post mortem imaging

Johann Zwirner, Mario Scholze, John Neil Waddell, Benjamin Ondruschka, Niels Hammer
Realistic human head models are of great interest in traumatic brain injury research and in the forensic pathology courtroom and teaching. Due to a lack of biomechanical data, the human dura mater is underrepresented in head models. This study provides tensile data of 73 fresh human cranial dura mater samples retrieved from an area between the anterior middle and the posterior middle meningeal artery. Tissues were adapted to their native water content using the osmotic stress technique. Tensile tests were conducted under quasi-static uniaxial testing conditions with simultaneous digital image correlation...
November 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alexander Haenel, Mohamad Ghosn, Tahereh Karimi, Jody Vykoukal, Dipan Shah, Miguel Valderrabano, Daryl G Schulz, Albert Raizner, Christoph Schmitz, Eckhard U Alt
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies investigated cell-based therapies for myocardial infarction (MI). The conflicting results of these studies have established the need for developing innovative approaches for applying cell-based therapy for MI. Experimental studies on animal models demonstrated the potential of fresh, uncultured, unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs) for treating acute MI. In contrast, studies on the treatment of chronic MI (CMI; > 4 wk post-MI) with UA-ADRCs have not been published so far...
October 26, 2019: World Journal of Stem Cells
Sissel Lundemose, Johannes Rødbro Busch, Morten Møller, Karl-Erik Jensen, Niels Lynnerup, Jytte Banner, Christina Jacobsen
We present an autopsy-validated, non-invasive, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based segmentation algorithm, for determining hippocampal volume. A segmentation algorithm was developed to assess the volume of the hippocampus. Deceased individuals with severe mental illness were used to evaluate the use of MRI imaging to determine hippocampal volume as this group has previously been associated with altered hippocampal volume diagnosed on MRI. The accuracy of the MR- scanning protocol for volume measurement was tested on a water filled phantom control with a known volume of 500 ml, and a difference of 0...
October 30, 2019: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Aleksandra Pineda, Josh Martin, Aniket Puri, Bijan Jahangiri
Background: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has gained attention as an important cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death (SCD) among women. Management strategies of SCAD differ from those of atherosclerotic disease. There is an elevated risk of complications and suboptimal outcomes in patients with SCAD undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). Case summary: A 48-year-old woman without any traditional cardiovascular risk factors was admitted with severe central chest pain with associated dyspnoea and diaphoresis...
September 2019: European Heart Journal. Case Reports
Sara Nilsson, David Albinsson, Tomasz J Antosiewicz, Joachim Fritzsche, Christoph Langhammer
Copper nanostructures are ubiquitous in microelectronics and heterogeneous catalysis and their oxidation is a topic of high current interest and broad relevance. It relates to important questions, such as catalyst active phase, activity and selectivity, as well as fatal failure of microelectronic devices. Despite the obvious importance of understanding the mechanism of Cu nanostructure oxidation, numerous open questions remain, including under what conditions homogeneous oxide layer growth occurs and when the nanoscale Kirkendall void forms...
October 25, 2019: Nanoscale
Caitlin Steffensen, Gregory Trypis, Gordon T W Mander, Zachary Munn
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to investigate the effectiveness of adjusting radiographic technique parameters on image quality of projectional radiographs acquired on a direct digital radiography system. INTRODUCTION: Projectional radiography performed with direct digital detectors is now commonplace in many medical imaging departments across the world. While the acquisition technology has advanced, it appears that many sites have not optimized their radiographic technique factors for this new technology...
July 11, 2019: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Smriti Patodia, Beatrice Paradiso, Matthew Ellis, Alyma Somani, Sanjay M Sisodiya, Orrin Devinsky, Maria Thom
Central failure of respiration during a seizure is one possible mechanism for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Neuroimaging studies indicate volume loss in the medulla in SUDEP and a post mortem study has shown reduction in neuromodulatory neuropeptidergic and monoaminergic neurones in medullary respiratory nuclear groups. Specialised glial cells identified in the medulla are considered essential for normal respiratory regulation including astrocytes with pacemaker properties in the pre-Botzinger complex and populations of subpial and perivascular astrocytes, sensitive to increased pCO2, that excite respiratory neurones...
October 1, 2019: Epilepsy Research
Allison D Griffin, L Christine Turtzo, Gunjan Y Parikh, Alexander Tolpygo, Zachary Lodato, Anita D Moses, Govind Nair, Daniel P Perl, Nancy A Edwards, Bernard J Dardzinski, Regina C Armstrong, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Partha P Mitra, Lawrence L Latour
Traumatic microbleeds are small foci of hypointensity seen on T2*-weighted MRI in patients following head trauma that have previously been considered a marker of axonal injury. The linear appearance and location of some traumatic microbleeds suggests a vascular origin. The aims of this study were to: (i) identify and characterize traumatic microbleeds in patients with acute traumatic brain injury; (ii) determine whether appearance of traumatic microbleeds predict clinical outcome; and (iii) describe the pathology underlying traumatic microbleeds in an index patient...
October 14, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Marcello M DiStasio, Ikue Nagakura, Monica J Nadler, Matthew P Anderson
OBJECTIVE: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 59 children yet, except for rare genetic causes, the etiology in most ASD remains unknown. In the ASD brain, inflammatory cytokine and transcript profiling show increased expression of genes encoding mediators of the innate immune response. We evaluated post-mortem brain tissue for adaptive immune cells and immune cell-mediated cytotoxic damage that could drive this innate immune response in the ASD brain. METHODS: Standard neuropathology diagnostic methods including histology and immunohistochemistry were extended with automated image segmentation to quantify identified pathologic features in the postmortem brains...
October 8, 2019: Annals of Neurology
Hamish J Newman, Nicholas Milne, Stephen B Lewis
BACKGROUND: Trans-sphenoidal surgical approaches involve dissection of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus in close proximity to the internal carotid arteries. To reduce the risk of vascular injury, a detailed study of embalmed cadavers' sellae was conducted and found the internal carotid artery approached within 4mm of the midline in 10% of cases, and the closest inter-carotid distance (ICD) occurred in the cavernous sinus, sphenoid sinus, and supra-clinoid segments in 82%, 14%, and 4% of cases respectively...
October 4, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Marzia Buscema, Simone E Hieber, Georg Schulz, Hans Deyhle, Alexander Hipp, Felix Beckmann, Johannes A Lobrinus, Till Saxer, Bert Müller
Atherosclerotic arteries exhibit characteristic constrictions and substantial deviations from cylindrical shape. Therefore, determining the artery's cross-section along the centerline is challenging, although high-resolution isotropic three-dimensional data are available. Herein, we apply high-resolution computed tomography in absorption and phase to a plaque-containing human artery post-mortem, through the course of the preparation stages for histology. We identify the impact of paraffin embedding and decalcification on the artery lumen...
October 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
Abhishekh H Ashok, Jim Myers, Tiago Reis Marques, Eugenii A Rabiner, Oliver D Howes
Negative symptoms, such as amotivation and anhedonia, are a major cause of functional impairment in schizophrenia. There are currently no licensed treatments for negative symptoms, highlighting the need to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying them. Mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in the striatum play a key role in hedonic processing and reward function and are reduced post-mortem in schizophrenia. However, it is unknown if mu-opioid receptor availability is altered in-vivo or related to negative symptoms in schizophrenia...
October 3, 2019: Nature Communications
Ambrose A Dunn-Meynell, Peter Dowling, Michelle Marchese, Esther Rodriguez, Benjamin Blumberg, Yun-Beom Choi, Deeya Gaindh, Wei Lu
Many studies of tauopathy use transgenic mice that overexpress the P301S mutant form of tau. Neuronal damage in these mice is associated with astrogliosis and induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. GFAP-luc transgenic mice express firefly luciferase under the GFAP promoter, allowing bioluminescence to be measured non-invasively as a surrogate biomarker for astrogliosis. We bred double transgenic mice possessing both P301S and GFAP-luc cassettes and compared them to control mice bearing only the GFAP-luc transgene...
2019: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Niels Bergsland, Eleonora Tavazzi, Ferdinand Schweser, Dejan Jakimovski, Jesper Hagemeier, Michael G Dwyer, Robert Zivadinov
While iron has an important role in the normal functioning of the brain owing to its involvement in several physiological processes, dyshomeostasis has been found in many neurodegenerative disorders, as evidenced by both histopathological and imaging studies. Although the exact causes have remained elusive, the fact that altered iron levels have been found in disparate diseases suggests that iron may contribute to their development and/or progression. As such, the processes involved in iron dyshomeostasis may represent novel therapeutic targets...
September 25, 2019: CNS Drugs
Edward Bellamy, Stefano Di Palma, Lorenzo Ressel, Elisabet Domínguez, Yordan Fernández
Case summary: An 11-year-old female spayed domestic shorthair cat was referred with a 2-month history of ptyalism, hyporexia and weight loss. Physical examination revealed reduced body condition score (2/9) and decreased skin turgor. Laboratory abnormalities included mild erythrocytosis, elevated creatine kinase, hypercobalaminaemia and hypofolataemia. CT of the head and abdominal ultrasonography were within normal limits. Gastroesophagoscopy revealed mucosal ulceration and possible stenosis of the distal oesophagus...
July 2019: JFMS open reports
Daniel Shnier, Mircea A Voineagu, Irina Voineagu
Persistent homology methods have found applications in the analysis of multiple types of biological data, particularly imaging data or data with a spatial and/or temporal component. However, few studies have assessed the use of persistent homology for the analysis of gene expression data. Here we apply persistent homology methods to investigate the global properties of gene expression in post-mortem brain tissue (cerebral cortex) of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and matched controls. We observe a significant difference in the geometry of inter-sample relationships between autism and healthy controls as measured by the sum of the death times of zero-dimensional components and the Euler characteristic...
September 27, 2019: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Mohammadreza Shariatgorji, Anna Nilsson, Elva Fridjonsdottir, Theodosia Vallianatou, Patrik Källback, Luay Katan, Jonas Sävmarker, Ioannis Mantas, Xiaoqun Zhang, Erwan Bezard, Per Svenningsson, Luke R Odell, Per E Andrén
We present a mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approach for the comprehensive mapping of neurotransmitter networks in specific brain regions. Our fluoromethylpyridinium-based reactive matrices facilitate the covalent charge-tagging of molecules containing phenolic hydroxyl and/or primary or secondary amine groups, including dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters and their associated metabolites. These matrices improved the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MSI detection limit toward low-abundance neurotransmitters and facilitated the simultaneous imaging of neurotransmitters in fine structures of the brain at a lateral resolution of 10 µm...
October 2019: Nature Methods
Karen S Ambrosen, Simon F Eskildsen, Max Hinne, Kristine Krug, Henrik Lundell, Mikkel N Schmidt, Marcel A J van Gerven, Morten Mørup, Tim B Dyrby
Evaluation of the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain based on tractography has mainly focused on the choice of diffusion model, tractography algorithm, and their respective parameter settings. Here, we systematically validate SC derived from a post mortem monkey brain, while varying key acquisition parameters such as the b-value, gradient angular resolution and image resolution. As gold standard we use the connectivity matrix obtained invasively with histological tracers by Markov et al. (2014). As performance metric, we use cross entropy as a measure that enables comparison of the relative tracer labelled neuron counts to the streamline counts from tractography...
September 17, 2019: NeuroImage
Muhammad Aslam, Anwar Ullah, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Nirosiya Kandasamy, Saima Naureen, Mazhar Badshah, Kafaitullah Khan, Muhammad Wajid, Rashda Abbasi, Roland Eils, Marc A Brockmann, Matthias Schlesner, Nafees Ahmad, Jakob von Engelhardt
Atypical parkinsonian disorders (APDs) comprise a group of neurodegenerative diseases with heterogeneous clinical and pathological features. Most APDs are sporadic, but rare familial forms have also been reported. Epidemiological and post-mortem studies associated APDs with oxidative stress and cellular protein aggregates. Identifying molecular mechanisms that translate stress into toxic protein aggregation and neurodegeneration in APDs is an active area of research. Recently, ribonucleic acid (RNA) stress granule (SG) pathways were discussed to be pathogenically relevant in several neurodegenerative disorders including APDs...
September 19, 2019: Scientific Reports
Elisa Giorgetti, Michael Obrecht, Marie Ronco, Moh Panesar, Christian Lambert, Nathalie Accart, Arno Doelemeyer, Mark Nash, Michael Bidinosti, Nicolau Beckmann
Assessment of myelin integrity in peripheral nerve injuries and pathologies has largely been limited to post-mortem analysis owing to the difficulty in obtaining biopsies without affecting nerve function. This is further encumbered  by the small size of the tissue and its location. Therefore, the development of robust, non-invasive methods is highly attractive. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), to longitudinally and non-invasively characterize both the sciatic nerve crush and lysolecithin (LCP) demyelination models of peripheral nerve injury in rodents...
September 18, 2019: Scientific Reports
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