Gordon Mansergh, Krishna Kiran Kota, Neal Carnes, Deb Gelaude
BACKGROUND: An important subgroup of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) with behavioral indications refuse daily oral PrEP when recommended by a provider. Emerging HIV prophylaxis products (e.g., injectable, event-driven) offer more options to MSM who refuse daily PrEP. Herein we assess reasons for refusal and likelihood to use various products among MSM who refused PrEP. METHODS: MSM who reported anal sex without condoms or PrEP and refused daily oral PrEP in the past 6 months were recruited through clinics, community venues, and online in Atlanta, Chicago, and Raleigh-Durham...
November 24, 2022: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Haley K Holmer, Katherine Mackey, Celia V Fiordalisi, Mark Helfand
BACKGROUND: The durability of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of antibodies in protection against reinfection are unclear. PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response and reinfection risk with a focus on gaps identified in our prior reports. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, CINAHL, World Health Organization Research Database, and reference lists from 16 December 2021 through 8 July 2022, with surveillance through 22 August 2022...
November 29, 2022: Annals of Internal Medicine
Christopher W Kahler, Tim Janssen, Susan Gruber, Chanelle J Howe, M Barton Laws, Justin Walthers, Molly Magill, Nadine R Mastroleo, Peter M Monti
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relative importance of client change language subtypes as predictors of alcohol use following motivational interviewing (MI). METHOD: Participants were 164 heavy drinkers (57.3% female, M age = 28.5 years, 13.4% Hispanic/Latinx, 82.9% White) recruited during an emergency department visit who received MI for alcohol and human immunodeficiency virus/sexual risk in a randomized-controlled trial. MI sessions were coded with the motivational interviewing skill code (MISC) and the generalized behavioral intervention analysis system (GBIAS)...
November 28, 2022: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors
Georgina Spies, Melanie Deist, Sharain Suliman, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: The HIV Neurobehavioral Research Center International Neurobehavioral Battery is a culturally valid battery sensitive to the neurocognitive (NC) effects of HIV-infection. However, its lengthy administration time makes the battery impractical in resource-limited settings, like South Africa, which are often faced with an overwhelming disease burden, a lack of neurological and neuropsychological (NP) expertise, and staff shortages. The present study therefore sought to develop an abbreviated version of the HNRC Battery and validate this battery in a sample of people with HIV (PWH) in South Africa...
November 28, 2022: Neuropsychology
Haluk Damgacioglu, Yueh-Yun Lin, Ana Patricia Ortiz, Chi-Fang Wu, Zahed Shahmoradi, Shiang Shiuan Shyu, Ruosha Li, Alan G Nyitray, Keith Sigel, Gary M Clifford, Naomi Jay, Vivian Colon Lopez, Gregory M Barnell, Elizabeth Y Chiao, Elizabeth A Stier, Karen J Ortiz-Ortiz, Jeslie M Ramos-Cartagena, Kalyani Sonawane, Ashish A Deshmukh
PURPOSE: Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) incidence and mortality rates are rising in the United States. Understanding state-level incidence and mortality patterns and associations with smoking and AIDS prevalence (key risk factors) could help unravel disparities and provide etiologic clues. METHODS: Using the US Cancer Statistics and the National Center for Health Statistics data sets, we estimated state-level SCCA incidence and mortality rates. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated to compare incidence and mortality in 2014-2018 versus 2001-2005...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jan Clement Santiago, Scott V Adams, Andrea Towlerton, Fred Okuku, Warren Phipps, James I Mullins
Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a common HIV-associated malignancy, presents a range of clinicopathological features. Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is its etiologic agent, but the contribution of viral genomic variation to KS development is poorly understood. To identify potentially influential viral polymorphisms, we characterized KSHV genetic variation in 67 tumors from 1-4 distinct sites from 29 adults with advanced KS in Kampala, Uganda. Whole KSHV genomes were sequenced from 20 tumors with the highest viral load, whereas only polymorphic genes were screened by PCR and sequenced from 47 other tumors...
November 28, 2022: PLoS Pathogens
Ayinalem Alemu, Zebenay Workneh Bitew, Getachew Seid, Getu Diriba, Emebet Gashu, Nega Berhe, Solomon H Mariam, Balako Gumi
BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 overwhelmed tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control, resulting in a decrease in TB detection rate and an increase in TB deaths. Furthermore, the temporary immunosuppressive effects, lung inflammation, and the corticosteroids used to treat COVID-19, may play a direct role in immunosuppression, leading to reactivation of either previous infection or latent TB or the development of new TB. Thus, the aim of this study was to review TB incidence in individuals who recovered from COVID-19...
2022: PloS One
Donrich Thaldar, Bonginkosi Shozi, Michaela Steytler, Gill Hendry, Marietjie Botes, Ntokozo Mnyandu, Meshandren Naidoo, Siddharthiya Pillay, Magda Slabbert, Beverley Townsend
This paper reports the results of a public engagement study on heritable human genome editing (HHGE) carried out in South Africa, which was conducted in accordance with a study protocol that was published in this journal in 2021. This study is novel as it is the first public engagement study on HHGE in Africa. It used a deliberative public engagement (DPE) methodology, entailing inter alia that measures were put in place to ensure that potential participants became informed about HHGE, and that deliberations between the participants were facilitated with the aim of seeking consensus...
2022: PloS One
Mabel Padilla, Mariana Gutierrez, Jennifer Fagan
BACKGROUND: The Medical Monitoring Qualitative (MMP-Qual) Project was designed to collect qualitative data from people with HIV not engaged in medical care that would complement quantitative data collected by the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP)-a national surveillance system-and inform the MMP's recruitment and data collection methods. OBJECTIVE: Our objectives were to describe the methodology of this project, reflect on the challenges and lessons learned from conducting qualitative telephone interviews at a national level, and describe how we used and plan to use the qualitative data to evaluate our recruitment procedures and quantitative data collection instrument as well as knowledge of HIV care engagement...
November 28, 2022: JMIR Research Protocols
Filip Gedin, Sebastian Blomé, Moa Pontén, Maria Lalouni, Jens Fust, Andreé Raquette, Viktor Vadenmark Lundquist, William H Thompson, Karin Jensen
IMPORTANCE: Persistent pain is a common and disabling health problem that is often difficult to treat. There is an increasing interest in medicinal cannabis for treatment of persistent pain; however, the limited superiority of cannabinoids over placebo in clinical trials suggests that positive expectations may contribute to the improvements. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the size of placebo responses in randomized clinical trials in which cannabinoids were compared with placebo in the treatment of pain and to correlate these responses to objective estimates of media attention...
November 1, 2022: JAMA Network Open
Richard A Hartz, Li Xu, Sing-Yuen Sit, Jie Chen, Brian L Venables, Zeyu Lin, Sharon Zhang, Zhufang Li, Dawn Parker, Tara S Simmons, Susan Jenkins, Umesh M Hanumegowda, Ira Dicker, Mark Krystal, Nicholas A Meanwell, Alicia Regueiro-Ren
An investigation of the structure-activity relationships of a series of HIV-1 maturation inhibitors (MIs) based on GSK3640254 ( 4 ) was conducted by incorporating novel C-17 amine substituents to reduce the overall basicity of the resultant analogues. We found that replacement of the distal amine on the C-17 sidechain present in 4 with a tertiary alcohol in combination with either a heterocyclic ring system or a cyclohexyl ring substituted with polar groups provided potent wild-type HIV-1 MIs that also retained excellent potency against a T332S/V362I/prR41G variant, a laboratory strain that served as a surrogate to assess HIV-1 polymorphic virus coverage...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Zhenyan Wang, Min Zhang, Jiangrong Wang, Li Liu, Jun Chen, Renfang Zhang, Yang Tang, Yinzhong Shen, Tangkai Qi, Wei Song, Jianjun Sun, Shuibao Xu, Junyang Yang, Hongzhou Lu
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of HIV-1 mutation V179D/E and the effect of V179D/E on the virological response to first-line efavirenz-based regimens among antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients. METHODS: An ambispective cohort study was conducted. All ART-naïve patients who underwent baseline genotypic resistance testing between January 2019 and November 2021 were included in the analysis of the prevalence of the V179D/E mutation...
November 28, 2022: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Caroline Asiimwe, Robin Fatch, Debbie M Cheng, Nneka I Emenyonu, Christine Ngabirano, Winnie R Muyindike, Judith A Hahn
Alcohol use is especially problematic for people living with HIV (PLWH) and was likely to be impacted by the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its restrictions. In a study of PLWH with latent tuberculosis infection, we measured unhealthy alcohol use with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and bar attendance. We analyzed data collected before and after COVID-19 restrictions, and used Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) logistic regression models to evaluate changes in unhealthy alcohol use...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Eric David B Ornos, Ourlad Alzeus G Tantengco, Cybele Lara R Abad
The Covid-19 pandemic has compounded the challenge of HIV/AIDS elimination, creating difficulties in accessing HIV care services such as early testing and treatment. This paper characterized the global online interest in HIV care services-related search terms before and during the pandemic. Global online search interest for HIV was measured using the Google Trends™ database. Spearman's rank-order correlation correlated country-specific characteristics and HIV prevalence data with the search volume index (SVI)...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Hoang Thi Giang, Nguyen Quang Duc, Pham Minh Khue, Catherine Quillet, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Nham Thi Tuyet Thanh, Roselyne Vallo, Jonathan Feelemyer, Vu Hai Vinh, Delphine Rapoud, Laurent Michel, Didier Laureillard, Jean Pierre Moles, Don Des Jarlais, Nicolas Nagot, Duong Thi Huong
We examined gender differences among people who inject drug (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam in term of blood-borne infections, risk behaviors, and access to care. Using respondent-driven-sampling surveys, we recruited 3146 PWID from 2016 to 2018. Inclusion criteria included a positive urine test for heroin and recent injection marks. There were 155 female PWID (4,9%), including 82 at RDS-2016, 32 at RDS-2017 and 38 at RDS-2018. The age mean was 36.3 ± 7.2 years. The majority of female PWID had less than high school education (90...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Cho-Hee Shrader, Rob Stephenson, Raymond Moody, Justin Knox
Most new HIV diagnoses in the US occur among sexual minority men (SMM). The majority (69%) of new HIV diagnoses among US SMM are due to transmission from main sex partners. We identified multilevel correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI; condomless anal intercourse while not using a biomedical strategy) among SMM couples using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Participants were US SMM over 18 years, with a primary male partner > 6 months. Couples were recruited online from April 2016 until June 2017 and interviewed using self-administered computer-assisted surveys...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Jill Owczarzak, Shannon Fuller, Catelyn Coyle, Melissa Davey-Rothwell, Tetiana Kiriazova, Karin Tobin
This study used an intersectional approach to explore the association between enacted and internalized drug use and HIV stigma on HIV care outcomes among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in Ukraine. Surveys were conducted in Kyiv in 2019-2020. Among the 306 respondents, 55% were engaged in HIV care. More than half (52%) of participants not engaged in care reported internalized stigma related to both drug use and HIV status (i.e., intersectional stigma), compared to only 35% of those who were engaged in HIV care...
November 28, 2022: AIDS and Behavior
Kaleigh E Fidaleo, Micah J Savin, Maral N Aghvinian, Angela C Summers, Alyssa Arentoft, Desiree Byrd, Heining Cham, Monica Rivera Mindt
OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study investigates the independent and interactive effects of depression and socioeconomic status (SES) on neurocognition in a diverse sample of people with HIV (PWH). METHOD: The sample of 119 PWH (71% Latinx, 27% female) completed comprehensive neurocognitive and psychosocial evaluations and were separated into two groups: those with a history of depression diagnosis ( n = 47) and those without ( n = 72). RESULTS: The results of regression analyses indicated that lifetime depression was not associated with lower SES nor with worse neurocognitive performance on any neurocognitive outcome...
November 28, 2022: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Alastair Van Heerden, Hilton Humphries, Elvin Geng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Globally, approximately 38.4 million people who are navigating complex lives, are also living with HIV, while HIV incident cases remain high. To improve the effectiveness of HIV prevention and treatment service implementation, we need to understand what drives human behaviour and decision-making around HIV service use. This review highlights current thinking in the social sciences, emphasizing how understanding human behaviour can be leveraged to improve HIV service delivery...
November 23, 2022: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
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November 28, 2022: Nucleic Acids Research
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