Esther Awazzi Envuladu, Karlijn Massar, John de Wit
BACKGROUND: Adolescents should have access to high quality and responsive sexual and reproductive health, however, it is unclear to what extent the national policy on health and development of adolescent is implemented by health care workers in Plateau State. This study assessed the general availability of sexual and reproductive health services, the delivery of responsive adolescent sexual and reproductive health services and health care worker?s understanding of what constitutes adolescent responsive sexual and reproductive health services...
March 25, 2023: BMC Women's Health
Liping Deng, Qian Li, Wenjia Hu, Xiaoping Chen, Tielong Chen, Shihui Song, Pingzheng Mo, Shi Zou, Yongxi Zhang, Shicheng Gao, Liangjun Chen, Ke Zhuang, Rongrong Yang, Yong Xiong
To evaluate clinical value of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) who had CNS disorders. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 48 PLWHA presenting with CNS disorders were sequenced using mNGS and compared with clinical conventional diagnostic methods. In total, 36/48 ss(75%) patients were diagnosed with pathogen(s) infection by mNGS, and the positive detection proportion by mNGS was higher than that by clinical conventional diagnostic methods (75% vs 52.1%, X2  = 5...
March 25, 2023: Scientific Reports
Sharif Karim Sayyed, Marzuqa Quraishi, Renitta Jobby, Neelamegam Rameshkumar, Nagarajan Kayalvizhi, Muthukalingan Krishnan, Tareeka Sonawane
AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is one of the chronic and potentially life-threatening epidemics across the world. Hitherto, the non-existence of definitive drugs that could completely cure the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) implies an urgent necessity for the discovery of novel anti-HIV agents. Since integration is the most crucial stage in retroviral replication, hindering it can inhibit overall viral transmission. The 5 FDA-approved integrase inhibitors were computationally investigated, especially owing to the rising multiple mutations against their susceptibility...
March 26, 2023: Archives of Microbiology
Cas J Isfordink, Anders Boyd, Rachel Sacks-Davis, Daniela K van Santen, Colette Smit, Marianne Martinello, Mark Stoove, Juan Berenguer, Linda Wittkop, Marina B Klein, Andri Rauch, Dominique Salmon, Karine Lacombe, Ashleigh Stewart, Janke Schinkel, Joseph S Doyle, Margaret Hellard, Marc van der Valk, Gail V Matthews
BACKGROUND: Individuals with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) who remain untreated with direct-acting antivirals can contribute to HCV transmission and HCV-related mortality. We aimed to compare rates of uptake of direct-acting antivirals following unrestricted access to this treatment in high-income countries and examine factors associated with remaining untreated. METHODS: This multinational, prospective cohort study used data from the International Collaboration on Hepatitis C Elimination in HIV Cohorts (InCHEHC)...
April 2023: Lancet. Public Health
Priya Venkatesan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2023: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Amit P Khandhar, Chelsea D Landon, Jacob Archer, Kyle Krieger, Nikole L Warner, Samantha Randall, Bryan J Berube, Jesse H Erasmus, D Noah Sather, Herman F Staats
Mother-to-child transmission is a major route for infections in newborns. Vaccination in mothers to leverage the maternal immune system is a promising approach to vertically transfer protective immunity. During infectious disease outbreaks, such as the 2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak, rapid availability of vaccines can prove critical in reducing widespread disease burden. The recent successes of mRNA vaccines support their evaluation in pregnant animal models to justify their use in neonatal settings. Here we evaluated immunogenicity of self-amplifying replicon (repRNA) vaccines, delivered with our clinical-stage LION nanoparticle formulation, in pregnant rabbits using ZIKV and HIV-1 as model disease targets...
March 16, 2023: Molecular Therapy
Xiaoman Wang, Jiaan Sun, Chong Fu, Chang Liu
The Protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha (PPP1CA) is a alpha subunit of the PP1 complex, which known to be involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes, such as cell division, glycogen metabolism, muscle contractility, protein synthesis, and HIV-1 viral transcription. Increased PP1 activity has been observed in the end stage of heart failure. Here, a PPP1CA knockout human embryonic stem cell line, WAe009-A-B, was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to further study the function of PPP1CA...
March 21, 2023: Stem Cell Research
Sergio M de Almeida, Miriam Perlingeiro Beltrame, Bin Tang, Indianara Rotta, Julie Lilian P Justus, Yara Schluga, Maria Tadeu da Rocha, Edna Martins, Antony Liao, Ian Abramson, Florin Vaida, Rachel Schrier, Ronald J Ellis
The transactivator of transcription (Tat) is a HIV regulatory protein which promotes viral replication and chemotaxis. HIV-1 shows extensive genetic diversity, HIV-1 subtype C being the most dominant subtype in the world. Our hypothesis is the frequency of CSF CD3+ CD56+ and CD3- CD56dim is reduced in HIV-1C compared to HIV-1B due to the Tat C30S31 substitution in HIV-1C. 34 CSF and paired blood samples (PWH, n = 20; PWoH, n = 14) were studied. In PWH, the percentage of CD3+ CD56+ was higher in CSF than in blood (p < 0...
March 17, 2023: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Naw Wah Wah, Yingting Mok, Noorjehan Omar, Kenneth Tou En Chang, Timothy Kwan Yong Tay, Susan Swee-Shan Hue, Victor Kwan Min Lee
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumors (EBV-SMTs) are rare smooth muscle neoplasms exclusively associated with immunosuppression, such as in patients with HIV/AIDS, posttransplant, and congenital immunodeficiency. However, the genomic landscape of EBV-SMTs is poorly understood. Leiomyosarcomas harbor genomic instability and multiple recurrent DNA copy number alterations, whereas leiomyomas lack such changes. Thus, this study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by characterizing copy number alterations in EBV-SMTs and correlating this information with clinicopathologic characteristics...
February 10, 2023: Modern Pathology
Shaohua Xu, Huicheng Yuan, Ling Li, Kai Yang, Liangcun Zhao
Development of a robust diagnostic test for patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis (HIV/TB) is urgently needed. We believe N6-methyladenosine (m6A)- related long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) from the host blood could be utilized to diagnose patients co-infected with HIV/TB. In this study, differentially expressed analysis, correlation analysis, univariate logistic regression, and logistic regression with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) were performed in RNA-Seq dataset containing of 14 HIV/TB co-infected subjects and 11 HIV mono-infected subjects...
March 21, 2023: Tuberculosis
Leonardo Roever, Gary Tse, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 25, 2023: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Nahyeni Bassah, Lisa Vaughn, Anna Santos Salas
AIMS: To map evidence on the nature and extent of use of nurse-led palliative care models in low- and middle-income countries serving adults with life-limiting conditions. DESIGN: A scoping review of the literature was undertaken. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search was performed from database inception to March 2022 in: Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Wiley Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, SciELO and Global Health. Main search terms included: Nurse-led AND Palliative care AND Low-and middle-income countries...
March 25, 2023: Journal of Advanced Nursing
David James Field, John de Wit, Martin P Davoren, Eilis J O'Reilly, Chantal Den Daas
Chemsex is common among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM). Although not always categorised as problematic, a link with psychological distress has been reported and might be exacerbated amongst gbMSM living with HIV, as HIV has been associated with anxiety and depression. A cross-sectional online survey of gbMSM living with HIV (n = 359) was performed incorporating the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and sociodemographic variables including, HIV characteristics, chemsex and sexual behaviours...
March 25, 2023: AIDS and Behavior
Susan Vorkoper, Nadia A Sam-Agudu, Linda-Gail Bekker, Rachel Sturke
Eliminating adolescent HIV in high-burden African countries depends on the success of implementing evidence-based interventions to reduce transmission and improve treatment outcomes. The Adolescent HIV Prevention and Treatment Implementation Science Alliance (AHISA) takes a collaborative approach to addressing key challenges and identifying and developing new areas of investigation to advance the adolescent HIV agenda. This special supplement represents the collective learning of the Alliance related to implementation science in the context of the adolescent HIV continuum of care from multiple African countries...
March 25, 2023: AIDS and Behavior
Gregory Carter, Brennan Woodward, Jessica Campbell, Anita Ohmit
HIV continues to impact people of color disproportionately. In 2015, Black Americans accounted for 42% of those living with HIV, and Latinx individuals accounted for 30% of new diagnoses. Using a sample of 364 people of color, demographic data, HIV testing history, and interactions with health care providers were collected. Over half of the participants (59.3%) had never been offered an HIV test, and only 19% reported a provider had offered an HIV test once, followed by 14% who have had a provider offer an HIV test more than once...
March 25, 2023: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Cyrus Mutie, Salome Kairu-Wanyoike, Susan Mambo, Reagan Ngoge, John Gachohi
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, long-distance truck drivers (LDTDs) using the Northern Corridor highway have a high prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to their risky sexual networks. However, the spatial distribution of the sexual network locations used by LDTDs is not well understood. Consequently, healthcare stakeholders have found it difficult to provide spatially targeted HIV/STI interventions among LDTDs. Thus, the study sought to establish the spatial distribution of sexual network locations used by LDTDs along the Northern Corridor highway, to inform efficient distribution and use of limited HIV/STI-prevention resources...
March 25, 2023: International Health
Catriona Ida Macleod, John Hunter Reynolds, Richard Delate
Women who sell sex (WSS) are vulnerable to violence. We present a scoping review of the last decade of research on the prevalence and incidence of, factors associated with, and services regarding violence against WSS in Eastern and Southern African (ESA). A systematic search of various databases resulted in 20 papers being reviewed. Inclusion criteria, applied by the first two authors, were as follows: empirical papers, key research problem is violence against WSS, and conducted in ESA countries. The lifetime prevalence of violence revealed in the studies ranged from 21% to 82%...
March 25, 2023: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Hagar Saleem, Nevine Waly, Fatma Abdelgawad
BACKGROUND: Health care professionals including dental staff are at greater risk of occupational exposure to life threatened blood-borne pathogens. Occupational exposures will continue to occur despite improved techniques of prevention and using the post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in these situations are of great importance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of post exposure prophylaxis for fifth year dental students at a private Egyptian university...
March 24, 2023: BMC Oral Health
Tafere Birlie Ayele, Yikeber Abebaw Moyehodie
BACKGROUNDS: Preterm birth is defined as babies born alive before 37 weeks of pregnancy or fewer than 259 days since the first day of a woman's last menstrual period. Globally, 14.84 million babies were preterm births. Preterm infants are at risk for specific diseases related to the immaturity of various organ systems. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of preterm birth and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in public hospitals of east Gojjam zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 up to June 30, 2021, in public hospitals in the east Gojjam zone...
March 24, 2023: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Alex Dubov, Douglas S Krakower, Nicholas Rockwood, Susanne Montgomery, Steven Shoptaw
BACKGROUND: Multiple HIV outbreaks among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) have occurred in the USA since 2015, highlighting the need for additional HIV prevention tools. Despite high levels of need, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is drastically underutilized among PWIDs. Implicit bias toward PWID held by clinicians may impede PrEP scale-up among these underserved patients. This study examined how primary care providers' (PCPs) clinical decisions related to PrEP can be impacted by biases when the patient has a history of substance use...
March 24, 2023: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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