD4 counts, antiretroviral drug resistance, loss to follow up, and mortality. We also examined changes in treatment guidelines over time and assessed progress toward UNAIDS' 90-90-90 targets for HIV-2...
March 30, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32227092/hiv-2-treatment-guidelines-are-we-there-yet
#5
Elizabeth R Jenny-Avital
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2020: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226915/vitamin-d-level-and-it-is-association-with-the-severity-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-patients-attended-to-kosti-teaching-hospital-sudan
#6
Samah Sidahmed M S Elsafi, Bakri Mohammed Nour, Adam Dawoud Abakar, Izzedeen Haroun Omer, Babiker Saad Almugadam
Globally, tuberculosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Previous studies suggest that the incidence and severity of tuberculosis are associated with low levels of vitamin D (Vit D). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the occurrence and associated factors of vitamin D3 deficiency in pulmonary tuberculosis patients at White Nile State, Sudan. 101 individuals of diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients (71 males and 30 females) and 100 non-TB controls (58 males and 42 females) were included in this study...
2020: AIMS Microbiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226766/rosai-dorfman-disease-and-superinfection-due-to-salmonella-enterica-and-mycobacterium-avium-complex-in-a-patient-living-with-hiv
#7
Alejandro Olmedo-Reneaum, Aaron Molina-Jaimes, Eliezer Conde-Vazquez, Stefania Montero-Vazquez
Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) a rare, non-malignant disease of histiocytic proliferation usually presents as a painless lymphadenopathy. It has been associated with autoimmune diseases, viral infections, and malignancies. Management is the treatment of underlying disease. Here we present the case of a patient with HIV infection who presented with massive splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy.
2020: IDCases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226763/intramedullary-spinal-cord-lesions-in-an-immunocompromised-host-due-to-mycobacterium-haemophilum
#8
Shelley Kon, Carlos Franco-Paredes, Kellie L Hawkins
Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slow growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) group. M. haemophilum typically causes cervicofacial lymphadenitis in children, cutaneous diseases, septic arthritis and osteomyelitis. However, it rarely causes isolated spinal cord disease. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of isolated intramedullary spinal lesions secondary to M. haemophilum . This case involved a patient with newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)...
2020: IDCases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226759/a-fatal-case-of-severe-systemic-varicella-zoster-infection-in-a-patient-with-chronic-use-of-immunosuppressive-agents-for-cutaneous-vasculitis
#9
Wei-Chen Lin, Ching Chang, Meng-Cheng Ko, Shu-Min Lin
Acute varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection is a common condition in children, which is considered a mild, self-limited disease with diffuse skin vesicular rash. However, disseminated VZV infection with multiple organ involvement can occur in immunocompromised patients with impaired T cell immunity including solid or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, receiving immunosuppressive therapy, leukemia, lymphoma, and HIV infection. Prompt antiviral therapy is mandatory in those immunocompromised persons...
2020: IDCases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226753/a-young-child-with-hiv-and-unsteady-gait-a-case-report
#10
Nadine Yazbeck, Yolla Youssef, Rima Hanna-Wakim
Background: We would like to raise awareness about the toxicities related to the added excipients present in the oral solution of Liponavir/ritonavir in particular alcohol and propylene glycol. Case presentation: In this case report, we describe an 18 month-old child with a newly diagnosed HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART). She developed shortly after starting the ART unsteady gait and imbalance. Conclusions: The excipient-excipient interaction in Lopinavir/ritonavir may contribute to major toxicities not only in premature neonates and infants; but also in older children specifically from Asian ethnicity...
2020: IDCases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226048/cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-hiv-infected-individuals-comparison-with-general-adult-control-population-in-greece
#11
Giota Touloumi, Natasa Kalpourtzi, Vasileios Papastamopoulos, Vasilios Paparizos, Georgios Adamis, Anastasia Antoniadou, Maria Chini, Argiro Karakosta, Konstantinos Makrilakis, Magda Gavana, Apostolos Vantarakis, Mina Psichogiou, Simeon Metallidis, Nikolaos V Sipsas, Helen Sambatakou, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Paraskevi V Voulgari, George Chrysos, Charalambos Gogos, Grigoris Chlouverakis, Grigoris Tripsianis, Yannis Alamanos, George Stergiou
BACKGROUND: Although combined antiretroviral therapy has substantially improved the prognosis of people living with HIV (PLHIV), mortality remains higher compared to the general population, mainly due to higher prevalence of non-HIV-related comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We assessed the prevalence of CVD risk and its contributing factors in adult PLHIV versus general population controls in Greece. SETTINGS: Cross-sectional comparison of PLHIV (Athens-Multicenter-AIDS-Cohort-Study; AMACS) versus general population controls (National health examination survey; EMENO)...
2020: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226042/gender-based-vulnerability-in-women-who-inject-drugs-in-a-harm-reduction-setting
#12
Jorge Valencia, Alejandro Alvaro-Meca, Jesús Troya, Jorge Gutiérrez, Cristina Ramón, Antonio Rodríguez, Sonia Vázquez-Morón, Salvador Resino, Santiago Moreno, Pablo Ryan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In comparison with men, women who use drugs (WWUD) have considerably more frequent and intense experiences with interpersonal violence, sexual abuse and trauma. The aim of this study was to identify issues related to gender-based vulnerability in a group of WWUD attended in a harm reduction facility in Madrid, Spain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a screening of blood borne infections. We included WWUD (smoked or injected heroin/cocaine) who were actively screened for HIV, HBV and HCV in a harm reduction setting in Madrid (Spain) from January to December 2017...
2020: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32226033/metabolic-syndrome-biochemical-markers-and-body-composition-in-youth-living-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-on-antiretroviral-treatment
#13
Linda Aurpibul, Sirianong Namwongprom, Tavitiya Sudjaritruk, Sakaewan Ounjaijean
People living with HIV who are on antiretroviral treatment are at increased risk of developing premature cardiovascular disease. Children with perinatal HIV infection (PHIV) have survived through their adolescence and are entering adulthood. We determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abnormal biochemical markers, and characterized body composition parameters in youth living with perinatal HIV infection. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand from December 2017 to February 2018...
2020: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32225045/adaptation-of-a-health-education-program-for-improving-the-uptake-of-hiv-self-testing-by-men-in-rwanda-a-study-protocol
#14
Tafadzwa Dzinamarira, Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson
Background and objectives: Available evidence shows a low uptake of HIV services among men in Rwanda. HIV self-testing (HIVST), a new intervention, may have the potential to improve the uptake of HIV testing services among men. The current study aims to adapt a health education program (HEP) for improving the uptake of HIVST among men in Rwanda. Materials and Methods : We propose a mixed method study, which will be conducted in four phases. In Phase 1, we will conduct a scoping review to map the available evidence on health education programs for men in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
March 26, 2020: Medicina
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224717/expression-of-programmed-cell-death-proteins-in-kaposi-sarcoma-and-cutaneous-angiosarcoma
#15
Thilo Gambichler, Sonja Koim, Malwina Wrobel, Heiko U Käfferlein, Thomas Brüning, Eggert Stockfleth, Jürgen C Becker, Kerstin Lang
Not only for cutaneous angiosarcoma (CAS) patients but also for advanced and therapy-refractory patients with classic Kaposi sarcoma (CKS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (HIV-KS) there is a high need for more effective treatment modalities. The aim of this work was to study programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein expression and related immune parameters in CKS, HIV-KS, and CAS and correlate it with other immunologic parameters and clinical data...
March 27, 2020: Journal of Immunotherapy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224502/immune-reconstruction-inflammatory-syndrome-in-hiv-infection-beyond-what-meets-the-eye
#16
Irini Sereti
A high proportion of individuals with HIV infection currently are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease (late presenters), increasing their risk for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS typically occurs within 6 months of initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients with low CD4+ cell counts and can occur before any marked elevation in CD4+ count is achieved on ART. In addition to low CD4+ count at ART initiation, 2 other major clinical predictors of IRIS are preexisting opportunistic infection (including subclinical infection) and shorter treatment period for opportunistic infection prior to starting ART...
January 2020: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224501/aging-and-hiv-infection-focus-on-cardiovascular-disease-risk
#17
Judith A Aberg
Effective antiretroviral therapy has extended life expectancy for individuals with HIV. Estimates from 2015 indicate that 47% of persons with HIV in the US were older than 50 years of age and 16% were older than 65 years. These older patients are at increased risk of age-related diseases and conditions. Further, there is substantial evidence that patients with HIV infection accumulate age-related conditions earlier than do those in the general population. There is risk for increased comorbidities and polypharmacy in the aging HIV-infected population...
January 2020: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224500/therapeutic-hiv-vaccines-and-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#18
Magdalena E Sobieszczyk
Therapeutic vaccines and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) represent potential approaches to antiretroviral-free treatment of HIV. Although therapeutic vaccines have been able to produce transient reductions in viral load during analytic treatment interruptions (ATIs), thus far none has been able to induce long-term remission. Pairing with latency reversal agents and immune modulators may improve vaccine efficacy. The bNAbs are investigated as a promising approach to achieving durable virologic control in the absence of antiretroviral therapy...
January 2020: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224499/advances-toward-a-cure-for-hiv-getting-beyond-n-2
#19
Jonathan Li
Achieving a cure for HIV remains a priority in HIV research. Two cases of 'sterilizing cure' have been observed-in Timothy Ray Brown and the "London" patient; both patients received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from donors homozygous for the CCR5-delta 32 deletion, which impairs function of an HIV coreceptor on host cells. Other strategies that have been evaluated for achieving sterilizing cure or functional cure--ie, sustained virologic remission in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-include: HSCT with wild-type CC chemokine receptor (CCR5); early ART to limit size of the HIV latent reservoir; shock and kill strategies using latency reversing agents and/or anti-HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies; and gene therapy, including attempts to modify CCR5 genes, HIV proviruses in autologous host cells, or enhanced T cells...
January 2020: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/32224493/innovative-approaches-to-obtain-minors-consent-for-biomedical-hiv-prevention-trials-multi-site-quasi-experimental-study-of-adolescent-and-parent-perspectives
#20
Amelia Knopf, Mary A Ott, Claire Burke Draucker, J Dennis Fortenberry, Daniel H Reirden, Renata Arrington-Sanders, John Schneider, Diane Straub, Rebecca Baker, Giorgos Bakoyannis, Gregory D Zimet
BACKGROUND: Despite the high burden of new HIV infections in minor adolescents, they are often excluded from biomedical HIV prevention trials, largely owing to the ethical complexities of obtaining consent for enrollment. Researchers and ethics regulators have a duty to protect adolescents-as a special category of human subjects, they must have protection that extends beyond those afforded to all human subjects. Typically, additional protection includes parental consent for enrollment...
March 30, 2020: JMIR Research Protocols
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