Jessica Neilands, Bertil Kinnby
BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammation resulting in destruction of tooth-supporting bone. Chronic inflammation is characterized by extravascular fibrin deposition. Fibrin is central to destruction of bone; monocytes bind to fibrin and form osteoclasts, thus providing a link between coagulation and the tissue destructive processes in periodontitis. The oral microbiome is essential to oral health. However, local ecological changes, such as increased biofilm formation, result in a dysbiotic microbiome characterized by an increase of protease-producing species e...
November 23, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Zaamin B Hussain, Haitham Shoman, Peter W P Yau, Gowreeson Thevendran, Filippo Randelli, Mingzhu Zhang, Mininder S Kocher, Alan Norrish, Vikas Khanduja
Aims: The COVID-19 pandemic presents an unprecedented burden on global healthcare systems, and existing infrastructures must adapt and evolve to meet the challenge. With health systems reliant on the health of their workforce, the importance of protection against disease transmission in healthcare workers (HCWs) is clear. This study collated responses from several countries, provided by clinicians familiar with practice in each location, to identify areas of best practice and policy so as to build consensus of those measures that might reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19 to HCWs at work...
May 2020: Bone & joint open
Matthew Hampton, Matthew Clark, Ian Baxter, Richard Stevens, Elinor Flatt, James Murray, Kevin Wembridge
Aims: The current global pandemic due to COVID-19 is generating significant burden on the health service in the UK. On 23 March 2020, the UK government issued requirements for a national lockdown. The aim of this multicentre study is to gain a greater understanding of the impact lockdown has had on the rates, mechanisms and types of injuries together with their management across a regional trauma service. Methods: Data was collected from an adult major trauma centre, paediatric major trauma centre, district general hospital, and a regional hand trauma unit...
May 2020: Bone & joint open
Thomas Key, Naveen J Mathai, Aakaash Sethuraman Venkatesan, Damian Farnell, Khitish Mohanty
Aims: The adequate provision of personal protective equipment (PPE) for healthcare workers has come under considerable scrutiny during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate staff awareness of PPE guidance, perceptions of PPE measures, and concerns regarding PPE use while caring for COVID-19 patients. In addition, responses of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals (OHCPs) were compared. Methods: The inclusion criteria were all staff working in clinical areas of the hospital...
May 2020: Bone & joint open
Silvia Fernández-Martín, María Permuy, Mónica López-Peña, Fernando Muñoz, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent degenerative joint disease in animals and humans. It is characterized by pain, articular cartilage damage and joint stiffness. It has been suggested that the status of the subchondral bone compartment plays an important role in the initiation and progression of OA. Bisphosphonates have been proposed as a potential disease-modifying treatment for OA, however their effectiveness is not yet clear. Twenty-four male adult New Zealand rabbits were used to evaluate the effects of risedronate on the subchondral bone quality and cartilage degradation in a long-term model of experimentally induced OA...
2020: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Dorota Krasowska, Joanna Bartosińska, Marta Stawczyk-Macieja, Aleksandra Walczak, Agnieszka Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Adam Reich, Aleksandra Batycka-Baran, Rafał Czajkowski, Iwona T Dobrucki, Lawrence W Dobrucki, Magdalena Górecka-Sokołowska, Anna Janaszak-Jasiecka, Leszek Kalinowski, Roman J Nowicki, Agata Płoska, Dorota Purzycka-Bohdan, Adrianna Radulska, Edyta Reszka, Dominik Samotij, Anna Siekierzycka, Andrzej T Slominski, Radomir M Slominski, Marta Sobalska-Kwapis, Dominik Strapagiel, Justyna Szczęch, Michał A Żmijewski, Bogusław Nedoszytko
Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory arthropathy associated with psoriasis as well as a complex pathogenesis. Genetic and environmental factors trigger the development of the immune-mediated auto-inflammatory response in different sites: skin, bone marrow, entheses and synovial tissues. Studies of the last two decades have changed the view of PsA from a mild, non-progressive arthritis to an inflammatory systemic disease with serious health consequences, not only associated with joint dysfunction, but also with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic consequences with significantly reduced quality of life...
October 2020: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Frances M Weaver, Beverly Gonzalez, Cara Ray, Bella Etingen, Alan Schwartz, Stephen Burns, Brian Le, Hammad Aslam, Michael Priebe, Laura D Carbone
STUDY DESIGN: Survey. OBJECTIVES: Managing osteoporosis in persons with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) is difficult as little evidence exists regarding effective strategies. We examined the effect of key factors on providers' bone health management decisions in persons with SCI. SETTING: USA. METHODS: Providers reviewed blocks of 9 hypothetical cases that varied on four factors: osteoporosis, osteopenia, or normal bone mineral density using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); DXA region of interest (lumbar spine, hip, knee), prior lower extremity fracture; and no or limited ambulation...
November 25, 2020: Spinal Cord
Xenofon Baraliakos, Adrian Richter, Daniel Feldmann, Anne Ott, Robin Buelow, Carsten O Schmidt, Juergen Braun
OBJECTIVE: Identify factors associated with presence and extension of spinal and sacroiliac joints (SIJ)-MRI lesions suggestive of axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) in a population-based cohort (Study of Health in Pomerania) aged <45 years. METHODS: Spinal (sagittal T1/T2) and SIJ (semicoronal STIR sequences) MRIs were evaluated by two trained blinded readers. The presence (yes/no) and extension (Berlin MRI Score) of bone marrow oedema (BME) were captured. Degenerative spinal lesions were excluded and discrepancies resolved by consensus...
November 25, 2020: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Marina B Pinheiro, Juliana Oliveira, Adrian Bauman, Nicola Fairhall, Wing Kwok, Catherine Sherrington
BACKGROUND: Various physical activity interventions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis have been designed and evaluated, but the effect of such interventions on the prevention of osteoporosis in older people is unclear. The aim of this review was to investigate the association between physical activity and osteoporosis prevention in people aged 65 years and above. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted and searches for individual studies were conducted in PubMed (January 2010 to March 2020) and for systematic reviews were conducted in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus (January 2008 to July 2020)...
November 26, 2020: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Jean-Philippe Chaput, Juana Willumsen, Fiona Bull, Roger Chou, Ulf Ekelund, Joseph Firth, Russell Jago, Francisco B Ortega, Peter T Katzmarzyk
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) released in 2020 updated global guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for children, adolescents, adults, older adults and sub-populations such as pregnant and postpartum women and those living with chronic conditions or disabilities. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence on the associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and health-related outcomes used to inform the 2020 WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour for children and adolescents aged 5-17 years...
November 26, 2020: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Catherine Qiu, Divya Talwar, James Gordon, Anthony Capraro, Carina Lott, Patrick J Cahill
Anterior vertebral body tethering (AVBT), or spinal growth tethering, is an emerging technology that recently received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval through a humanitarian device exemption designation to treat idiopathic scoliosis patients with remaining growth. This study compared patients who underwent AVBT with those treated with standard-of-care posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to determine inherent differences in patients and families who seek cutting-edge treatments. The authors reviewed 62 PSF patients from a multicenter registry and 20 AVBT patients from an FDA-approved investigational clinical trial...
November 25, 2020: Orthopedics
Wen-Jing Liu, De-Mao Zhang, Xue-Dong Zhou, Jing Xie
Connexins and Pannexins play important roles in osteocytes and osteoblasts differentiation, intracellular signal transduction, maintenance of bone balance, and bone regeneration. This article reviews the progress and limitations of Connexins-mediated gap junctions and Pannexins mediated hemichannel in bone. Current research has shown that these molecules, in the form of gap junctions or separate hemichannels, deliver external stimuli to the skeletal system. However, little is known about the role of other cell types in bone development and homeostasis, such as pre-osteoblasts and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, in maintaining normality...
November 2020: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Seung Jin Han, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Nami Lee, Dae Jung Kim
AIMS: This study examined the real-world cardiovascular effectiveness and safety associated with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors treatment compared with dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors in older adults with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, older adults with type 2 diabetes (aged ≥ 65 years) were identified in the Korean National Health Insurance Service database between September 2014 and December 2016...
November 25, 2020: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Shih-Hao Feng, Ya-Ping Huang, Kuo-Cheng Yeh, Shin-Liang Pan
CONTEXT: Osteoporosis and Parkinson's (PD) disease often co-occur, and even patients with early-stage PD may have reduced bone-mineral density levels. This may imply that osteoporosis is associated with a higher risk of PD. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of subsequently developing PD. DESIGN, SETTING: A retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 23,495 subjects who were aged between 50 and 80 and had osteoporosis between 2002 and 2006 were enrolled in the osteoporosis group...
November 25, 2020: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Giovanna Marchini, Daniel Martín Muñoz, Ylva Vladic Stjernholm
A neonatal parietal bone fracture was complicated by subgaleal and subdural hematomas after a vacuum extraction delivery. Low-dose computer tomography visualized a comminuted skull fracture. Close observation of infants delivered by vacuum extraction, conservative management after a skull fracture, and further studies on vacuum traction monitoring are warranted.
November 2020: Clinical Case Reports
Priya Mamachan, Vishal Dang, Neelkamal Sharda Bharadwaj, Natalia DeSilva, Priyanka Kant
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignancy of mesenchymal cells mostly originating within long bones, but rarely in the jaws. This report illustrates a case of chondroblastic osteosarcoma in the region of anterior maxilla in a 58-year-old male patient previously treated for ossifying fibroma of the same site.
November 2020: Clinical Case Reports
William J Kraemer, Lydia K Caldwell, Emily M Post, William H DuPont, Emily R Martini, Nicholas A Ratamess, Tunde K Szivak, Jason P Shurley, Matthew K Beeler, Jeff S Volek, Carl M Maresh, Janice S Todd, Bryant J Walrod, Parker N Hyde, Ciaran Fairman, Thomas M Best
Kraemer, WJ, Caldwell, LK, Post, EM, DuPont, WH, Martini, ER, Ratamess, NA, Szivak, TK, Shurley, JP, Beeler, MK, Volek, JS, Maresh, CM, Todd, JS, Walrod, BJ, Hyde, PN, Fairman, C, and Best, TM. Body composition in elite strongman competitors. J Strength Cond Res 34(12): 3326-3330, 2020-The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to characterize a group of elite strongman competitors to document the body composition of this unique population of strength athletes. Data were collected from eligible competitors as part of a health screening program conducted over 5 consecutive years...
December 2020: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Darren G Candow, Philip D Chilibeck, Julianne Gordon, Emelie Vogt, Tim Landeryou, Mojtaba Kaviani, Lisa Paus-Jensen
BACKGROUND: The combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training (10-12 weeks) has been shown to increase bone mineral content and reduce a urinary indicator of bone resorption in older males compared with placebo. However, the longer-term effects (12 months) of creatine and resistance training on bone mineral density and bone geometric properties in older males is unknown. AIM: To assess the effects of 12 months of creatine supplementation and supervised, whole-body resistance training on bone mineral density, bone geometric properties, muscle accretion, and strength in older males...
November 24, 2020: Nutrition and Health
Christine Böhmer, Estella Böhmer
Acquired dental problems are among the most frequently encountered diseases in pet rabbits. However, early symptoms are often overlooked because the affected animals first appear completely asymptomatic. Alterations from anatomical reference lines according to Böhmer and Crossley applied to standard skull X-ray images, have been shown to be indicative of tooth health problems in pet rabbits. Despite its proven usefulness, there are exceptions in which the anatomical reference lines appear not to be suitable for application...
November 20, 2020: Veterinary Sciences
Sarah N Taylor
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D supplementation is known to both prevent and treat rickets, a disease of hypomineralized bone. Childhood is a period of great bone development and, therefore, attention to the vitamin D needed to optimize bone health in childhood is imperative. SUMMARY: Observational studies have pointed to a vitamin D status, as indicated by a 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, of 50 nmol/L to ensure avoidance of rickets and of 75 nmol/L to optimize health...
November 24, 2020: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
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