post mortem imaging

Daniela Sapienza, Alessio Asmundo, Salvatore Silipigni, Ugo Barbaro, Antonella Cinquegrani, Francesca Granata, Valeria Barresi, Patrizia Gualniera, Antonio Bottari, Michele Gaeta
Estimating early postmortem interval (EPI) is a difficult task in daily forensic activity due to limitations of accurate and reliable methods. The aim of the present work is to describe a novel approach in the estimation of EPI based on quantitative magnetic resonance molecular imaging (qMRMI) using a pig phantom since post-mortem degradation of pig meat is similar to that of human muscles. On a pig phantom maintained at 20° degree, using a 1.5 T MRI scanner we performed 10 scans (every 4 hours) monitoring apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA) magnetization transfer ration (MTR), tractography and susceptibility weighted changes in muscles until 36 hours after death...
January 15, 2020: Scientific Reports
Robert A McCutcheon, John H Krystal, Oliver D Howes
Glutamate and dopamine systems play distinct roles in terms of neuronal signalling, yet both have been proposed to contribute significantly to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this paper we assess research that has implicated both systems in the aetiology of this disorder. We examine evidence from post-mortem, preclinical, pharmacological and in vivo neuroimaging studies. Pharmacological and preclinical studies implicate both systems, and in vivo imaging of the dopamine system has consistently identified elevated striatal dopamine synthesis and release capacity in schizophrenia...
February 2020: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Daniel O Shonibare, Ronak Patel, Alvi H Islam, Arron W S Metcalfe, Lisa Fiksenbaum, James L Kennedy, Natalie Freeman, Bradley J MacIntosh, Benjamin I Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD), among the most heritable psychiatric conditions, is associated with increased pro-inflammatory blood markers and pro-inflammatory gene expression in post-mortem brain. We therefore examined the effects of pro-inflammatory single nucleotide polymorphism interleukin-1β (IL-1β) rs16944 on brain structure in adolescents with BD and healthy control (HC) adolescents. METHODS: T1 -weighted 3-T magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired for 38 adolescents with BD and 32 HC adolescents (14-20 years)...
December 31, 2019: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daniele Bertoglio, Jeroen Verhaeghe, Špela Korat, Alan Miranda, Klaudia Cybulska, Leonie Wyffels, Sigrid Stroobants, Ladislav Mrzljak, Celia Dominguez, Mette Skinbjerg, Longbin Liu, Ignacio Munoz-Sanjuan, Steven Staelens
Impairment of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) results in altered glutamate signalling, which is associated with several neurological disorders including Huntington's Disease (HD), an autosomal neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we assessed in vivo pathological changes in mGluR1 availability in the Q175DN mouse model of HD using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with the radioligand [11 C]ITDM. Ninety-minute dynamic PET imaging scans were performed in 22 heterozygous (HET) Q175DN mice and 22 wild-type (WT) littermates longitudinally at 6, 12, and 16 months of age...
January 8, 2020: Molecular Neurobiology
Christopher Robert D'Angelo, Kimberly Ku, Jessica Gulliver, Julie Chang
BACKGROUND: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare and aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a varied presentation and no pathognomonic findings. Early diagnosis is critical to altering the disease course as early treatment with chemoimmunotherapy is required to prevent a rapidly fatal outcome. Strategies including improved awareness of this clinical entity through publication of cases with unique presentations are essential to prompt consideration of IVLBCL early in the disease workup...
December 24, 2019: World Journal of Clinical Oncology
Isabelle Quelven, Jacques Monteil, Magali Sage, Amal Saidi, Jeremy Mounier, Audrey Bayout, Julie Garrier, Michel Cogne, Stephanie Durand-Panteix
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell cancer and represents the second most frequent hematological malignancy. Despite new treatments and protocols including high doses chemotherapy associated with autologous stem cell transplantation, the prognosis of MM patients is still poor. Alpha-radioimmunotherapy (alpha-RIT) represents an attractive treatment strategy due to the high linear energy transfer and short path length of alpha-radiation in tissues, resulting in high tumor cell killing and low toxicity to surrounding tissues...
December 20, 2019: Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Yasuhiro Morita, Sadamu Sugiyama, Takeshi Tsuka, Yoshiharu Okamoto, Takehito Morita, Yuji Sunden, Takashi Takeuchi
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare abdominal disease; that occasionally occurs congenitally in younger calves. Cytologic examination of peritoneal effusion (PE) was utilized to diagnose this disease, and was not diagnostic. Diagnostic accuracy has been elevated by recent use of ultrasonography (US), despite most diagnoses have been obtained post-mortem in slaughter houses or during clinical necropsy. In humans, ante-mortem diagnosis is highly associated with clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and laparoscopy together with imaging-assisted biopsy...
December 19, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
Ana Ortega-Gil, Juan José Vaquero, Mario Gonzalez-Arjona, Joaquín Rullas, Arrate Muñoz-Barrutia
Hollow organs such as the lungs pose a considerable challenge for post-mortem imaging in preclinical research owing to their extremely low contrast and high structural complexity. The aim of our study was to enhance the contrast of tuberculosis lesions for their stratification by 3D x-ray-based virtual slicing. Organ samples were taken from five control and five tuberculosis-infected mice. Micro-Computed Tomography (CT) scans of the subjects were acquired in vivo (without contrast agent) and post-mortem (with contrast agent)...
December 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
Bridgette Webb, Martin Manninger, Marlene Leoni, Thomas Widek, Martin Dobrovnik, Daniel Scherr, Rudolf Stollberger, Thorsten Schwark
Diagnosis of ischaemia-related sudden cardiac death in the absence of microscopic and macroscopic ischaemic lesions remains a challenge for medical examiners. Medical imaging techniques increasingly provide support in post-mortem examinations by detecting and documenting internal findings prior to autopsy. Previous studies have characterised MR relaxation times to investigate post-mortem signs of myocardial infarction in forensic cohorts. In this prospective study based on an ex situ porcine heart model, we report fundamental findings related to intramyocardial variability and temporal stability of T2 as well as the effects of permanent coronary occlusion on T2 and T2 ∗ relaxation in post-mortem myocardium...
December 18, 2019: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Laura Hvidsten Ørstrup, Laura Tvilling, Dariusz Orlowski, Hamed Zaer, Carsten Reidies Bjarkam, Pia von Voss, Pia Skårup Andersen, Berit Ø Christoffersen, Jens Christian Hedemann Sørensen, Torben Laursen, Peter Thygesen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Andreas Nørgaard Glud
Background: Adult onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (AGDH) is a potentially underdiagnosed condition, caused by damage to the pituitary gland. AGHD is treated with growth hormone replacement therapy. A large variety of clinical symptoms and changes in the metabolic homeostasis can be observed and quantified. New large animal models are needed for future drug development. New method: In this study, we evaluate methods for a new large non-primate animal model of GH deficiency in post pubertal Göttingen Minipigs (minipig)...
November 2019: Heliyon
Xiuxian Pham, David K Wright, Nafiseh Atapour, Jonathan M-H Chan, Kirsty J Watkins, Katrina H Worthy, Marcello Rosa, Amy Reichelt, David H Reser
There has been a surge of interest in the structure and function of the mammalian claustrum in recent years. However, most anatomical and physiological studies treat the claustrum as a relatively homogenous structure. Relatively little attention has been directed toward possible compartmentalization of the claustrum complex into anatomical subdivisions, and how this compartmentalization is reflected in claustrum connections with other brain structures. In this study, we examined the cyto- and myelo-architecture of the claustrum of the common marmoset ( Callithrix jacchus ), to determine whether the claustrum contains internal anatomical structures or compartments, which could facilitate studies focused on understanding its role in brain function...
2019: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Christin Röttiger, Maren Hellige, Bernhard Ohnesorge, Astrid Bienert-Zeit
BACKGROUND: The use of cadavers for radiology research methodologies involving subjective image quality evaluation of anatomical criteria is well-documented. The purpose of this method comparison study was to evaluate the image quality of dental and adjacent structures in computed tomography (CT) and high-field (3 T) magnetic resonance (MR) images in cadaveric heads, based on an objective four-point rating scale. Whilst CT is a well-established technique, MR imaging (MRI) is rarely used for equine dental diagnostics...
December 10, 2019: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Miguel Quintas-Neves, Merilee A Teylan, Lilah Besser, João Soares-Fernandes, Charles N Mock, Walter A Kukull, John F Crary, Tiago Gil Oliveira
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Recently, primary age-related tauopathy (PART) has been described as a new anatomopathological disorder where NFTs are the main feature in the absence of neuritic plaques. However, since PART has mainly been studied in post-mortem patient brains, not much is known about the clinical or neuroimaging characteristics of PART. Here, we studied the clinical brain imaging characteristics of PART focusing on neuroanatomical vulnerability by applying a previously validated multiregion visual atrophy scale...
December 9, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Jeyanth Suresh Rose, Sharmili Lalgudi, Aarwin Joshua, Joshua Paul, Augustine Thambaiah, Syrpailyne Wankhar, Geeta Chacko, Thomas Kuriakose, Sanita Korah
In this study, we evaluated the effect of placenta-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) versus placebo in improving corneal transparency following experimental injury in an ex-vivo organ culture model of post-mortem human corneas. We also compared the influence of MSCs on the basic histopathology of the cornea and the immunohistochemistry markers of fibrotic corneal scarring. Mesenchymal Stem Cells extracted from the placenta were isolated and expanded in-vitro. Five pairs of post-mortem human corneas harvested for the corneal transplant of equal grade were included in the study...
December 5, 2019: Experimental Eye Research
Susan Shelmerdine, Dean Langan, Neil J Sebire, Owen Arthurs
Objective: Ultrasound is ubiquitous in live paediatric imaging; however, its usage in post-mortem setting is less established. This systematic review aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of paediatric post-mortem ultrasound (PMUS). Design: MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were queried for studies published between 1998 and 2018 assessing PMUS diagnostic accuracy rates in children<18 years old, using autopsy as reference standard. Risk of bias was assessed using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2...
2019: BMJ Paediatrics Open
Andrew W Hume, R Andrew Tasker
Ischemic stroke accounts for 70-80% of stroke cases worldwide and survivors are frequently left with compromising sensorimotor deficits localized to one or more body regions. Most animal models of stroke involve transient or permanent occlusion of one or more major vessels such as the middle cerebral artery and are characterized by widespread damage to cortical and subcortical structures that result in deficits that can confound studies of neuroprotection and neurorehabilitation. Localized microinjections of the vasoconstricting peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) into specific brain regions are becoming increasingly popular for such studies, but the pharmacology of endothelin-induced ischemic damage is poorly understood...
December 3, 2019: Neurotoxicity Research
Mike J P Biggs, Bruno Morgan, Guy N Rutty
Use of post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) scanning to investigate natural and unnatural death has increased dramatically in recent years. Powerful software exists to allow detailed analysis of the scanned anatomy and pathology, and users of PMCT and other medical imaging will already be familiar with both two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3D) representations of this data. However, standard medical image viewing programs do not allow direct manipulation of the visible anatomy. By extracting anatomical features from medical images, this data can be exported into 3D manipulation software to enhance pathological examination and anatomical demonstration...
December 3, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Petri Elo, Xiang-Guo Li, Heidi Liljenbäck, Semi Helin, Jarmo Teuho, Kalle Koskensalo, Virva Saunavaara, Päivi Marjamäki, Vesa Oikonen, Jenni Virta, Qingshou Chen, Philip S Low, Juhani Knuuti, Sirpa Jalkanen, Laura Airas, Anne Roivainen
BACKGROUND: Folate receptor-β (FR-β) is a cell surface receptor that is significantly upregulated on activated macrophages during inflammation and provides a potential target for folate-based therapeutic and diagnostic agents. FR-β expression in central nervous system inflammation remains relatively unexplored. Therefore, we used focally induced acute and chronic phases of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) to study patterns of FR-β expression and evaluated its potential as an in vivo imaging target...
December 3, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eoin Finegan, Stacey Li Hi Shing, Rangariroyashe H Chipika, Mark A Doherty, Jennifer C Hengeveld, Alice Vajda, Colette Donaghy, Niall Pender, Russell L McLaughlin, Orla Hardiman, Peter Bede
BACKGROUND: Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) is a low incidence motor neuron disease which carries a markedly better prognosis than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite sporadic reports of extra-motor symptoms, PLS is widely regarded as a pure upper motor neuron disorder. The post mortem literature of PLS is strikingly sparse and very little is known of subcortical grey matter pathology in this condition. METHODS: A prospective imaging study was undertaken with 33 PLS patients, 117 healthy controls and 100 ALS patients to specifically assess the integrity of subcortical grey matter structures and determine whether PLS and ALS have divergent thalamic, hippocampal and basal ganglia signatures...
November 12, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sonja Stojanovski, Arash Nazeri, Christian Lepage, Stephanie Ameis, Aristotle N Voineskos, Anne L Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have focused on alterations in microstructural features of deep white matter fibers (DWM), though post-mortem studies have demonstrated that injured axons are often observed at the gray-white matter interface where superficial white matter fibers (SWM) mediate local connectivity. OBJECTIVES: To examine microstructural alterations in SWM and DWM in youths with a history of mild TBI and examine the relationship between white matter alterations and attention...
November 19, 2019: NeuroImage: Clinical
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