G Bonaccorsi, M Giganti, M Nitsenko, G Pagliarini, G Piva, G Sciavicco
We designed, implemented, and tested a clinical decision support system at the Research Center for the Study of Menopause and Osteoporosis within the University of Ferrara (Italy). As an independent module of our system, we implemented an original machine learning system for rule extraction, enriched with a hierarchical extraction methodology and a novel rule evaluation technique. Such a module is used in everyday operation protocol, and it allows physicians to receive suggestions for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis...
April 12, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
B Hanna, E Sakiniene, I Gjertsson, R Pullerits, T Jin
Objective : To study the relationship between different disease-related variables and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). Method : Demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected from the medical records of all patients diagnosed with IIMs during 2003-2018 in the Rheumatology Department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. BMD measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were compared among three patient groups categorized according to the time when DXA was performed in relation to the diagnosis: during the first month, 2-6 months, and 7-24 months after diagnosis...
April 15, 2021: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
L Si, J A Eisman, T Winzenberg, K M Sanders, J R Center, T V Nguyen, T Tran, A J Palmer
The Australian Health Economics Model of Osteoporosis (AusHEMO) has shown good face, internal and cross validities, and can be used to assist healthcare decision-making in Australia. PURPOSE: This study aimed to document and validate the risk engine of the Australian Health Economics Model of Osteoporosis (AusHEMO). METHODS: AusHEMO is a state-transition microsimulation model. The fracture risks were simulated using fracture incidence rates from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study...
April 15, 2021: Osteoporosis International
Qian-Qian Wan, Wen-Pin Qin, Yu-Xuan Ma, Min-Juan Shen, Jing Li, Zi-Bin Zhang, Ji-Hua Chen, Franklin R Tay, Li-Na Niu, Kai Jiao
For the past two decades, the function of intrabony nerves on bone has been a subject of intense research, while the function of bone on intrabony nerves is still hidden in the corner. In the present review, the possible crosstalk between bone and intrabony peripheral nerves will be comprehensively analyzed. Peripheral nerves participate in bone development and repair via a host of signals generated through the secretion of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, axon guidance factors and neurotrophins, with additional contribution from nerve-resident cells...
April 2021: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
Catherine L Omosule, Charlotte L Phillips
Current research findings in humans and other mammalian and non-mammalian species support the potent regulatory role of myostatin in the morphology and function of muscle as well as cellular differentiation and metabolism, with real-life implications in agricultural meat production and human disease. Myostatin null mice ( mstn-/- ) exhibit skeletal muscle fiber hyperplasia and hypertrophy whereas myostatin deficiency in larger mammals like sheep and pigs engender muscle fiber hyperplasia. Myostatin's impact extends beyond muscles, with alterations in myostatin present in the pathophysiology of myocardial infarctions, inflammation, insulin resistance, diabetes, aging, cancer cachexia, and musculoskeletal disease...
2021: Frontiers in Genetics
Takashi Aki, Ko Hashimoto, Hiroaki Uozumi, Masahiro Saito, Ko Sugawara, Manabu Suzuki, Soshi Hamada, Akemi Ito, Eiji Itoi
Bisphosphonates have been the first drug of choice for osteoporosis in the recent years because of their known ability to suppress osteoclast activity. The adverse effect of long-term bisphosphonate administration in the fracture-healing process is controversial. The aim of our study was to observe not only morphology but also morphometry of the fracture site of atypical femoral fracture with and without long-term bisphosphonate administration, in a case study of two difficult-to-obtain human samples. The patients with insufficient healing of atypical femoral fracture were treated with valgus wedge osteotomy...
2021: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Max-Philipp Lentzen, Johannes Buller, Maximilian Riekert, Andrea Grandoch, Matthias Kreppel, Joachim E Zöller, Matthias Zirk
The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the volume of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) lesions by semi-automatic segmentation of cone-beam computed tomography images, and correlate the results with the underlying diseases and applied medication. MRONJ lesions detected in cone-beam computed tomography images were assessed. The open-source software ITK-Snap enabled volumetric measurements of MRONJ lesions based on semi-automatic segmentation. Results were analyzed according to necrosis volume, localization, and gender...
February 5, 2021: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Mariana Pedrosa, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Luís A E Batista de Carvalho, Maria Paula M Marques, Francisco Curate
OBJECTIVES: Even though much is known about bone mineral and matrix composition, studies about their relationship with several bone properties and its alterations related to bone diseases such as osteoporosis are practically non-existent in humans. Thus, the development of methods to understand the effects of bone properties at a microscopic level is paramount. This research aimed to evaluate whether Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) band intensity ratios correlate with femoral bone mass, bone mineral content (BMC) (total and femoral neck), bone mineral per unit area (BMD) (total, femoral neck, greater trochanter, intertrochanteric region, and Ward's area) and the area (total and femoral neck)...
April 14, 2021: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
Stephanie E Reuter, Hayley B Schultz, Michael B Ward, Crystal L Grant, Gemma M Paech, Siobhan Banks, Allan M Evans
The consumption of caffeine has been linked to osteoporosis, believed to be due to enhanced bone resorption as a result of increased calcium excretion in the urine. However, the amount of calcium in the urine may not necessarily reflect the true effect of caffeine on calcium clearance. This study therefore examined the impact of high-dose, short-term caffeine intake on renal clearance of calcium, sodium and creatinine in healthy adults. In a double-blind clinical study, participants chewed caffeine (n=12) or placebo (n=12) gum for 5 min at 2-hour intervals over a 6-hour treatment period (800mg total caffeine)...
April 14, 2021: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Yalcin Yeler Defne, Eninanc Ilknur, Koraltan Melike, Baybars Simeyya, Ketenci Fatmanur, Unal Yener
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and types of hypercementosis and the frequency of possible etiological factors in a large sample of Turkish central Anatolian population. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using panoramic radiographs of 1176 randomly selected adult patients with an age range of 18-96 years, who presented to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the Faculty of Dentistry, Cumhuriyet University (Sivas, Turkey) for dental care...
April 2021: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Bugra Yilmaz, Ozan Ozkaya, Ismail Islek
Some case reports described nephrotic syndrome (NS) associated with administering various vaccines in two last decades. They report only 1 year follow-up. We want to summarize the 17-year clinical follow-up of the patient who had been reported in 2000 because of developing NS after hepatitis B vaccination. Our patient first suffered from NS following hepatitis B vaccination in 4 years old. He had been treated with standard prednisolone regimen resulting in complete remission. After the first diagnosis, he had three relapses in following years...
2021: Northern Clinics of Istanbul
Cheena Kumari, Ghozlan Yagoub, Mariam Ashfaque, Sobia Jawed, Pousette Hamid
The diabetes mellitus (DM) pandemic was mostly related to the growing incidence of osteoporosis worldwide. Thus, DM-induced bone fragility was recently reported as a diabetic complication. This disorder needs to be identified and diagnosed early and adequately to avoid more symptoms and impairments. Bone weight is lowered and the risk of fractures rises in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) will increase bone density per se because of the elevated chance of fracturing...
March 11, 2021: Curēus
Jian Yang, Kai Yu, Dongmei Liu, Jie Yang, Li Tan, Dianying Zhang
Osteoporosis affects millions of individuals and remains a clinical challenge in terms of prevention and treatment. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of irisin on osteogenic differentiation by exposing MC3T3-E1 cells to different concentrations of irisin. Treated cells were assayed for osteoblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition, formation of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteogenic genes using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR...
June 2021: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lei Zhang, Qinghai Wang, Hang Su, Jiaxiang Cheng
Inflammation is one of major contributors of diabetic osteoporosis. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) show great potential to inhibit inflammation. We investigated the anti-osteoporosis role of AD-MSCs-derived exosomes in diabetic osteoporosis and the underlying molecular mechanism. Cellular and animal diabetic osteoporosis models were created through high glucose exposure and streptozotocin injection. AD-MSCs-derived exosomes were isolated and characterized. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclast markers were determined by ELISA...
April 10, 2021: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Jingying Qiu, Chengjiang Li, Zhichun Dong, Jing Wang
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to investigate whether diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for low bone density, as this might be important and necessary for doctors specialized in treating patients with low bone density. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and SciELO were searched for cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies that investigated the effects of diabetes mellitus on bone mineral density till January 2020. Data screening and extraction are done independently, whereas the methodological quality of the studies was assessed according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)...
April 13, 2021: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Zeming Liu, Bo Liu, Bingshi Zhang, Wenhui Ma, Tao Wu, Jia Huo, Sikai Liu, Yongtai Han
BACKGROUND: The application of short femoral stems is partially restricted in revision surgery. This study will demonstrate the therapeutic effect and unsuitable situation for short stem revision. METHODS: Demographic characteristics of all patients were recorded in detail (Table 1). Anteroposterior view radiographic examinations of proximal femur are necessary before and after the operation for patients. The primary outcome of interest was the survival rate of the femoral stem at the final follow-up...
April 13, 2021: BMC Surgery
C Valero, J M Olmos, J Llorca, J L Hernández-Hernández, J Castillo, J Martínez, J González-Macías
INTRODUCTION: Osteoporosis has been said to be associated with increased mortality. On the other hand, it is debated whether treatment with bisphosphonates may reduce mortality in osteoporotic patients. To contribute to the clarification of these issues, we have studied in a prospective cohort the mortality in people without osteoporosis and in patients with osteoporosis, untreated or treated with bisphosphonates MATERIAL AND METHODS: At their inclusion in the cohort, four groups of participants were identified: (a) people without osteoporosis (group 1); (b) osteoporotic patients treated with bisphosphonates (group 2); (c) osteoporotic patients who refused to be treated (group 3); and (d) patients who met osteoporosis diagnostic criteria but were not treated because their risk of fracture was considered to be low (group 4)...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Tomohiro Shimizu, Kosuke Arita, Eihiro Murota, Shigeto Hiratsuka, Ryo Fujita, Hotaka Ishizu, Tsuyoshi Asano, Daisuke Takahashi, Masahiko Takahata, Norimasa Iwasaki
PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in bone metabolic markers and bone mineral density (BMD) after starting or switching from bisphosphonate (BP) to romosozumab (ROMO) or denosumab (DENO) therapies over 12 months and to determine predictors that establish associations with changes in BMD among the patients received the ROMO therapy. METHODS: Postmenopausal osteoporosis patients with a high risk of fracture-154 in total-were recruited; their therapies were switched to ROMO or DENO from BP/naïve or vitamin D (ND) (ND-ROMO: 43, BP-ROMO: 38, ND-DENO: 38, and BP-DENO: 35)...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Berenice Rivera-Paredez, Amado D Quezada-Sánchez, Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez, Leticia Torres-Ibarra, Yvonne N Flores, Jorge Salmerón, Rafael Velázquez-Cruz
BACKGROUND: Macro- and micronutrients, such as proteins, vitamin D, and calcium (Ca), are important dietary factors that can modify bone mineral density (BMD). Genetic factors can interact with diet, affecting an individual's predisposition to osteoporosis. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between macro- and micronutrient intakes and BMD in Mexican postmenopausal women, and their interactions with genetic polymorphisms involved in the vitamin D metabolic pathway...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Nutrition
Ling Li, Sophie Bensing, Henrik Falhammar
PURPOSE: The association between glucocorticoid replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (AI) and osteoporosis is unclear. Fracture is a major cause of morbidity in patients with osteoporosis. This study aims to determine if patients on glucocorticoid replacement therapy for AI have an increased rate of fractures compared to the general population. METHODS: We included all studies with adult patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy for either congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), or secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI)...
April 12, 2021: Endocrine
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