Roland Kocijan, Klaus Klaushofer, Barbara M Misof
Numerous safe and efficient drug therapies are currently available to decrease risk of low trauma fractures in patients with osteoporosis including postmenopausal, male, and secondary osteoporosis. In this chapter, we give first an overview of the most important outcomes regarding fracture risk reduction, change in bone mineral density (BMD by DXA) and/or bone markers of the phase III clinical studies of well-established therapies (such as Bisphosphonates, Denosumab or Teriparatide) and also novel therapies (such as Romosozumab or Abaloparatide) and highlight their mechanisms of action at bone tissue/material level...
August 8, 2020: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
T Thomas, E Casado, P Geusens, W F Lems, J Timoshanko, D Taylor, L C Hofbauer
A panel of European experts was convened to establish consensus on a treat-to-target strategy in osteoporosis. Panellists agreed that the ultimate goals of treating osteoporosis are recovering pre-fracture functional level and reducing subsequent fracture risk; there was consensus that total hip bone mineral density is currently the most appropriate treatment target in clinical practice. INTRODUCTION: A modified Delphi approach was convened to establish consensus among European experts on best practice management for patients with fragility fractures and whether a treat-to-target (T2T) strategy is applicable in osteoporosis...
August 7, 2020: Osteoporosis International
Ping Wang, Wei She, Zeqing Mao, Xing Zhou, Yu Li, Jinjin Niu, Min Jiang, Gang Huang
OBJECTIVE: This study observed the distribution of CT attenuation values for T10-L3 vertebral bodies and derived the Hounsfield unit (HU) thresholds using the quantitative computed tomography (QCT) as a reference to predict osteoporosis and normal bone density. METHODS: We included 482 subjects who were scheduled to undergo CT lung cancer screening and pulmonary nodule follow-up from May 2015 to February 2019. The subjects were scanned with the calibration phantom beneath the back while performing a chest CT scan...
August 7, 2020: Skeletal Radiology
Mohammed Al-Hariri, Bander Aldhafery
Background: Hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) are common diseases that adversely affect the health-related quality of life among the elderly. However, there is a scarcity of literature on the association between HTN and OP. Objective: The aims of this study were to investigate the association between HTN and antihypertensive drugs (AHT), with bone mineral density (BMD) T -scores, as well as to determine the status of bone quality in Saudi Arabia. Method: A retrospective study was conducted at King Fahd Hospital of the University, Khobar, Saudi Arabia, during 2016 to 2018...
2020: Scientifica
Xiaolin Tang, Yinshan Bai, Zhiming Zhang, Jianlin Lu
The aim of the present study was to develop a circulating microRNA expression signature for early prediction of osteoporotic fractures and to validate the results using Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets. The GSE70318 dataset was downloaded from GEO and used to build an osteoporotic fracture prediction model based on the receiver operating characteristic curve and support vector machine (SVM) classification index. The GSE74209 dataset was used as a validation dataset. Additionally, in vitro , alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured in the presence or absence of microRNA (miRNA/miR) treatments in human osteoblast cells...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Yanlong Liang, Benben Zhu, Shuhui Li, Yun Zhai, Yiqiu Yang, Zaixian Bai, Yuan Zeng, Dawei Li
Type 2 diabetic osteoporosis (T2DOP) has become a common secondary cause of osteoporosis that accelerates bone loss and leads to bone fractures. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association between the anti-osteoporotic effect of curcumin (Cur) and the transforming growth factor (TGF)β/Smads signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the experiments. The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) animals were treated with Cur for 8 weeks and blood lipid markers, bone microstructure and bone biomechanics were then evaluated...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Lihua Tan, Yanbei Tu, Kai Wang, Bing Han, Hongquan Peng, Chengwei He
Background: Glycine tabacina (Labill.) Benth, one of the traditional Chinese herbal medicines, has been used for treatment of nephritis, osteoporosis, rheumatism, and menopausal syndrome. The aim of this study was to illuminate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of Glycine tabacina aqueous extract (GATE) in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome (NS). Methods: UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS was used to analyze the chemical profile of GATE. Adriamycin (ADR)-induced NS mouse model and network pharmacology methods were conducted to explore the protective effect and mechanism of GATE on NS treatment...
2020: Chinese Medicine
Paolo Bonfanti, Andrea De Vito, Elena Ricci, Barbara Menzaghi, Giancarlo Orofino, Nicola Squillace, Chiara Molteni, Giuseppe Vittorio De Socio, Elena Salomoni, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Chiara Dentone, Valeria Colombo, Giordano Madeddu
Objective: Few data exist about the effect of dolutegravir (DTG) on bone mineral density (BMD) in real life. The aim of this study was to determine rates of change in BMD over time in people living with HIV (PLWH) treated with DTG. Design: The SCOLTA project is a multicenter observational study enrolling HIV-infected people who start newly commercialized drugs prospectively, with the aim of identifying toxicities and adverse events (AE) in a real-life setting. Methods: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) was performed at study entry (baseline, BL) and after 96 weeks...
2020: Infection and Drug Resistance
Anna Turusheva, Elena Frolova, Yulia Kotovskaya, Yurij Petrosyan, Rauli Dumbadze
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between arterial stiffness, frailty and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling older adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of older adults aged 60 years and older was conducted. Main study parameters: arterial stiffness was measured by the determining the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI); Frailty status was defined using a 7-item frailty screening scale, developed in Russia...
2020: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Zezheng Liu, Wenquan Liang, Dawei Kang, Qingjing Chen, Zhicong Ouyang, Huibo Yan, Bin Huang, Dadi Jin, Yinkui Chen, Qingchu Li
Introduction: Estrogen deficiency leads to bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis, because bone formation, albeit enhanced, fails to keep pace with the stimulated osteoclastic bone resorption. The mechanism driving this uncoupling is central to the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which, however, remains poorly understood. We previously found that Cxcl9 secreted by osteoblasts inhibited osteogenesis in bone, while the roles of Cxcl9 on osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoporosis are unclear...
2020: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Zihan Fan, Xiaoyu Li, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Yang, Qi Fei, Ai Guo
Purpose: To validate the efficacies of three screening tools including the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) without bone mineral density (BMD), and body mass index (BMI) for predicting postmenopausal osteoporosis (OP) and to define the ideal thresholds for avoidance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning in a Han Chinese population in Beijing. Patients and Methods: A total of 2055 community-dwelling Han Beijing postmenopausal females aged ≥45 years were enrolled in this study...
2020: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Chunlei Cong, Jun Tian, Tianqi Gao, Changlin Zhou, Yuxiang Wang, Xintao Cui, Liyu Zhu
Background: It has been reported that lncRNA growth arrest-specific transcript 5 (GAS5) interacts with miR-21, which plays critical roles in osteoporosis. The involvement of GAS5 in osteoporosis was investigated in this study. Methods: Expression levels of GAS5 and miR-21 in plasma of both osteoporosis patients and healthy controls were determined by RT-qPCR. Diagnostic values of GAS5 and miR-21 for osteoporosis were analyzed by ROC curve analysis. Overexpression experiments were used to assess the interactions between GAS5 and miR-21...
2020: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Paolo Carrai, Silvia Camarri, Carlo Renato Pondrelli, Stefano Gonnelli, Carla Caffarelli
Epidemiological and clinical data have suggested the existence of a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and metabolic bone disease. Several studies have demonstrated that heart valve calcification presents substantial similarities with that of bone. Literature data indicate that there are many active processes which promote osteogenesis and loss of mineralization inhibitors that lead to the deposition of extracellular matrix and proteins of bone tissue in cardiac valves. This review aimed to synthesize the available data in order to allow a better understanding of the relationship between osteoporosis or other metabolic bone diseases, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, and valvular calcification in humans...
2020: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Hiroki Okamura, Koji Ishikawa, Yoshifumi Kudo, Akira Matsuoka, Hiroshi Maruyama, Haruka Emori, Ryo Yamamura, Chikara Hayakawa, Soji Tani, Koki Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki Shirahata, Tomoaki Toyone, Takashi Nagai, Katsunori Inagaki
There is growing interest in "osteosarcopenia" as the coexistence of osteoporosis and sarcopenia exacerbates negative outcomes. However, limited information is available regarding the risk factors of osteosarcopenia development in patients with osteoporosis. Therefore, we retrospectively reviewed 276 consecutive patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis who regularly visited Showa University Hospital. Patients were eligible for the study if they were ≥65 years of age and underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, blood sampling, and physical performance assessment...
2020: PloS One
F M Conesa-Buendía, A Mediero, R Fujikawa, P Esbrit, F Mulero, I Mahillo-Fernández, Arantxa Ortega-De Mues
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease characterized by injury of all joint tissues. Our previous study showed that in experimental osteoporosis, chiropractic manipulation (CM) exerts protective effects on bone. We here assessed whether CM might ameliorate OA by improving subchondral bone sclerosis, cartilage integrity and synovitis. Male New-Zealand rabbits underwent knee surgery to induce OA by anterior cruciate ligament injury. CM was performed using the chiropractic instrument ActivatorV 3 times/week for 8 weeks as follows: force 2 setting was applied to the tibial tubercle of the rabbit right hind limb (TM-OA), whereas the corresponding left hind limb received a false manipulation (FM-OA) consisting of ActivatorV firing in the air and slightly touching the tibial tubercle...
August 6, 2020: Scientific Reports
Rong Wang, Tao Long, Abdirahman Hassan, Jin Wang, Yingyuan Sun, Xiao-Song Xie, Xiaochun Li
The vacuolar-type H+ -ATPases (V-ATPase) hydrolyze ATP to pump protons across the plasma or intracellular membrane, secreting acids to the lumen or acidifying intracellular compartments. It has been implicated in tumor metastasis, renal tubular acidosis, and osteoporosis. Here, we report two cryo-EM structures of the intact V-ATPase from bovine brain with all the subunits including the subunit H, which is essential for ATPase activity. Two type-I transmembrane proteins, Ac45 and (pro)renin receptor, along with subunit c", constitute the core of the c-ring...
August 6, 2020: Nature Communications
Jean Vacher, Michael Bruccoleri, Monica Pata
The maintenance of bone mass is a dynamic process that requires a strict balance between bone formation and resorption. Bone formation is controlled by osteoblasts, while osteoclasts are responsible for resorption of the bone matrix. The opposite functions of these cell types have to be tightly regulated not only during normal bone development, but also during adult life, to maintain serum calcium homeostasis and sustain bone integrity to prevent bone fractures. Disruption of the control of bone synthesis or resorption can lead to an over accumulation of bone tissue in osteopetrosis or conversely to a net depletion of the bone mass in osteoporosis...
August 5, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Christos V Chalitsios, Tricia M McKeever, Dominick E Shaw
BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and fragility fractures (FF) are associated with corticosteroids which are the mainstay treatment for asthma; however, these bone comorbidities within asthma need to be better described. METHODS: A matched cohort study was conducted using the Clinical Practice Research Database (CPRD). Adults with an incident asthma code were identified and matched, with up to four randomly selected people without asthma, by age, gender, and practice. Osteoporosis and FF incidence rates were calculated, and Cox regression was performed comparing hazard rates to the general population...
August 6, 2020: European Respiratory Journal
Zhonghua Xu, Jin He, Xindie Zhou, Yi Zhang, Yong Huang, Nanwei Xu, Haoyu Yang
Osteoporosis is a result of the imbalance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts quantities, which is closely correlated with osteogenic differentiation (OD). Leucocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) has been reported as a regulatory factor in some chronic diseases such as hepatitis through mediating downstream target gene β-catenin. Additionally, Wnt/β-catenin is also the crucial modulatory signal pathway in OD. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is a kind of mesodermal stem cells; its differentiation direction is discovered affected by Wnt/β-catenin...
August 4, 2020: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy
Yi-Tzu Lin, Shih-Wen Peng, Zuha Imtiyaz, Chin-Wen Ho, Wen-Fei Chiou, Mei-Hsien Lee
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Postmenopausal osteoporosis is one of the major bone health issues in the world. There is an unmet medical need for osteoporosis that disproportionately impacts women. Exploring botanicals to prevent or treat osteoporosis is currently an urgent subject. Rhizomes of D. mariesii Davallia mariesii T. Moore ex Baker (Davalliacea) is an indigenous herbal medicine used for injuries from fractures, contusions and strains in Asia. AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic effect of water extract of rhizomes of D...
August 4, 2020: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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