Bolaji L Ilesanmi-Oyelere, Marlena C Kruger
Increasing peak bone mass during adolescence and reducing bone loss in later life are two approaches to reduce the risk of osteoporosis with aging. Osteoporosis affects a large proportion of the elderly population worldwide and the incidence is increasing. Milk consumption is an accepted strategy in building peak bone mass and therefore may reduce the risk of osteoporosis. In childhood calcium, phosphorous, and growth factors are the important components to support bone growth but in adults the positive influence on bone density/maintenance may also be due to other bioactive proteins/peptides or lipids in milk acting directly in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT)...
2020: Frontiers in Nutrition
Lei Zhu, Fei Hua, Wenge Ding, Kai Ding, Yige Zhang, Chenyang Xu
With the ageing of the world population, osteoporosis has become a problem affecting quality of life. According to the traditional view, the causes of osteoporosis mainly include endocrine disorders, metabolic disorders and mechanical factors. However, in recent years, the immune system and immune factors have been shown to play important roles in the occurrence and development of osteoporosis. Among these components, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper 17 (Th17) cells are crucial for maintaining bone homeostasis, especially osteoclast differentiation...
2020: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Laura Van Moortel, Kris Gevaert, Karolien De Bosscher
Exogenous glucocorticoids are widely used in the clinic for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and hematological cancers. Unfortunately, their use is associated with debilitating side effects, including hyperglycemia, osteoporosis, mood swings, and weight gain. Despite the continued efforts of pharma as well as academia, the search for so-called selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators (SEGRMs), compounds with strong anti-inflammatory or anti-cancer properties but a reduced number or level of side effects, has had limited success so far...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jisun Sung, Seungho Ryu, Yun-Mi Song, Hae-Kwan Cheong
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate whether non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was associated with incident bone mineral density (BMD) decrease. METHODS: This study included 4536 subjects with normal BMD at baseline. NAFLD was defined as the presence of fatty liver on abdominal ultrasonography without significant alcohol consumption or other causes. Decreased BMD was defined as a diagnosis of osteopenia, osteoporosis, or BMD below the expected range for the patient's age based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
September 2020: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
Shaojun Wu, Pengbo Wang, Xiaofan Guo, Guozhe Sun, Ying Zhou, Zhao Li, Hongmei Yang, Shasha Yu, Liqiang Zheng, Yingxian Sun
Based on the use of Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) to assess osteoporosis risk, we found that short sleep duration and taking a daytime nap had an increased risk of osteoporosis. PURPOSE: To explore the associations between different sleep patterns with osteoporosis. METHODS: 3659 postmenopausal women (average age of 60 years) were divided into low, middle, and high osteoporosis risk categories based on the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA)...
October 17, 2020: Archives of Osteoporosis
Zhou-Shan Tao, Wan-Shu Zhou, Hong-Guang Xu, Min Yang
The present work was aimed to evaluate the effect of valproic acid(VPA), simvastatin (SIM)+VPA on Ti(titanium) rods osseointegration in ovariectomized(OVX) rats and further investigation of the possible mechanism. The MC3T3-E1 cells were co-cultured with VPA, SIM + VPA and induced to osteogenesis, and the cell viability, mineralization ability were observed by MTT and ALP staining, Alizarin Red staining and Western blotting. Twelve weeks after bilateral ovariectomy, all animals were randomly divided into three groups: group OVX and VPA, SIM + VPA, and all the rats received Ti implants and animals belong to group VPA, SIM + VPA received valproic acid(300 mg/kg/day), valproic acid(300 mg/kg/day) plus SIM (25 mg/kg/day), respectively, treatment until death at 12 weeks...
October 14, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Maryam Alowaysi, Elisabetta Fiacco, Veronica Astro, Antonio Adamo
Klinefelter Syndrome (KS) is caused by the presence of a supernumerary X chromosome. Cytogenetic studies revaled that 80-90% of patients carry a 47-XXY karyotype, while 10-20% of cases are represented by mosaic 46-XY/47-XXY and high-grade aneuploidies 48-XXXY and 48-XXYY. The phenotypic traits of KS are highly variable across individuals and include cognitive dysfunction, metabolic dysregulation, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. Here, we describe the derivation of multiple 47-XXY iPSC lines from three unrelated KS patients to study the impact of supernumerary X chromosome during early development...
October 10, 2020: Stem Cell Research
Milena Despotovic, Tatjana Jevtovic Stoimenov, Sonja Stojanovic, Jelena Basic, Jasen Kundalic, Branka Djordjevic, Milica Randjelovic, Dusica Pavlovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vitamin D receptor (VDR) genetic variants are considered to have a role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study examines an association of FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI with RA, as well as with bone mineral density (RA with normal bone mineral density, RA-NBMD; RA with associated osteopenia, RA-OSTP; and RA with associated osteoporosis, RA-OP) and inflammatory markers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: VDR genetic variants were tested in 248 subjects using the PCR-RFLP method...
October 15, 2020: Clinical Biochemistry
Dieter H Pahr, Andreas G Reisinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Image-based finite element analysis (FEA) to predict and understand the biomechanical response has become an essential methodology in musculoskeletal research. An important part of such simulation models is the constitutive material model of which recent advances are summarized in this review. RECENT FINDINGS: The review shows that existing models from other fields were introduced, such as cohesion zone (cortical bone) or phase-field models (trabecular bone)...
October 17, 2020: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Zihao Qu, Jiuzhou Jiang, Fangkun Yang, Jiawei Huang, Jianqiang Zhao, Shigui Yan
Previous observational studies have identified various risk factors associated with the development of osteoporosis, including sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The aim of this study was to determine the potential causal effects of circulating SHBG concentrations on bone mineral density (BMD). Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was applied in analyses. From summary-level data of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we selected 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SHBG levels as instrumental variable, and used summary statistics for BMD at forearm (FA) (n = 8143), femoral neck (FN) (n = 32,735), lumbar spine (LS) (n = 28,498) and heel (HL) (n = 394,929), and total-body BMD of different age-stages (15 or less, 15-30, 30-45, 45-60, 60 or more years old) (n = 67,358)...
October 17, 2020: Calcified Tissue International
Andrey V Malkovskiy, Lauren D Van Wassenhove, Yury Goltsev, Kwame Osei-Sarfo, Che-Hong Chen, Bradley Efron, Lorraine J Gudas, Daria Mochly-Rosen, Jayakumar Rajadas
ALDH2 inactivating mutation (ALDH2*2) is the most abundant mutation leading to bone morphological aberration. Osteoporosis has long been associated with changes in bone biomaterial in elderly populations. Such changes can be exacerbated with elevated ethanol consumption and in subjects with impaired ethanol metabolism, such as carriers of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2)-deficient gene, ALDH2*2. So far, little is known about bone compositional changes besides a decrease in mineralization. Raman spectroscopic imaging has been utilized to study the changes in overall composition of C57BL/6 female femur bone sections, as well as in compound spatial distribution...
October 17, 2020: Calcified Tissue International
Athanasios D Anastasilakis, Polyzois Makras
Use of the FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) tool to assess fracture risk is the most common practice worldwide. Our findings suggest that in treatment-naïve women with osteopenia treatment would be cost-effective for approximately one-third of the study population and nearly half of the subjects over 75 years, according to the Greek-specific FRAX-based thresholds. INTRODUCTION: When evaluating a patient with low bone mineral density (BMD), fracture risk estimation is of paramount importance...
October 16, 2020: Archives of Osteoporosis
Han-Bing Zeng, Li-Qiang Dong, Chao Xu, Xu-Hui Zhao, Lian-Guo Wu
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis is characterised by impairment of microarchitecture and bone mass. Therapeutic strategy promoting osteoblast differentiation is considered as a promising direction for the treatment of osteoporosis. Artesunate (ART) is related to osteoporosis, but the relationship between ART and osteogenic differentiation is still unknown. METHODS: Cells proliferation were measured by MTT, ALP activity assay and Alizarin Red S staining were used to assess osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs...
October 2020: Acta Histochemica
Marc Possover
Neuropelveology is a new specialty in medicine that has yet to prove itself but the need for it is obvious. This specialty includes the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies and dysfunctions of the pelvic nerves. It encompasses knowledge that is for the most part already known but scattered throughout various other specialties; neuropelveology gathers all this knowledge together. Since the establishment of the International Society of Neuropelveology, this discipline is experiencing an ever-growing interest...
October 13, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Huanhuan Feng, Zhengfeng Gong, Guoqiang Liang, Xiaofeng Shen, Jian Cheng, Fangdong Su, Lizhong Yang, Hua Liu
BACKGROUND: Gumi Bao decoction is effective for the treatment of osteoporosis, but the theoretical and scientific basis is unknown. This study aimed to observe the effect of Gumi Bao decoction on Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1) mRNA, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) mRNA, and cathepsin K (CTSK) mRNA in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) in rats and to investigate the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Sixty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were weighed and randomly divided into six groups: the normal control group (NC group), the methylprednisolone group (Met group), the Fosamax group, the low-dose Gumi Bao Decoction group (GBDL group), the medium-dose Gumi Bao Decoction group (GBDM group), and the high-dose Gumi Bao Decoction group (GBDH group)...
September 2020: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Byung-Jou Lee, Hae-Won Koo, Sang Won Yoon, Moon-Jun Sohn
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) attenuation in defining trabecular region-of-interest (t-ROI) at lumbar vertebral body in the assessment of osteoporotic compression fracture (OCF) compared to spinal dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Even though osteoporosis was not diagnosed in the BMD measurement using DXA, we often experienced cases where the screw was weakly inserted due to low bone quality during screw insertion...
October 15, 2020: Spine
Yasmin Thiel, Chafik Ghayor, Daniel Lindhorst, Harald Essig, Franz Weber, Martin Rücker, Paul Schumann
Bisphosphonates and denosumab are commonly used antiresorptive therapies in patients with bone metastasis and osteoporosis. Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a serious side effect of these drugs, and infection has been recognized as a contributing factor. Current therapeutic options for MRONJ show limited effectiveness, therefore necessitating novel treatment strategies. Bisphosphonates have recently been reported to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), an inherent component of the immune system...
October 9, 2020: Pathology, Research and Practice
Shivani N Mann, Kevin S Pitel, Molly H Nelson-Holte, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Roshini Sathiaseelan, James L Kirkland, Augusto Schneider, Katherine T Morris, Subramaniam Malayannan, John R Hawse, Michael B Stout
Menopause is a natural physiological process in older women that is associated with reduced estrogen production and results in increased risk for obesity, diabetes, and osteoporosis. 17α-estradiol (17α-E2) treatment in males, but not females, reverses several metabolic conditions associated with advancing age, highlighting sexually dimorphic actions on age-related pathologies. In this study we sought to determine if 17α-E2 could prevent ovariectomy (OVX)-mediated detriments on adiposity and bone parameters in females...
October 14, 2020: Experimental Gerontology
Haoyi Zheng, Haitao Feng, Wenzhong Zhang, Yantao Han, Wenwen Zhao
With the growth of the aging population, osteoporosis is becoming a global health problem. Ursolic acid (UA) is an active ingredient existed in a variety of foods and nature plants and owns plenty of pharmacological effects especially in treating metabolic disease. Our predication from network pharmacology hinted that UA has potential for ameliorating osteoporosis. Firstly through in vivo experiment, we confirmed that UA administration obviously protected against ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in rats by improving microarchitectural deterioration of trabecular bone (P < 0...
October 13, 2020: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Tim Rolvien, Nico Maximilian Jandl, Julian Stürznickel, Frank Timo Beil, Ina Kötter, Ralf Oheim, Ansgar W Lohse, Florian Barvencik, Michael Amling
Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for autoimmune rheumatic diseases. As there is no consensus on its negative effects on bone, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the clinical spectrum of patients with stress fractures due to long-term MTX treatment (i.e., MTX osteopathy). We have retrospectively analyzed data from 34 patients with MTX treatment, severe lower extremity pain and immobilization. MRI scans, bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (DXA) and bone microarchitecture (HR-pQCT) were evaluated...
October 16, 2020: Calcified Tissue International
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