Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Keiichi Haga, Michio Saeki, Mayuko Haraikawa, Hitoshi Tsuchihashi, Koki Okahara, Osamu Nomura, Hirofumi Fukushima, Takashi Murakami, Dai Ishikawa, Shigaku Ikeda, Akihito Nagahara
Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is an extra-intestinal skin lesion in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) as is erythema nodosum. Vedolizumab (VED) is a monoclonal antibody that targets α4β7 integrin and has an intestinal selective mechanism. Despite good therapeutic effects on colitis, the effect on extra-intestinal manifestations (EIMs) remains unclear. Here we report a case of ulcerative colitis complicated by PG during treatment with VED, which was successfully treated with prednisolone in combination with adsorptive granulocyte and monocyte apheresis (GMA)...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Clinical Apheresis
Kang Zuo, Kaijing Tang, Yue Liang, Yifan Xu, Kangliang Sheng, Xiaowei Kong, Jingmin Wang, Fenfang Zhu, Xiangdong Zha, Yongzhong Wang
BACKGROUND: Sanghuang mushrooms are medicinal fungi widely used in Eastern Asia. In this study, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of a novel extracellular polysaccharopeptide (SePSP) was investigated. SePSP was purified from the submerged fermentation broth of a Sanghuang mycelium, Sanghuangporus lonicericola stain CBS17 that was isolated from a wild Sanghuang fruiting body. RESULTS: The SePSP was extracted using an ethanol precipitation procedure, followed by a DEAE anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography...
August 6, 2020: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
G Pellino, T Reif de Paula, G Lawlor, D S Keller
BACKGROUND: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis (UC) can be performed as either 2- or 3-stage procedure. IPAA in the elderly has been reported as safe and feasible, but little work to date has assessed outcomes by procedure. The aim of our study was to assess use and short-term outcomes of 2- and 3-stage IPAA in older adults. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) Database was searched for ≥ 65-year-old patients who underwent IPAA for UC in 2- or 3-stage from 2012 to 2016...
August 7, 2020: Techniques in Coloproctology
Nienke Z Borren, Damian Plichta, Amit D Joshi, Gracia Bonilla, Ruslan Sadreyev, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik J Xavier, Ashwin N Ananthakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by intermittent relapses, and their course is heterogeneous and unpredictable. Our aim was to determine the ability of protein, metabolite, or microbial biomarkers to predict relapse in patients with quiescent disease. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled patients with quiescent Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, defined as the absence of clinical symptoms (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4, Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index ≤ 2) and endoscopic remission within the prior year...
August 7, 2020: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Gary R Lichtenstein, Gerhard Rogler, Matthew A Ciorba, Chinyu Su, Gary Chan, Ronald D Pedersen, Nervin Lawendy, Daniel Quirk, Chudy I Nduaka, Andrew J Thorpe, Julian Panés
BACKGROUND: Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Here, we performed an integrated analysis of malignancy events from the tofacitinib phase 3 UC clinical development program (excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]). METHODS: Data (up to May 2019) were pooled from two phase 3 induction studies, a phase 3 maintenance study, and an ongoing, open-label, long-term extension (OLE) study, and analyzed as 3 cohorts: induction (N = 1139), maintenance (N = 592), and overall (induction, maintenance, and ongoing OLE study; N = 1124)...
August 7, 2020: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Xiaozhi Deng, Lihong Shang, Min Du, Lan Yuan, Lijing Xiong, Xiaoli Xie
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term used to describe chronic and recurrent gastrointestinal disease. In total, >2 million individuals worldwide have been diagnosed with IBD, including ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and indeterminate colitis. There is accumulating evidence to indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are involved in the development and progression of IBD. miR-4262, an underlying promoter in tumor diseases, has been reported to regulate inflammatory responses. However, the potential mechanisms underlying the role of miR-4262 in IBD remain unknown...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rong Ma, Rui Meng, Xiang Zhang, Zhijuan Sun, Yuanyuan Lei
Correlation between fecal calprotectin (FC) and endoscopic activity assessed by Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) in acute severe colitis (ASC) patients was explored to evaluate the predictive value of FC in clinical outcomes. Seventy-one ASC patients were retrospectively evaluated. FC level within 3 days of colonoscopy was measured with ELISA. Demographic and clinical data, laboratory parameters, and medical therapy were documented, and the endoscopic severity of disease was rated by UCEIS...
August 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Sofy Permana, Reyudzky Putri Fityanti, Eviana Norahmawati, Agustin Iskandar, Erika Desy Anggraini Mulyadi, Agustina Tri Endharti
Ulcerative colitis is a major risk factor that increases the occurrence of colorectal cancer. In colorectal cancer due to colitis, intestinal inflammation plays an important role which causes DNA damage. The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effect of coelomic fluid of Eisenia fetida (CFEF) and cetuximab combinations. Colitis associated colon cancer was induced in BALB/c mice by DSS/AOM. The mice were randomly divided into six groups: group 1 received vehicle (control), groups 2-6 received DSS/AOM, groups 3-5 received cetuximab + CFEF (30, 60, or 120 mg/kgBW), and group 6 received CFEF only...
2020: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Amber Hanif Palla, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani, Samra Bashir, Najeeb Ur Rehman
Materials and Methods: Aqueous-methanolic crude extracts of Flaxseed (Fs.Cr) and Flaxseed oil were tested against 6% acetic acid- (AA-) induced colitis in BALB/c mice. Microscopic damage parameters of the hematoxylin and eosin-stained and periodic acid-Schiff-alcian blue-stained sections of the colon were scored to be assessed. Possible antispasmodic mechanism was studied on isolated rabbit jejunum, while antibacterial activity was assessed in vitro for microbes implicated in IBD. Results: In AA-induced colitis, Flaxseed oil was found to be more effective in reducing mortality and colonic ulcers than Fs...
2020: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Katharina Kappler, Yi Lasanajak, David F Smith, Lennart Opitz, Thierry Hennet
Inflammatory bowel disease is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and with elevated antibody production toward microbial epitopes. The underlying processes linking the gut microbiota with inflammation are still unclear. Considering the constant induction of antibodies by gut microbial glycans, the aim of this study was to address whether the repertoire of carbohydrate-specific antibodies is altered in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. IgG and IgM reactivities to oligosaccharides representative of mucosal glycans were tested in blood serum from 20 healthy control subjects, 17 ulcerative colitis patients, and 23 Crohn's disease patients using glycan arrays...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matthew R Henn, Edward J O'Brien, Liyang Diao, Brian G Feagan, William J Sandborn, Curtis Huttenhower, Jennifer R Wortman, Barbara H McGovern, Sherry Wang-Weigand, David I Lichter, Meghan Chafee, Chris B Ford, Patricia Bernardo, Peng Zhao, Sheri Simmons, Amelia Tomlinson, David Cook, Roger Pomerantz, Bharat K Misra, John G Auninš, Michele Trucksis
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Firmicutes bacteria produce metabolites that maintain the intestinal barrier and mucosal immunity. Firmicutes are reduced in the intestinal microbiota of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). In a phase 1b trial of patients with UC, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of SER-287, an oral formulation of Firmicutes spores, and the effects of vancomycin preconditioning on expansion (engraftment) of SER-287 species in the colon. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind trial of SER-287 in 58 adults with active mild-to-moderate UC (modified Mayo scores 4-10, endoscopic subscores ≥1)...
August 4, 2020: Gastroenterology
Jiajia Wang, Guannan Zhu, Cheng Sun, Kangwei Xiong, Tingting Yao, Yuan Su, Haiming Fang
BACKGROUND: The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of TAK-242 on the gut microbiota and the TLR4/JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. RESULTS: At the phylum level, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Epsilonbacteraeota and Proteobacteria were the primary microbiota in the five groups. TAK-242 treatment significantly enhanced Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria; significantly decreased Cyanobacteria, Epsilonbacteraeota and Proteobacteria; and particularly promoted the growth of Akkermansia...
August 6, 2020: Microbial Cell Factories
Arianna Dal Buono, Giulia Roda, Marjorie Argollo, Eirini Zacharopoulou, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Silvio Danese
INTRODUCTION: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), are chronic and progressive diseases. Long-term complications are demolitive surgery and colon-rectal cancer. A "treat to target" strategy, in which the treatment aims to achieve objective outcomes, has already been introduced in the management of chronic conditions as rheumatic diseases. This approach is emerging as suitable for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Targets are pre-defined therapeutic goals demonstrated to prevent end-organ dysfunction ...
August 7, 2020: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mitsuhiro Tachibana, Tomohiko Hanaoka, Shinya Watanabe, Masahiro Matsushita, Tadahiro Isono, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Microscopic colitis (MC), encompassing collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, is featured by chronic diarrhea, normal-looking endoscopic findings and unique microscopic appearance. After reviewing biopsied nonspecific colitis, we propose the third type of MC: colitis nucleomigrans (CN). Histopathological criteria of CN included: (i) chained nuclear migration to the middle part of the surface-lining columnar epithelium; (ii) apoptotic nuclear debris scattered below the nuclei; and (iii) mild/moderate chronic inflammation in the lamina propria...
August 6, 2020: Pathology International
Taro Tanabe, Satomi Furukawa, Tomoyuki Masuda, Koji Morimoto, Tetsuo Yamana, Rikisaburo Sahara
Intussusception in adults is, especially with ulcerative colitis (UC), rare and only described in a few cases. Most adult patients with intussusception develop abdominal pain or other symptoms of bowel obstruction. This case describes an 18-year-old male with UC who treated with 5-aminosalycilicacid and underwent annual screening colonoscopies. Two attempts revealed that it was impossible to achieve total surveillance through the colonoscopy because multiple polyps were preventing the colonoscope from traversing the entire colon...
July 2020: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Igor Rakoczy, Marzena Ocetek, Marzena Wiatr, Patrycja Zięba, Michał Panek, Piotr Kuna
The aim:The article describes and summarizes the immunological pathomechanisms controlling the development of non-necrotizing granulomas in the course of non-specific inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in lungs and intestines; it also reviews the possible clinical correlations between the processes in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts based on the example of Crohn's disease (CD) and non-specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBC). While the dominant cell subpopulation in ulcerative colitis (UC) is Th2, which produces interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13 and Th17 cells; CD characterized by the Th1 cell subpopulation and macrophages predominate, producing IL-23...
2020: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Philip Mease, Christina Charles-Schoeman, Stanley Cohen, Lara Fallon, John Woolcott, Huifeng Yun, Joel Kremer, Jeffrey Greenberg, Wendi Malley, Alina Onofrei, Keith S Kanik, Daniela Graham, Cunshan Wang, Carol Connell, Hernan Valdez, Manfred Hauben, Eric Hung, Ann Madsen, Thomas V Jones, Jeffrey R Curtis
OBJECTIVES: Tofacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ulcerative colitis, and has been investigated in psoriasis (PsO). Routine pharmacovigilance of an ongoing, open-label, blinded-endpoint, tofacitinib RA trial (Study A3921133; NCT02092467) in patients aged ≥50 years and with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor identified a higher frequency of pulmonary embolism (PE) and all-cause mortality for patients receiving tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily versus those receiving tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and resulted in identification of a safety signal for tofacitinib...
August 5, 2020: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Eugene Lipov, Vicko Gluncic, Ivan K Lukić, Kenneth Candido
BACKGROUND: The stellate ganglion is an autonomic nervous ganglion, formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion, which is present in about 80% of people. It is anterior to the neck of the first rib and contains neurons that supply sympathetic innervation to the head and neck. Injection of local anesthetics near the stellate ganglion (stellate ganglion block; SGB) has been used for multiple clinical indications including sympathetic-mediated pain and vascular insufficiency syndromes of the upper extremity...
June 16, 2020: Medical Hypotheses
Edoardo Vespa, Federica Furfaro, Mariangela Allocca, Gionata Fiorino, Carmen Correale, Daniela Gilardi, Marjorie Argollo, Alessandra Zilli, Eirini Zacharopoulou, Laura Loy, Silvio Danese
INTRODUCTION: Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are immune-mediated disorders characterized by a chronic inflammation, with intermittent exacerbations of symptoms and inflammation. In both diseases, medical treatment has made revolutionary steps forward. Nevertheless, surgery is still required in many cases due to inefficacy of multiple medical therapies. It is not clear whether surgery rates in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are currently decreasing despite all improvements...
August 6, 2020: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Akitsu Yoshida, Yasuhiro Katsumata, Shinya Hirahara, Masanori Hanaoka, Moeko Ochiai, Masaki Kobayashi, Masayoshi Harigai
Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are known to induce autoimmune diseases, such as lupus-like syndrome; in rare cases, TNF inhibitor-induced myositis has been reported. This report documents the case of a male patient with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated by TNF inhibitor-induced myositis. After UC diagnosis and treatment with azathioprine and infliximab, he was evaluated for a recent 5-month history of muscle weakness and pain. Laboratory tests revealed elevated muscle enzymes, such as serum creatine kinase (CK) and aldolase...
August 6, 2020: Modern rheumatology case reports
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