Natalie A Sims
The IL-6 family of cytokines comprises a large group of cytokines that all act via the formation of a signaling complex that includes the glycoprotein 130 (gp130) receptor. Despite this, many of these cytokines have unique roles that regulate the activity of bone forming osteoblasts, bone resorbing osteoclasts, bone-resident osteocytes, and cartilage cells (chondrocytes). These include specific functions in craniofacial development, longitudinal bone growth, and the maintenance of trabecular and cortical bone structure, and have been implicated in musculoskeletal pathologies such as craniosynostosis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and heterotopic ossifications...
July 28, 2021: Cytokine
C R Holroyd, S Carter, S R Crozier, S D'Angelo, E M Curtis, R J Moon, J H Davies, K A Ward, E M Dennison, H M Inskip, K M Godfrey, C Cooper, N C Harvey
AIM: To investigate the associations between indices of bone health in childhood and corresponding parental measures. METHODS: The Southampton Women's Survey characterised 12,583 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 years; 3158 subsequently had singleton live births. In a subset, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of bone area(BA), bone mineral content(BMC) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) lumbar spine and total hip were obtained in the parent/offspring (aged 8-9 years) trios...
July 28, 2021: Bone
Yu Jiang, Ning Xin, Jian Yang, Wen Wu, Mingyong Wang, Ninghan Feng, Guoxing Zhu
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is a clinically important disease. Despite many studies, the intrinsic pathogenesis of GIOP is still not fully understood. Cartilage is the target tissue of the glucocorticoid prednisolone (PN). To explore the intrinsic mechanism of PN-induced cartilage damage, we performed cartilage staining and cell transfection experiments in zebrafish larvae treated with PN. The results showed that PN caused cartilage damage in zebrafish at 25 μM. Moreover, after treatment with PN, it was found that collagen-encoding gene expression was significantly reduced...
July 28, 2021: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Aline Martin, Dominik Kentrup
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has become a global health crisis with very limited therapeutic options. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a matrix extracellular protein secreted by osteocytes that has generated recent interest for its possible involvement in CKD-MBD pathogenesis. This is a review of DMP1 established regulation and function, and early studies implicating DMP1 in CKD-MBD. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients and mice with CKD show perturbations of DMP1 expression in bone, associated with impaired osteocyte maturation, mineralization, and increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production...
July 31, 2021: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Aashima Dabas, Rakhi Malhotra, Ravindra Kumar, Rajesh Khadgawat
OBJECTIVES: Childhood osteoporosis is an uncommon condition that usually develops secondary to underlying disease states. Idiopathic juvenile osteoporosis or early onset osteoporosis is a rare cause of primary osteoporosis in childhood associated with mutations in "bone fragility" genes. CASE PRESENTATION: The index case presented with upper back pain and was detected to have multiple vertebral fractures. Further workup for the cause revealed a homozygous benign mutation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5, which was also detected in the mother who remained asymptomatic till presentation...
July 29, 2021: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Daniel Feder, Siti Mohd-Pahmi, Waleed Hussein, Luke Guddat, Ross McGeary, Gerhard Schenk
Metallohydrolases form a large group of enzymes that play crucial roles in a broad range of biological functions. Among them purple acid phosphatases (PAPs) gained attention due to their crucial role in the acquisition of phosphate by plants and also as a promising target for novel treatments of bone-related disorders. To date, no crystal structure of a mammalian PAP with drug-like molecules bound near the active site is available. Herein, we used a fragment-based design approach using structures of a mammalian PAP in complex with the Maybridge TM fragment CC063346, the amino acid L-glutamine and the buffer molecule HEPES, as well as various solvent molecules to guide the design of highly potent and efficient mammalian PAP inhibitors...
July 31, 2021: ChemMedChem
L Dos Santos Ferreira, L G Abreu, C B Calderipe, M D Martins, L F Schuch, A C U Vasconcelos
Considering the lack of studies determining the real TPTD efficacy in individuals who develop MRONJ, our objective was to combine the available data on MRONJ cases treated with TPTD. The findings demonstrated that TPTD in combination with another therapy, especially antibiotic therapy, can be considered an effective protocol for MRONJ. PURPOSE: To integrate the data published on the effect of teriparatide (TPTD) therapy on cases of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) into a comprehensive analysis of clinical features...
July 31, 2021: Osteoporosis International
Christina Ziebart, Joy MacDermid, Dianne Bryant, Mike Szekeres, Nina Suh
INTRODUCTION: This pilot study will determine the feasibility of recruitment, retention and adherence for the online combined exercise and education programme (Hands-Up) compared with usual care. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The proposed randomised controlled trial will be a pilot feasibility study with a 1:1 randomisation to the Hands-Up programme or usual physical therapy. The programme setting is an online home exercise and education program. Outcome assessments will take place at the Roth|McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Clinic in London, Ontario, which is a tertiary care academic centre...
July 30, 2021: BMJ Open
Samy El Bachaoui, Matthias Dobbeleir, Astrid De Ketele, Constantinus Politis
A patient with spontaneous bilateral fracture of the mandibular coronoid process is presented. The definite cause is unknown, but possible contributing factors include osteoporosis, bruxism and changed kinetics of the temporalis muscle after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) resulting in an avulsion fracture. The patient was treated surgically with bilateral coronoidectomy.
July 27, 2021: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Aarti Abhishek Shah, Abhishek Shah, Shaila Lewis, Vivek Ghate, Ravi Saklani, S Narayana Kalkura, C Baby, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Yogendra Nayak, Manish K Chourasia
Recent preclinical studies have shown that resveratrol (RSV), is a promising remedy for osteoporosis owing to its estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. However, RSV has met limited success due to its poor oral bioavailability and inefficient systemic delivery. In this study, we prepared the inclusion complex of RSV with sulfo-butyl ether β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) to enhance the aqueous solubility of RSV. The in-silico docking studies and Physico-chemical characterization assays were performed to understand the interaction of RSV inside the SBE-β-CD cavity...
July 27, 2021: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Alexander Kalinkovich, Gregory Livshits
On the cellular level, osteoporosis (OP) is a result of imbalanced bone remodeling, in which osteoclastic bone resorption outcompetes osteoblastic bone formation. Currently available OP medications include both antiresorptive and bone-forming drugs. However, their long-term use in OP patients, mainly in postmenopausal women, is accompanied by severe side effects. Notably, the fundamental coupling between bone resorption and formation processes underlies the existence of an undesirable secondary outcome that bone anabolic or anti-resorptive drugs also reduce bone formation...
July 27, 2021: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Miao Xian Zhou, Emma F Johnson, Kevin Arce, Scott F Gruwell
Oral cavity lymphomas constitute only 3% of all lymphomas in the general population but are the third most common oral malignancy. A 67-year-old female with a history of osteoporosis, Graves' disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was referred to the Department of Dental Specialties with a chief complaint of persistent soft tissue swelling facial to the maxillary incisors of possible non-odontogenic origin. To expedite care, the patient was first seen via teledentistry and subsequently appointed for an in-person evaluation and treatment...
July 30, 2021: Special Care in Dentistry
Adèle Lecourt, Gwenaëlle Creff, Paul Coudert, Olivier De Crouy Chanel, Pascal Guggenbuhl, Franck Jegoux
INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus for management of Mild primary hyperparathyroidism (MILD-pHP). Specific management has been suggested by some authors. We have compared the surgical management of the patients with MILD-pHP to those with Classic primary hyperparathyroidism (C-pHP) treated by surgery according to The Fourth International Workshop on pHP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of 173 patients who underwent a parathyroidectomy were reviewed and retrospectively analysed...
July 30, 2021: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Jing Ye, Junkai Jiang, Zhirui Zhou, Zhenzhen Weng, Yingying Xu, Lubing Liu, Wei Zhang, Yifei Yang, Jun Luo, Xiaolei Wang
Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases affecting bone metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous gas molecule involved in osteogenesis, can effectively promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Although exogenous NO can reverse osteoporosis to a certain extent, the transitory half-life and short diffusion radius of NO severely limit its application. In this work, a gas generation nanoplatform of NO with bone targeting property (UCPA) is developed based on the upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) that can convert 808 nm near-infrared (NIR) light into UV/blue light, and further stimulate the NO donor (BNN) to release NO...
July 30, 2021: ACS Nano
Alessandra Violi, Valeria Fortunato, Andrea D'Amuri, Giovanni Zuliani, Stefania Basili, Angelina Passaro, Bernadette Corica, Valeria Raparelli
Standards and models of reference for osteoporosis (OP) have been developed for female individuals as they are more likely to be affected by the disease. Nonetheless, OP is also responsible for one-third of hip fractures in male individuals suggesting that a sexblinded approach to OP may lead to miss opportunities for equity in bone health. OPrelated fractures, especially hip fractures, are a matter of immediate concern as they are associated with limited mobility, chronic disability, loss of independence, and reduced quality of life in both sexes...
July 30, 2021: Minerva obstetrics and gynecology
Ashish Sharma, Gaurav Garg, Nripesh Sadasukhi, Trilok Chand Sadasukhi, Hoti Lal Gupta, Manish Gupta, Sandeep Malik, Ketul Patel, R J Sinha
BACKGROUND: Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) as a treatment modality in advanced prostate cancer has deleterious effect on bone mineral density (BMD) and quality of life (QOL). Using FRAX (Fracture Risk Assessment) model, candidates at high risk of fractures can be predicted and appropriate treatment can be initiated at early step to prevent skeletal-related events. Objectives of the present study were to evaluate bone health, implication of FRAX tool in advanced prostate cancer and to see the impact of ADT and Bone-directed therapy (BDT) on FRAX and FACT-P QOL scores...
2021: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Eswar Ramakrishnan, Sathish Muthu, Pasupathy Balasubramaniam, Girinivasan Chellamuthu, Kavya Priyadharshini
Introduction: Homocystinuria has a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from near normal intelligence and appearance with just lens dislocation and minimal skeletal deformities to severe mental retardation with gross skeletal deformities. In this background, we describe one such case with skeletal deformity managed comprehensively. Case Report: A 17-year-old boy presented with complaints of deformity of the left lower limb since childhood more evident for the past 5 years along with a history of blurring of vision...
April 2021: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Sezin Yuce Sari, Burak Yasin Aktas, Neyran Kertmen, Aysenur Elmali, Sadettin Kilickap, Kader Karli Oguz, Melike Mut, Mustafa Erman, Figen Soylemezoglu, Faruk Zorlu, Gozde Yazici
Background Radiotherapy (RT) with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has yielded good responses in many cancers. We aimed to report the results of combined fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) and ICI in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma. Methodology Patients were treated with FSRT and nivolumab which were continued until progression or toxicity. The Response Assessment in Neuro-oncology and Immunotherapy Response Assessment in Neuro-oncology criteria were used to assess treatment response on magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2021: Curēus
Giacomina Brunetti, Gabriele D'Amato, Stefania De Santis, Maria Grano, Maria Felicia Faienza
Bone loss associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) begins at the onset of the disease, already in childhood, determining a lower bone mass peak and hence a greater risk of osteoporosis and fractures later in life. The mechanisms underlying diabetic bone fragility are not yet completely understood. Hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency can affect the bone cells functions, as well as the bone marrow fat, thus impairing the bone strength, geometry, and microarchitecture. Several factors, like insulin and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1, can control bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell commitment, and the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand/osteoprotegerin and Wnt-b catenin pathways can impair bone turnover...
July 15, 2021: World Journal of Diabetes
Lei He, Rusheng Zhao, Youheng Wang, Huibing Liu, Xuehui Wang
Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease are common diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates and must be addressed. Their most frequent complications, including myocardial infarction and stroke, are caused by spontaneous thrombotic occlusion and are the most frequent cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis (AS) is the most widespread underlying pathological change for the above diseases. Therefore, drugs that interfere with this pathophysiological process must be incorporated in the treatment...
2021: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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