Min Ho Lee, Hyun Joo Kim
In difficult airway situations, the next step of the airway management method is selected according to the prior presence of difficulties in mask ventilation and endotracheal intubation. It is important for the practitioner to be calm, quick in judgment, and take action in cases of difficult intubation. Recently, high-flow nasal oxygenation has been rapidly introduced into the anesthesiology field. This technique could extend the safe apnea time to desaturation. Especially, it maintains adequate oxygenation even in apnea and allows time for intubation or alternative airway management...
2021: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
Athanasios Voulgaris, Luigi Ferini-Strambi, Nicholas-Tiberio Economou, Evangelia Nena, Paschalis Steiropoulos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2021: Frontiers in Neurology
Helen Wallace, Robert Angus
The immunological and pathophysiological response to COVID-19 can cause severe respiratory impairment affecting gas exchange and lung mechanics. Such was the scale of the respiratory support needed during the first wave of the pandemic, that recruitment of non-respiratory clinical staff was essential to help deal with the growing number of cases. It quickly became apparent that it was vital to rapidly equip these healthcare professionals with appropriate physiological knowledge and practical skills if therapies were to be applied effectively...
2021: Frontiers in Physiology
Andressa Daronco Cereta, Vinícius Rosa Oliveira, Ivan Peres Costa, João Pedro Ribeiro Afonso, Adriano Luís Fonseca, Alan Robson Trigueiro de Souza, Guilherme Augusto Moreira Silva, Diego A C P G Mello, Luis Vicente Franco de Oliveira, Renata Kelly da Palma
Asthma is a widespread disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. It causes substantial disability, impaired quality of life, and avoidable deaths around the world. The main treatment for asthmatic patients is the administration of corticosteroids, which improves the quality of life; however, prolonged use of corticosteroids interferes with extracellular matrix elements. Therefore, cell-based therapies are emerging as a novel therapeutic contribution to tissue regeneration for lung diseases. This study aimed to summarize the advancements in cell therapy involving mesenchymal stromal cells, extracellular vesicles, and immune cells such as T-cells in asthma...
2021: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Gianni Carraro, Justin Langerman, Shan Sabri, Zareeb Lorenzana, Arunima Purkayastha, Guangzhu Zhang, Bindu Konda, Cody J Aros, Ben A Calvert, Aleks Szymaniak, Emily Wilson, Michael Mulligan, Priyanka Bhatt, Junjie Lu, Preethi Vijayaraj, Changfu Yao, David W Shia, Andrew J Lund, Edo Israely, Tammy M Rickabaugh, Jason Ernst, Martin Mense, Scott H Randell, Eszter K Vladar, Amy L Ryan, Kathrin Plath, John E Mahoney, Barry R Stripp, Brigitte N Gomperts
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal autosomal recessive disorder that afflicts more than 70,000 people. People with CF experience multi-organ dysfunction resulting from aberrant electrolyte transport across polarized epithelia due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF-related lung disease is by far the most important determinant of morbidity and mortality. Here we report results from a multi-institute consortium in which single-cell transcriptomics were applied to define disease-related changes by comparing the proximal airway of CF donors (n = 19) undergoing transplantation for end-stage lung disease with that of previously healthy lung donors (n = 19)...
May 6, 2021: Nature Medicine
Deborah Friedman, Allen J Dozor, Jordan Milner, Marise D'Souza, Julie-An Talano, Theodore B Moore, Shalini Shenoy, Qiuhu Shi, Mark C Walters, Elliott Vichinsky, Susan K Parsons, Suzanne Braniecki, Chitti R Moorthy, Janet Ayello, Allyson Flower, Erin Morris, Harshini Mahanti, Sandra Fabricatore, Liana Klejmont, Carmella van de Ven, Lee Ann Baxter-Lowe, Mitchell S Cairo
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) are at high-risk of progressive, chronic pulmonary and cardiac dysfunction. In this prospective multicenter Phase II trial of myeloimmunoablative conditioning followed by haploidentical stem cell transplantation in children with high-risk SCD, 19 patients, 2.0-21.0 years of age, were enrolled with one or more of the following: history of (1) overt stroke; (2) silent stroke; (3) elevated transcranial Doppler velocity; (4) multiple vaso-occlusive crises; and/or (5) two or more acute chest syndromes and received haploidentical transplants from 18 parental donors...
May 6, 2021: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Catherine A Mayer, Benjamin Roos, Jacob Teske, Natalya Wells, Richard J Martin, Wenhan Chang, Christina M Pabelick, Y S Prakash, Peter M MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in preterm infants is initially beneficial, but animal models suggest longer term detrimental airway effects towards asthma. We used a neonatal CPAP mouse model and human fetal airway smooth muscle (ASM) to investigate the role of extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in these effects. METHODS: Newborn wild type and smooth muscle-specific CaSR-/- mice were given CPAP for 7 days via a custom device (mimicking CPAP in premature infants), and recovered in normoxia for another 14 days (representing infants at 3-4 years)...
May 6, 2021: Pediatric Research
Sara Khanal, Megan Webster, Naiqian Niu, Jana Zielonka, Myra Nunez, Geoffrey Chupp, Martin D Slade, Lauren Cohn, Maor Sauler, Jose L Gomez, Robert Tarran, Lokesh Sharma, Charles S Dela Cruz, Marie Egan, Theresa Laguna, Clemente J Britto
Acute pulmonary Exacerbations (AE) are episodes of clinical worsening in cystic fibrosis (CF), often precipitated by infection. Timely detection is critical to minimise morbidity and lung function declines associated with acute inflammation during AE. Based on our previous observations that airway protein Short Palate Lung Nasal epithelium Clone 1 (SPLUNC1) is regulated by inflammatory signals, we investigated the use of SPLUNC1 fluctuations to diagnose and predict AE in CF.We enrolled CF participants from two independent cohorts to measure AE markers of inflammation in sputum and recorded clinical outcomes for a 1-year follow-up period...
May 6, 2021: European Respiratory Journal
Natalie Webber, Malcolm Avari, Georgina Harridge, Jane Neerkin, Emily Collis, Ronan Astin
BACKGROUND: No published protocol to guide the withdrawal of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with COVID-19 exists. CASE SERIES: Description of the introduction of a novel protocol, developed by consensus to guide the withdrawal of CPAP for patients diagnosed as dying with COVID-19 in an acute hospital. OUTCOME: 19 patients died on the high-dependency respiratory unit following treatment with CPAP. 89% died with CPAP withdrawn...
May 6, 2021: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Dominic A Hughes, Olga Archangelidi, Matthew Coates, Darius Armstrong-James, Stuart J Elborn, Siobhán B Carr, Jane C Davies
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) and Aspergillus species (Asp) are the most common bacterial and fungal organisms respectively in CF airways. Our aim was to examine impacts of Asp infection and Pa/Asp co-infection. METHODS: Patients on the UK CF Registry in 2016 were grouped into: absent (Pa-), intermittent (Pai) or chronic Pa (Pac), each with Asp positive (Asp+) or negative (Asp-). Primary outcome was best percentage predicted FEV1 (ppFEV1 ) that year. Secondary outcomes were intravenous (IV) antibiotic courses, growth (height, weight, BMI) and additional disease complications...
May 3, 2021: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
Elizabeth H Stephens, Joseph A Dearani, Muhammad Yasir Qureshi, Leal G Segura, Katherine W Arendt, Ellen M Bendel-Stenzel, Rodrigo Ruano
Over the past 40 years, the medical and surgical management of congenital heart disease has advanced considerably. However, substantial room for improvement remains for certain lesions that have high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although most congenital cardiac conditions are well tolerated during fetal development, certain abnormalities progress in severity over the course of gestation and impair the development of other organs, such as the lungs or airways. It follows that intervention during gestation could potentially slow or reverse elements of disease progression and improve prognosis for certain congenital heart defects...
May 2021: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Vegard Sæter Grytting, Magne Refsnes, Johan Øvrevik, Marit Sigrid Halle, Jasmin Schönenberger, Roelant van der Lelij, Brynhild Snilsberg, Tonje Skuland, Richard Blom, Marit Låg
BACKGROUND: Respirable stone- and mineral particles may be a major constituent in occupational and ambient air pollution and represent a possible health hazard. However, with exception of quartz and asbestos, little is known about the toxic properties of mineral particles. In the present study, the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic responses to six stone particle samples of different composition and with diameter below 10 μm were assessed in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC3-KT), THP-1 macrophages and a HBEC3-KT/THP-1 co-culture...
May 6, 2021: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Michael Peled, David Ovadya, Jennifer Cohn, Lior Seluk, Teet Pullerits, Michael J Segel, Amir Onn
BACKGROUND: Methacholine challenge tests (MCTs) are used to diagnose airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in patients with suspected asthma where previous diagnostic testing has been inconclusive. The test is time consuming and usually requires referral to specialized centers. Simple methods to predict AHR could help determine which patients should be referred to MCTs, thus avoiding unnecessary testing. Here we investigated the potential use of baseline spirometry variables as surrogate markers for AHR in adults with suspected asthma...
May 6, 2021: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Masayuki Akatsuka, Asami Yoshinaka, Hiroya Hagiwara, Shuji Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers must be protected during extubation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) owing to the presence of aerosolized droplets. Herein, we report a technique for extubating a patient with COVID-19 while minimizing aerosol dispersion. CASE REPORT: We retrospectively identified a total of 79 patients admitted to our hospital from February 2020 to January 2021. Six of these patients were intubated for mechanical ventilation, 2 of whom had to be extubated...
January 2021: Journal of Primary Care & Community Health
Maruti Haranal, Balaji Srimurugan, Sivakumar Sivalingam
BACKGROUND: Vascular rings are aortic arch anomalies with a spectrum of manifestations ranging from asymptomatic lesions detected incidentally to an acute presentation secondary to tracheo-esophageal compression. Circumflex retro-esophageal aortic arch is an extreme form of true vascular ring. It remains an uncharted territory to many surgeons. METHODS: A comprehensive search of peer reviewed journals was completed based on the key words, "Circumflex aorta," "Circumflex retro-esophageal aorta" and "circumflex arch" using Google scholar, Scholars Portal Journals and PubMed...
May 6, 2021: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Marcela Mendoza-Hernández, Ivette Huerta-Niño de Rivera, María Yoldi-Negrete, Pamela Saviñon-Tejeda, Rafael Franco-Cendejas, Luis Esaú López-Jácome, Iñaki Navarro-Castellanos
BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown about the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Pregnant women are considered part of the risk population, and vertical transmission of other coronaviruses has been suggested; however, this type of transmission in SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be unlikely. CASE REPORT: A newborn delivered in term via cesarean section to an asymptomatic but COVID-19-positive 35-year-old woman started with respiratory distress in the first 30 min of life...
May 6, 2021: Neonatology
Kevin D Pereira, Taylor B Teplitzky, Karen B Zur, Diego A Preciado, Jenna W Briddell, Dina El Metwally, Amal Isaiah
OBJECTIVES: Advances in neonatal intensive care have allowed successful resuscitation of children born at the border of viability. However, there has been little change in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and anatomical upper airway obstruction which may require a tracheostomy in that group. The benefits of the procedure are accompanied by sequelae that impact outcomes. Information about these issues can assist caregivers in making decisions and planning care after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU)...
April 27, 2021: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Vishnu V Martha, Swetha Vontela, Alyssa N Calder, Rohit R Martha, Robert T Sataloff
INTRODUCTION: Laryngeal cleft is a congenital condition in which an opening in the posterior laryngotracheal wall allows food and liquid to pass from the esophageal lumen to the airway and causes aspiration. The severity of a laryngeal cleft is measured using the Benjamin-Inglis system, and can be managed conservatively or with a variety of surgical options With increased awareness, higher suspicion among primary physicians, advanced technology and improved intensive neonatal care services, more babies with laryngeal clefts survive in the modern era...
April 20, 2021: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Pamela A Nono Nankam, Matthias Blüher
Excessive increased adipose tissue mass in obesity is associated with numerous co-morbid disorders including increased risk of type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, airway disease and some cancers. The causal mechanisms explaining these associations are not fully understood. Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes many adipokines, cytokines and releases metabolites. These biomolecules referred to as adipocytokines play a significant role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis and metabolism by influencing and altering target tissues function...
May 3, 2021: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Mingyu Lee, Suha Lim, Yi Sook Kim, Roza Khalmuratova, Seung-Hyun Shin, Iljin Kim, Hyun-Jik Kim, Dong-Young Kim, Chae-Seo Rhee, Jong-Wan Park, Hyun-Woo Shin
BACKGROUND: Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are associated with the prevalence and exacerbation of allergic respiratory diseases, including allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, DEP-induced mechanistic pathways promoting upper airway disease and their clinical implications remain unclear OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the mechanisms by which DEP exposure contributes to nasal polyposis using human-derived epithelial cells and a murine nasal polyp (NP) model. METHODS: Gene set enrichment and weighted gene co-expression network analyses were performed...
May 3, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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