Alessandro Bertero, Manuel Rosa-Garrido
Recent technological advancements in the field of chromatin biology have rewritten the textbook on nuclear organization. We now appreciate that the folding of chromatin in the three-dimensional space (i.e. its 3D "architecture") is non-random, hierarchical, and highly complex. While 3D chromatin structure is partially encoded in the primary sequence and thereby broadly conserved across cell types and states, a substantial portion of the genome seems to be dynamic during development or in disease. Moreover, there is growing evidence that at least some of the 3D structure of chromatin is functionally linked to gene regulation, both being modulated by and impacting on multiple nuclear processes (including DNA replication, transcription, and RNA splicing)...
November 23, 2020: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Chao Li, Liang Shi, Cheng Peng, Gongchang Yu, Yanshu Zhang, Zhongjun Du
Lead (Pb) is one of the most common heavy metal contaminants in the environment. Pb can cause pathophysiological changes in several organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. The study aimed to study the effects of Pb on Gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and its role in Pb-induced apoptosis. The present study aims to determine whether Pb-induced autophagy promotes apoptosis of rat cardiac myocytes (H9c2 cells) by downregulating GJIC using CCK-8 Kit, scrape loading/dye transfer assay, Annexin V/PI assays, Western blot analysis and double-immunofluorescence experiments...
November 23, 2020: Chemico-biological Interactions
Stanley Walls, Soda Diop, Ryan Birse, Lisa Elmen, Zhuohui Gan, Sreehari Kalvakuri, Santiago Pineda, Curran Reddy, Erika Taylor, Bosco Trinh, Georg Vogler, Rachel Zarndt, Andrew McCulloch, Peter Lee, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rolf Bodmer, Karen Ocorr
Understanding the effects of microgravity on human organs is crucial to exploration of low-earth orbit, the moon, and beyond. Drosophila can be sent to space in large numbers to examine the effects of microgravity on heart structure and function, which is fundamentally conserved from flies to humans. Flies reared in microgravity exhibit cardiac constriction with myofibrillar remodeling and diminished output. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) in isolated hearts revealed reduced expression of sarcomeric/extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and dramatically increased proteasomal gene expression, consistent with the observed compromised, smaller hearts and suggesting abnormal proteostasis...
November 23, 2020: Cell Reports
Jung Ha Park, Ji Hyun Moon, Hyeon Ju Kim, Mi Hee Kong, Yun Hwan Oh
One-third of the global population aged 15 years and older engages in insufficient physical activities, which affects health. However, the health risks posed by sedentary behaviors are not well known. The mean daily duration of sedentary behavior is 8.3 hours among the Korean population and 7.7 hours among the American adult population. Sedentary lifestyles are spreading worldwide because of a lack of available spaces for exercise, increased occupational sedentary behaviors such as office work, and the increased penetration of television and video devices...
November 2020: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
Suneel Rallapalli, Soma Guhathakurta, Purna S Korrapati
The discovery of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) has raised expectations for the development of cell-based therapy of the heart. Although cell therapy is emerging as a novel treatment for heart failure, several issues still exist concerning an unambiguous definition of the phenotype of CPC types. There is a need to define and validate the methods for the generation of quality CPC populations used in cell therapy applications. Considering the critical roles of cardiac cell progenitors in cellular therapy, we speculate that long term culture might modulate the immunophenotypes of CPCs...
August 16, 2020: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jesse C Schwartz, Eric M Snyder, Thomas P Olson, Bruce D Johnson, Courtney M Wheatley-Guy
Inadequate hyperventilation and inefficient alveolar to arterial gas exchange are gas exchange challenges that can limit capacity and cause exercise-induced arterial hypoxaemia (EIAH). This work evaluated if the prevalence of gas exchange inefficiencies, defined as AaDO2 >25 mmHg, PaCO2 >38 mmHg, and/or ΔPaO2 >-10 mmHg at any point during constant-load exercise in healthy, active, but not highly trained, individuals suggested an innate sex difference that would make females more susceptible to EIAH...
November 26, 2020: Journal of Sports Sciences
Susanne Christie
Susanne Christie , Arrhythmia Nurse Specialist, NHS Tayside (, runner-up in the Cardiovascular Nurse of the Year category of the BJN Awards 2020.
November 26, 2020: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Corinna Simonini, Brigitte Strizek, Christoph Berg, Ulrich Gembruch, Andreas Mueller, Andreas Heydweiller, Annegret Geipel
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of course and outcome of pregnancies with prenatally diagnosed fetal teratomas of various locations in a single center between 2002 and 2019. METHODS: Retrospective observational single-center study including prenatally suspected or diagnosed fetal teratomas. Focus was put on ultrasound findings during pregnancy. Complications, need for intervention and outcomes were compared according to tumor location. RESULTS: 79 cases of fetal teratomas were seen at our center between 2002 and 2019...
November 26, 2020: Prenatal Diagnosis
Shuo Wang, Lindsay R Freud, Jon Detterich, Anita J Moon-Grady, Mary T Donofrio, Edgar T Jaeggi, Anita L Szwast, Shaine A Morris, Ann Kavanaugh-Mchugh, Lisa W Howley, Mary E Van der Velde, Bettina F Cuneo, Colin K Phoon, Wayne Tworetzky, Jay D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: Ebstein anomaly and tricuspid valve dysplasia (EA/TVD) carry high perinatal mortality. Past studies have focused on cardiac predictors of mortality; we sought to describe the fetal echo (FE) extracardiac Dopplers in this cohort and determine their association with perinatal mortality. METHOD: Fetuses with EA/TVD at 23 centers from 2005-2011 were included for retrospective study. Doppler pattern and velocity of the umbilical artery (UA), umbilical vein (UV), ductus venosus (DV), and middle cerebral artery (MCA) were collected...
November 26, 2020: Prenatal Diagnosis
Muhammet Yasin Tekeli, Gökhan Eraslan, Latife Çakır Bayram, Zeynep Soyer Sarıca
The aim of this study was to investigate the protective efficacy of diosmin against subacute deltamethrin exposure. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar albino rats were used. The animals were assigned to the following 4 groups: control group (received corn oil vehicle alone), diosmin-treated group (50 mg/kg bw/day orally), deltamethrin-exposed group (5 mg/kg bw/day, orally) and coadministered group (5 mg/kg bw/day deltamethrin and 50 mg/kg bw/day diosmin, orally) for 28 days. Some lipid peroxidation/antioxidant status/biochemical markers were evaluated in blood/tissue (liver, kidney, brain, heart and testis) samples and the histopathological architecture was assessed...
November 26, 2020: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Chris Wilson, Erin Furness, Leah Proctor, Greg Sweetman, Kathryn Hird
INTRODUCTION: Australian Standards require that clinicians undergo regular training in skills required to respond to the acute deterioration of a patient. Training focuses on the ability to appropriately respond to cardiac arrest, including delivering cardiac compressions, ventilation and appropriate defibrillation. Providing such training comes at a significant cost to the organisation and impacts on clinician time in direct patient care. If effective, the use of an automated manikin could significantly reduce costs and provide consistent training experiences...
November 26, 2020: Perspectives on Medical Education
Maan Malahfji, Alpana Senapati, Bhupendar Tayal, Duc T Nguyen, Edward A Graviss, Sherif F Nagueh, Michael J Reardon, Miguel Quinones, William A Zoghbi, Dipan J Shah
Background Chronic aortic regurgitation (AR) can be associated with myocardial scarring. It is unknown if scarring in AR is linked to poor outcomes and whether aortic valve replacement impacts this association. We investigated the relationship of myocardial scarring to mortality in chronic AR using cardiac magnetic resonance. Methods and Results We enrolled patients with moderate or greater AR between 2009 and 2019 and performed a blinded assessment of left ventricle remodeling, AR severity, and presence and extent of myocardial scarring by late gadolinium enhancement...
November 26, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Soumitra Ghosh, Sudheer Tale, Mrudula Kolli, Sumanpreet Kaur, Anil Garbhapu, Ashish Bhalla
Glyphosate is a commonly used non-selective herbicide in agriculture and aquafarms. Gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms are predominant manifestations of glyphosate poisoning. Cardiac dysfunction should be kept as a possibility in patients presenting with shock, and the treatment is mainly supportive. We present such a case.
November 26, 2020: Tropical Doctor
Yadi Zhou, Yuan Hou, Muzna Hussain, Sherry-Ann Brown, Thomas Budd, W H Wilson Tang, Jame Abraham, Bo Xu, Chirag Shah, Rohit Moudgil, Zoran Popovic, Leslie Cho, Mohamed Kanj, Chris Watson, Brian Griffin, Mina K Chung, Samir Kapadia, Lars Svensson, Patrick Collier, Feixiong Cheng
Background The growing awareness of cardiovascular toxicity from cancer therapies has led to the emerging field of cardio-oncology, which centers on preventing, detecting, and treating patients with cardiac dysfunction before, during, or after cancer treatment. Early detection and prevention of cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction (CTRCD) play important roles in precision cardio-oncology. Methods and Results This retrospective study included 4309 cancer patients between 1997 and 2018 whose laboratory tests and cardiovascular echocardiographic variables were collected from the Cleveland Clinic institutional electronic medical record database (Epic Systems)...
November 26, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Matthew Kelham, Timothy N Jones, Krishnaraj S Rathod, Oliver Guttmann, Alastair Proudfoot, Paul Rees, Charles J Knight, Muhiddin Ozkor, Andrew Wragg, Ajay Jain, Andreas Baumbach, Anthony Mathur, Daniel A Jones
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major cause of death worldwide. Recent guidelines recommend the centralisation of OHCA services in cardiac arrest centres to improve outcomes. In 2015, two major tertiary cardiac centres in London merged to form a large dedicated tertiary cardiac centre. This study aimed to compare the short-term mortality of patients admitted with an OHCA before-and-after the merger of services had taken place and admission criteria were relaxed, which led to managing OHCA in higher volume...
November 26, 2020: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
Azhar Hussain, David I Ike, Matthieu Durand-Hill, Sammra Ibrahim, Neil Roberts
BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, now termed SARS-CoV-2, has had a significant impact on cardiac surgical services globally. Although drastically reduced, our institution has maintained a significant level of cardiac surgical activity during the pandemic. Rigorous COVID-19 guidelines have been instituted to mitigate the risk of viral transmission. We observed a reduction in sternal wound infections since the institution of new perioperative surgical guidelines. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution since a national lockdown was declared in March 2020...
November 26, 2020: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Jonathan E Labin, Rajan Saggar, Eric H Yang, Gentian Lluri, David Sayah, Richard Channick, Abbas Ardehali, Olcay Aksoy, Rushi V Parikh
Extrinsic compression of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) by a dilated pulmonary artery (PA) in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an increasingly recognized disease entity. LMCA compression has been associated with angina, arrhythmia, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death in patients with PAH. Recent studies suggest that at least 6% of patients with PAH have significant LMCA compression. Screening for LMCA compression can be achieved with computed coronary tomography angiography, with a particular emphasis on assessment of PA size and any associated downward displacement and reduced takeoff angle of the LMCA...
November 25, 2020: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Pernille S Baekke, Troels H Jørgensen, Lars Søndergaard
AIMS: Early discharge after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) may potentially impact post-procedural safety of the patient. The study aim was to compare safety of TAVI in patients planned for fast track hospital stay with patients planned for standard hospital stay. METHODS AND RESULTS: All-comers patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI between 2011 and 2017 were allocated to two matched groups depending whether the procedure was performed before or after transition from standard to fast track course...
November 25, 2020: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Anantharaman Ramasamy, Retesh Bajaj, Daniel A Jones, Rajiv Amersey, Anthony Mathur, Andreas Baumbach, Christos V Bourantas, Constantinos O'Mahony
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the prevalence, management strategies and evaluate the prognosis of patients with iatrogenic catheter-induced ostial coronary artery dissection (ICOCAD). BACKGROUND: ICOCAD is a rare but potentially devastating complication of cardiac catheterisation. The clinical manifestations of ICOCAD vary from asymptomatic angiographic findings to abrupt vessel closure leading to myocardial infarction and death. METHODS: 55,968 patients who underwent coronary angiography over a 10-year period were screened for ICOCAD as defined by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute...
November 25, 2020: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Hongyu Zhou, Lu Li, Zhenyu Liu, Kankan Zhao, Xiuyu Chen, Minjie Lu, Gang Yin, Lei Song, Shihua Zhao, Hairong Zheng, Jie Tian
OBJECTIVES: The high variability of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) genetic phenotypes has prompted the establishment of risk-stratification systems that predict the risk of a positive genetic mutation based on clinical and echocardiographic profiles. This study aims to improve mutation-risk prediction by extracting cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) morphological features using a deep learning algorithm. METHODS: We recruited 198 HCM patients (48% men, aged 47 ± 13 years) and divided them into training (147 cases) and test (51 cases) sets based on different genetic testing institutions and CMR scan dates (2012, 2013, respectively)...
November 25, 2020: European Radiology
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