Elena Nava, Roberta Etzi, Alberto Gallace, Viola Macchi Cassia
The human tactile system is known to discriminate different types of touches, one of these termed 'affective touch', is mainly mediated by slow conducting tactile afferents (CT fibres), which are preferentially activated by slow and gentle strokes. Human infants experience self-generated tactile stimulation during prenatal life, and they receive a large amount of affectionate touches by their caregivers from birth. This early and extended experience with tactile stimulation may likely make infants particularly sensitive to affective touch, and increasing evidence shows that this may indeed be the case...
July 10, 2020: Neuroscience
Haitham M Hussein, Carol Droegemueller, Pakou Xiong, Sidney VanDyke, Jeanne Mettner, Zong Xiong, Gloria Catha
BACKGROUND: The presence of significant cultural and language barriers can affect timely, effective dissemination of stroke education for Hmong patients. Our aim was to design stroke educational material suitable for the Hmong community, using culturally sensitive strategies and patient education best practices. METHODS: We collaborated with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association to adapt existing English educational material for use among Hmong patients...
June 2020: WMJ: Official Publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai, Anouk Lamontagne
Virtual reality (VR)-based interventions are gaining widespread attention for managing neurological disorders such as stroke. A metastatistical consensus regarding the intervention is strongly warranted. In this study, we attempt to address this gap in the literature and provide the current state of evidence for the effects of VR on gait performance. We conducted both between- and within-group meta-analyses to provide a state of evidence for VR. Moreover, we conducted a search adhering to PRISMA guidelines on nine databases...
July 13, 2020: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Matthew T Bender, Robert W Young, David A Zarrin, Jessica K Campos, Justin M Caplan, Judy Huang, Rafael J Tamargo, Li-Mei Lin, Geoffrey P Colby, Alexander L Coon
BACKGROUND: Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic) "twisting" manifests with the appearance of a "figure 8" in perpendicular planes on digital subtraction angiography. This phenomenon has received little attention in the literature, requires technical precision to remediate, and has potential to cause ischemic stroke if not properly remediated. OBJECTIVE: To report incidence, risk factors, and sequelae of PED twisting and to discuss techniques to remediate a PED twist...
July 13, 2020: Neurosurgery
Gerardo E Bozovich, Alberto Alves De Lima, Matías Fosco, Lucrecia M Burgos, Roberto Martínez, Roberto Dupuy De Lôme, Andrés Torn, Javier Sala Mercado
To contain the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19), a strict nationwide lockdown has been enforced and the health systems have been reorganized to deal with this entity. During this period, changes in the care of non-infectious diseases have been observed. Our aim was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the care of non-communicable diseases. A structured retrospective survey was carried out in 31 healthcare centers affiliated with the Asociación de Clínicas, Sanatorios y Hospitales Privados de la República Argentina y Cámara de Entidades de Diagnóstico y Tratamiento...
2020: Medicina
Mark W Kroll, Klaus K Witte, Sebastian N Kunz, Richard M Luceri, John C Criscione
BACKGROUND: There have been case reports following the use of a conducted electrical weapon (CEW) suggesting that these devices might affect coagulation or thrombosis in at-risk individuals. The aim of this manuscript therefore is firstly to explore this hypothesis by reviewing each of these cases and secondly to report the results of a prospective study exploring a priori the effects of electrical weapons on hematocytes in a group of human volunteers. METHODS: First, we systematically reviewed all cases of adverse outcomes following CEW discharge that could be due to an effect on coagulation or thrombosis, with particular focus on the clinical scenario and its relationship with the weapon discharge...
July 2020: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine
Ching-Hsue Cheng, Jing-Rong Chang, Hao-Hsuan Huang
Data in the medical field often contain missing values and may result in biased research results. Therefore, the objective of this work is to propose a new imputation method, a novel weighted distance threshold method, to impute missing values. After several experiments, we find that the proposed imputation method has the following benefits. (1) The proposed method with purity can reassign instances into the nearest class of the dataset, and the purity computation can filter outliers; (2) The proposed method redefines the degree of missing values and can determine attributes and instances relative to the missing values in different datasets; and (3) The proposed method need not set the k value of the nearest neighborhood because this study identifies the k value based on the best threshold to calculate purity to enhance the results of imputation...
July 2020: Computers in Biology and Medicine
José Miguel Rivera-Caravaca, María Asunción Esteve-Pastor, Anny Camelo-Castillo, Inmaculada Ramírez-Macías, Gregory Y H Lip, Vanessa Roldán, Francisco Marín
INTRODUCTION: Oral anticoagulants (OAC) reduce stroke/systemic embolism and mortality risks in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there is an inherent bleeding risk with OAC, where intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is the most feared, disabling, and lethal complication of this therapy. Therefore, the optimal management of OAC-associated ICH is not well defined despite multiple suggested strategies. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors describe the severity and risk factors for OAC-associated ICH and the associated implications for using DOACs in AF patients...
July 13, 2020: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Aaron M Williams, Gerald A Higgins, Umar F Bhatti, Ben E Biesterveld, Simone E Dekker, Ranganath G Kathawate, Yuzi Tian, Zhenyu Wu, Michael T Kemp, Glenn K Wakam, Baoling Liu, Yongqing Li, Benjamin Buller, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: We have shown that administration of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes (single dose given within 1 hour) in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) is neuroprotective. The precise mechanisms responsible for the neuroprotection are not fully understood. This study was designed to investigate the transcriptomic changes in the brain that are associated with this treatment strategy. METHODS: Yorkshire swine (40-45 kg) were subjected to a severe TBI (12-mm cortical impact) and HS (40% estimated total blood volume)...
June 3, 2020: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Juping Liang, Zhonghui Zhang
BACKGROUND: The protective role of miR-488 in cerebral neurons has been identified previously. However, whether miR-488 is involved in acute ischemia stroke has not been reported. The current study aims to investigate the expression of miR-488 in the peripheral blood of acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: Seventy-six patients with acute ischemic stroke were selected as the case group, which included 33 cases of aortic atheromatous plaque, 19 cases of cardioembolism, 16 cases of small arterial occlusion, and 8 cases of unknown cause...
July 1, 2020: Clinical Laboratory
HwaJung Choi, Andrew Steptoe, Michele Heisler, Philippa Clarke, Robert F Schoeni, Stephen Jivraj, Tsai-Chin Cho, Kenneth M Langa
Importance: Socioeconomic differences in life expectancy, health, and disability have been found in European countries as well as in the US. Identifying the extent and pattern of health disparities, both within and across the US and England, may be important for informing public health and public policy aimed at reducing these disparities. Objective: To compare the health of US adults aged 55 to 64 years with the health of their peers in England across the high and low ranges of income in each country...
July 13, 2020: JAMA Internal Medicine
Bei Zhang, Binoy Joseph, Kathryn E Saatman, Lei Chen
Neural stem cell (NSC) therapy is an emerging innovative treatment for stroke, traumatic brain injury and neurodegenerative disorders. As compared to intracranial delivery, intra-arterial administration of NSCs is less invasive and produces a more diffuse distribution of NSCs within the brain parenchyma. Further, intra-arterial delivery allows the first-pass effect in the brain circulation, lessening the potential for trapping of cells in peripheral organs, such as liver and spleen, a complication associated with peripheral injections...
June 26, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Supriya Ramesha, Sruti Rayaprolu, Srikant Rangaraju
Microglia and central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating macrophages, collectively called CNS mononuclear phagocytes (CNS-MPs), play central roles in neurological diseases including neurodegeneration and stroke. CNS-MPs are involved in phagocytic clearance of pathological proteins, debris and neuronal synapses, each with distinct underlying molecular pathways. Characterizing these phagocytic properties can provide a functional readout that compliments molecular profiling of microglia using traditional flow cytometry, transcriptomics and proteomics approaches...
June 23, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Kelly L Monaghan, Breanne Y Farris, Wen Zheng, Edwin C K Wan
Immune cell expansion, activation, and trafficking to the lungs, which are controlled by the expression of multiple cytokines and chemokines, may be altered by severe brain injury. This is evidenced by the fact that pneumonia is a major cause of mortality in patients who have suffered from ischemic stroke. The goal of this protocol is to describe the use of multicolor flow cytometric analysis to identify 13 types of immune cells in the lungs of mice, including alveolar macrophages, interstitial macrophages, CD103+ or CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs), plasmacytoid DCs, eosinophils, monocytes/monocyte-derived cells, neutrophils, lymphoid-derived  T and B cells, NK cells, and NKT cells, following ischemic stroke induction by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
June 24, 2020: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Yingying Lin, Shijie Guo, Xueyuan Liu, Dongya Huang
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association between MetS and risk of persistent cognitive impairment in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mild ischemic stroke. This is a prospective and observational study in consecutive patients with first-ever TIA or mild stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤ 6). Patients underwent Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) at hospital admission and day 30 after discharge...
July 10, 2020: Neuroreport
Shunya Ohyagi, Tsuyoshi Tatemoto, Seigo Inoue, Sho Sugita, Kaoru Honaga, Yohei Otaka
We present the case of a 42-year-old man with subacute stroke who developed remarkable fear of falling and eventually recovered with an approach based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). The CBT-based approach was implemented after the patient developed significant fear of falling with exacerbated obsessive-compulsive symptoms appeared immediately after a fall. The patient's anxiety decreased over time, and his ability to perform these tasks and activities of daily living improved accordingly. After 6 weeks of intervention, his anxiety toward gait and stairs almost disappeared; additionally, he achieved modified independence for gait and supervision for stairs and was discharged home successfully...
July 8, 2020: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Charlotte Rosso, Jean-Charles Lamy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers both pragmatic and cutting-edge approaches for predicting motor stroke recovery over the period 2017-2019. It focuses on the predictive value of clinical scores and biomarkers including Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and MRI as well as more innovative alternatives. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical scores combined with corticospinal tract (CST) integrity as assessed by both TMS-induced motor-evoked potential (MEP) and MRI predict motor recovery with an accuracy of about 75%...
August 2020: Current Opinion in Neurology
Meghan K Tierney, Mary Fran Tracy, Susan A Everson-Rose, Niloufar Niakosari Hadidi
INTRODUCTION: Research is increasingly exploring interventions for patient-care-partner dyads, but little has been reported regarding challenges of implementing dyad-focused interventions. This article reports the lessons learned in a pilot feasibility study of problem-solving therapy versus stroke education in stroke survivor-care partner dyads. CHALLENGES AND LESSONS LEARNED: Challenges arose in numerous aspects of intervention delivery. These ranged from personalizing the intervention to meet individual needs and balancing participation between dyad members to maintaining focus, managing conflict, and addressing ethical concerns, all of which required attention from the nurse researcher...
July 9, 2020: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
E Ranganai, L Matizirofa
BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) is experiencing an epidemiological transition as a result of sociodemographic and lifestyle changes. This process is leading to an increase in non-communicable diseases, which in turn may result in an upswing of stroke cases. Stroke is among the top 10 leading causes of disability in SA, and accounts for ~25 000 deaths annually and 95 000 years lived with disability (YLD). This huge burden of stroke hampers socioeconomic development as a result of YLD. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the seasonality and trend of stroke cases in SA, and determine the risk factors associated with stroke...
January 29, 2020: South African Medical Journal
Tonino Bombardini, Angela Zagatina, Quirino Ciampi, Lauro Cortigiani, Antonello D'andrea, Clarissa Borguezan Daros, Nadezhda Zhuravskaya, Jaroslaw D Kasprzak, Karina Wierzbowska-Drabik, José L De Castro E Silva Pretto, Ana Djordjevic-Dikic, Branko Beleslin, Marija Petrovic, Nikola Boskovic, Milorad Tesic, Ines P Monte, Iana Simova, Martina Vladova, Alla Boshchenko, Tamara Ryabova, Rodolfo Citro, Miguel Amor, Paul E Vargas Mieles, Rosina Arbucci, Claudio Dodi, Fausto Rigo, Suzana Gligorova, Milica Dekleva, Sergio Severino, Marco A Torres, Alessandro Salustri, Hugo Rodrìguez-Zanella, Fabio M Costantino, Albert Varga, Gergely Agoston, Eduardo Bossone, Francesco Ferrara, Nicola Gaibazzi, Granit Rabia, Jelena Celutkiene, Maciej Haberka, Fabio Mori, Maria Grazia D'alfonso, Barbara Reisenhofer, Ana C Camarozano, Michael Salamé, Ewa Szymczyk, Paulina Wejner-Mik, Katarzyna Wdowiak-Okrojek, Tamara Preradovic-Kovacevic, Fabio Lattanzi, Doralisa Morrone, Maria Chiara Scali, Miodrag Ostojic, Aleksandra Nikolic, Federica Re, Andrea Barbieri, Giovanni Di Salvo, Paolo Colonna, Michele De Nes, Marco Paterni, Pablo M Merlo, Jorge Lowenstein, Clara Carpeggiani, Dario Gregori, Eugenio Picano
BACKGROUND: Stroke volume response during stress is a major determinant of functional status in heart failure and can be measured by two-dimensional (2-D) volumetric stress echocardiography (SE). The present study hypothesis is that SE may identify mechanisms underlying the change in stroke volume by measuring preload reserve through end-diastolic volume (EDV) and left ventricular contractile reserve (LVCR) with systolic blood pressure and end-systolic volume (ESV). METHODS: We enrolled 4,735 patients (age 63...
July 10, 2020: Minerva Cardioangiologica
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