Yuta Ando, Chelsea Mariano, Keyue Shen
Tumor immunotherapy is rapidly evolving as one of the major pillars of cancer treatment. Cell-based immunotherapies, which utilize patient's own immune cells to eliminate cancer cells, have shown great promise in treating a range of malignancies, especially those of hematopoietic origins. However, their performance on a broader spectrum of solid tumor types still fall short of expectations in the clinical stage despite of the promising preclinical assessments. In this review, we briefly introduce cell-based immunotherapies and the inhibitory mechanisms in tumor microenvironments that may have contributed to this discrepancy...
April 12, 2021: Acta Biomaterialia
Thi Mai Thien Vo, Sudip Mondal, Van Tu Nguyen, Sumin Park, Jaeyeop Choi, Ngoc Thang Bui, Junghwan Oh
In recent years, suitable bioactive materials coated nanoparticles have attracted substantial attention in the field of biomedical applications. The present study emphasizes experimental details for the synthesis of boiling rice starch extract (BRE) coated iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) to treat cancer by photoacoustic imaging (PAI)-guided chemo-photothermal therapy. The solvothermal method was used to synthesize IONPs. The physical immobilization method helps to coat BRE-loaded doxorubicin (DOX) molecules on the iron oxide surface...
April 12, 2021: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Angelie Rivera-Rodriguez, Carlos M Rinaldi-Ramos
Magnetic nanoparticles are of interest for biomedical applications because of their biocompatibility, tunable surface chemistry, and actuation using applied magnetic fields. Magnetic nanoparticles respond to time-varying magnetic fields via physical particle rotation or internal dipole reorientation, which can result in signal generation or conversion of magnetic energy to heat. This dynamic magnetization response enables their use as tracers in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), an emerging biomedical imaging modality in which signal is quantitative of tracer mass and there is no tissue background signal or signal attenuation...
April 15, 2021: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Inna Tsvitman, Orit Cohen Castel, Efrat Dagan
PURPOSE: Cancer patients undergoing active anti-cancer treatment experience multiple symptoms concurrently. Over the years, studies to improve patients' physical and psychological discomfort by focusing on patients' needs and preferences have reported promising outcomes. This study aims to explore perceived patient-centered care and its association to symptoms experienced by cancer patients undergoing active anti-cancer treatment. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient cancer center between August 2018 and July 2019 among adult cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and biological therapy...
April 14, 2021: Supportive Care in Cancer
Hiroshige Sato, Masashi Mizumoto, Toshiyuki Okumura, Hideyuki Sakurai, Noriaki Sakamoto, Hiroyoshi Akutsu, Eiichi Ishikawa, Koji Tsuboi
This study aimed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) for unresectable benign meningiomas at the University of Tsukuba, Japan. From 1986-1998, 10 patients were treated at the Particle Radiation Medical Science Center (PRMSC) with a relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 1.0 using an accelerator built for physics experiments. The total dose was compensated with an X-ray in three patients. Following that, from 2002-2017, 17 patients were treated with a RBE value of 1.1 at the Proton Medical Research Center (PMRC) which was built for medical use...
April 13, 2021: Journal of Radiation Research
Amelia Lorensia, Ryanto Budiono, Rivan Virlando Suryadinata, Navy Tiarasari
BACKGROUND: The consumption of EPA (Eicosapentaenoic acid), and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), from fish oil, in the long run, has been observed to have a positive impact on patients with coronary heart disease. Fish oil products, with so much EPA and DHA content are available, and have very variable prices. Therefore, as a therapy to be used for long-term treatment, the cost factor is to be considered. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study analyzed the content of EPA and DHA, using GC-MS...
April 14, 2021: Journal of Public Health Research
Florian BUßMEYER, Felicia Kneifel, Ann-Kathrin Eichelmann, Daniel Palmes, Richard Hummel, Kirsten Lindner
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, numerously therapeutic regimes were assessed to improve the outcome of patients with esophageal carcinoma. We analyzed the impact of therapy alterations, including the establishment of a standardized clinical pathway and the introduction of an interdisciplinary tumor conference on the outcome of patients undergoing esophagectomy because of esophageal cancer. METHODS: Included were 301 patients (204 adenocarcinoma and 97 squamous cell carcinoma) who underwent an esophagectomy between 2006 and 2015...
April 14, 2021: Minerva surgery
Romil Singh, Saher T Shiza, Rabeea Saadat, Manal Dawe, Usama Rehman
There is growing evidence of neurological involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), suggesting that Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) can also occur with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a neurological complication. Herein, we describe a unique case of a 45-year-old male who manifested with sudden onset progressive symmetric ascending paralysis leading to quadriplegia one week after developing fever, cough, and dyspnea. On examination, he had areflexia in lower limbs and hyporeflexia in upper limbs...
March 11, 2021: Curēus
Alberto Migliore, Giuseppe Pompilio, Davide Integlia, Joe Zhuo, Evo Alemao
Introduction: For patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi), main options include cycling onto a different TNFi or switching to a biologic/targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug with a different mechanism of action (MOA). This network meta-analysis (NMA) assessed comparative clinical efficacy of cycling versus switching. Methods: We conducted a literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library...
2021: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Yujiro Nakajima, Kei Ito
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a high-precision radiation therapy technique that enables to deliver a high ablative biological dose in 1 to 5 high dose-fractions despite sparing the high dose of adjacent organs at risk. SBRT has emerged as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for spinal metastases and has been applied to patients with non-spine bone metastases as well. Since bone SBRT is the technique of high biologically effective dose to the local lesion, quality assurance (QA) of the entire treatment process is an essential for performing SBRT...
2021: Japanese Journal of Medical Physics
Opeyemi Ayodiipo Idowu, Ade Fatai Adeniyi, Andrew Edo, Adesoji Fasanmade
BACKGROUND: Graded activity is gradually emerging as a preferred choice in improving psychosocial outcomes including pain self-efficacy, fear-avoidance beliefs, and back-pain beliefs in the general population with low back pain (LBP). Such evidence is, however, lacking among patients with concomitant LBP and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This secondary analysis of a randomized control trial aimed to compare the efficacy between graded activity augmented with additional daily-monitored-walking and graded activity alone on disability, pain self-efficacy (PSE), fear-avoidance beliefs (FAB), back-pain beliefs (BPB) and glycaemic control (HbA1c) in patients with concomitant LBP and T2DM...
April 15, 2021: Archives of Physiotherapy
M V Ruiz-Romero, M D Guerra-Martín, L Álvarez-Tellado, E Sánchez-Villar, A Arroyo-Rodríguez, M C Sánchez-Gutiérrez
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic pain in Spain is 17%. There is a need for more scientific data on non-drug treat-ments that can be effectively used to treat chronic pain. The aim of this study is to analyze how patients with chronic non-malignant pain perceive non-drug approaches. METHOD: Mixed, descriptive and phenomenological study. Nineteen patients enrolled in a workshop on pain management and non-drug treatments that consisted of four sessions (one session a week)...
April 12, 2021: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Consuelo Guardiola, Diana Bachiller-Perea, Juan Prieto-Pena, M C Jimenez-Ramos, Javier Garcia-Lopez, Cédric Esnault, Celeste Fleta, David Quirion, Faustino Gomez
In this work we show the first microdosimetry measurements on a low energy proton beam with therapeutic-equivalent fluence rates by using the second generation of 3D-cylindrical microdetectors. The sensors belong to an improved version of a novel silicon-based 3D-microdetector design with electrodes etched inside silicon, which were manufactured at the National Microelectronics Centre (IMB-CNM, CSIC) in Spain. A new microtechnology has been employed using quasi-toroid electrodes of 25 μm diameter and a depth of 20 μm within the silicon bulk, resulting in a well-defined cylindrical radiation sensitive volume...
April 14, 2021: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Cássia da Luz Goulart, Rebeca Nunes Silva, Murilo Rezende Oliveira, Solange Guizilini, Isadora Salvador Rocco, Vanessa Marques Ferreira Mendez, José Carlos Bonjorno, Flavia Rossi Caruso, Ross Arena, Audrey Borghi-Silva
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious respiratory viral disease for both the general population and health care professionals caring for infected patients. Of particular concern is the potential for significant respiratory, cardiovascular, physical, and psychological dysfunctions. AREAS COVERED: In this context, the current review will focus on the following areas: 1) staying physically active during the COVID-19 pandemic; 2) highlighting the importance of understanding COVID-19 mechanisms; 3) preventing infections for healthcare workers by using personal protective equipment; 4) highlighting importance of respiratory care and physical therapy during hospitalization in patients with COVID-19; and 5) facilitating referral to a rehabilitation program in patients recovering from COVID-19...
April 14, 2021: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Ibukunoluwa Adeleke, Jeanna Blitz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the surgical population ages, preoperative diagnosis and optimization of frailty becomes increasingly important. Various concepts are used to define frailty, and several tools have been validated for use in the perioperative period. This article reviews current conceptual frameworks of frailty, references current literature and provides a practical approach to the preoperative frailty assessment with a focus on potential interventions. RECENT FINDINGS: A multipronged approach toward preoperative optimization should be used in patients with frailty syndrome...
April 14, 2021: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Eleanor Dunlap, Suzanna Fitzpatrick, Felecia Jinwala, Charles Drucker, Willie Liang, Khanjan Nagarsheth
BACKGROUND: Fasciotomy with resection of nonviable muscle is often necessary when there is a delay in compartment syndrome (CS) diagnosis after revascularization. The reported rate of major amputation following missed CS or delayed fasciotomy ranges from 12% to 35%. Herein, the authors present a series of critically ill patients who experienced delayed CS diagnosis and required complete resection of the anterior and/or lateral compartments but still achieved limb salvage and function...
May 1, 2021: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Miao Miao, Yuhui Li, Bo Huang, Jiali Chen, Yuebo Jin, Miao Shao, Xia Zhang, Xiaolin Sun, Jing He, Zhanguo Li
INTRODUCTION: Treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) is challenging due to a lack of safe and efficacious medication. Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment emerges as a new option in active IIMs. This study aims to explore the clinical and immunological effects of low-dose IL-2 in patients with active IIMs. METHODS: Eighteen patients with active IIMs were enrolled and received 1 × 106  IU of IL-2 subcutaneously every other day for 12 weeks on top of standard care...
April 14, 2021: Rheumatology and Therapy
Onkar Singh, Partho Mukherjee, M S Sakthivel, Cornerstone Wann, A J P George, Rajesh Gopalakrishnan, Belavendra Antonisamy, Antony Devasia, Santosh Kumar, Nitin S Kekre, J Chandrasingh
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral extracapsular or total orchiectomy (BEO) for prostate cancer is presumed to have psychological consequences after the surgery due to perception of an empty scrotum. Bilateral subcapsular orchiectomy (BSO) was designed to preserve perception of palpable testes. We compared the patients' satisfaction and genital perception following BEO and BSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate cancer patients eligible for androgen deprivation therapy who opted for orchiectomy were enrolled in prospective randomized study...
April 13, 2021: International Urology and Nephrology
Mustafa Fatih Yaşar, Elif Yakşi, Ramazan Kurul, Muhammed Balcı
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common condition that impacts many people worldwide and involves weight-bearing joints, resulting in chronic pain. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of inpatient and outpatient physical therapy modalities and spa combination treatments on pain and functional status in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-four patients diagnosed with primary knee osteoarthritis were included in this study. The patients were randomized into two groups, inpatient (n = 37) and outpatient (n = 37) physical therapy...
April 14, 2021: International Journal of Biometeorology
Mona Seifert, Subhas Chandra Bera, Pauline van Nies, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Ashleigh Shannon, Thi-Tuyet-Nhung Le, Xiangzhi Meng, Hongjie Xia, James M Wood, Lawrence D Harris, Flávia S Papini, Jamie J Arnold, Steven C Almo, Tyler L Grove, Pei-Yong Shi, Yan Xiang, Bruno Canard, Martin Depken, Craig E Cameron, David Dulin
The nucleotide analog Remdesivir (RDV) is the only FDA-approved antiviral therapy to treat infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The physical basis for efficient utilization of RDV by SARS-CoV-2 polymerase is unknown. Here, we characterize the impact of RDV and other nucleotide analogs on RNA synthesis by the polymerase using a high-throughput, single-molecule, magnetic-tweezers platform. The location of the modification in the ribose or in the base dictates the catalytic pathway(s) used for its incorporation...
April 8, 2021: the Preprint Server for Biology
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