Wenwu Zhang, Susan J Gunst
KEY POINTS: S100A4 is expressed in many tissues including smooth muscle, but its physiologic function is unknown. S100A4 regulates the motility of metastatic cancer cells by binding to non-muscle myosin II. Contractile stimulation causes the polymerization of NM myosin in airway smooth muscle, which is necessary for tension development. NM myosin regulates the assembly of adhesion junction signalling complexes (adhesomes) that catalyze actin polymerization. In airway smooth muscle, ACh stimulated the binding of S100A4 to the NM myosin heavy chain, which was catalyzed by RhoA GTPase via the RhoA-binding protein, rhotekin...
August 7, 2020: Journal of Physiology
How-Yang Tseng, Yi-Cheng Shen, Yen-Sung Lin, Chih-Yen Tu, Hung-Jen Chen
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer who initially presented with respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a retrospective study which analyzed patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer who were placed on mechanical ventilation (MV). We defined newly diagnosed lung cancer as pathological or molecular results for treatment decisions not yet determined when the patient was admitted to ICU...
August 6, 2020: Thoracic Cancer
William Cohen, Saeid Mirzai, Pamela Combs, Rebecca Rose, Viktoriya Kagan, Camil Correia, Lawrence J Gottlieb, Tae Song
BACKGROUND: Patients requiring intensive upper airway reconstruction are anatomically restricted in terms of the respiratory support they can receive. While intraoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been effectively utilized, little has been shown regarding the utility of ECMO for long-term support in these patients. METHODS: We demonstrate how a patient with tongue and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma that necessitated upper airway reconstruction was supported with veno-venous (VV) ECMO due to postoperative respiratory failure and an inability to maintain a stable airway...
August 6, 2020: Head & Neck
Yo-Ichiro Kuma, Jun Hosomichi, Hideyuki Maeda, Shuji Oishi, Risa Usumi-Fujita, Yasuhiro Shimizu, Sawa Kaneko, Jun-Ichi Suzuki, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Takashi Ono
PURPOSE: Chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH) plays a pivotal role in the consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It has been demonstrated that IH impairs nasomaxillary complex growth to reduce nasal airway cavity size in rodent models. Although turbinate dysfunction with inflammatory mucosal hypertrophy is related to OSA, the role of IH in turbinate hypertrophy with inflammation-driven fibrosis is unknown. Here, we aimed to clarify the pathogenesis of inflammatory mucosal hypertrophy and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the nasal turbinate under IH...
August 6, 2020: Sleep & Breathing
Arunima Purkayastha, Chandani Sen, Gustavo Garcia, Justin Langerman, Preethi Vijayaraj, David W Shia, Luisa K Meneses, Tammy M Rickabaugh, A Mulay, B Konda, Myung S Sim, Barry R Stripp, Kathrin Plath, Vaithilingaraja Arumugaswami, Brigitte N Gomperts
Most demographic studies are now associating current smoking status with increased risk of severe COVID-19 and mortality from the disease but there remain many questions about how direct cigarette smoke exposure affects SARS-CoV-2 airway cell infection. We directly exposed mucociliary air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures derived from primary human nonsmoker airway basal stem cells (ABSCs) to short term cigarette smoke and infected them with live SARS-CoV-2. We found an increase in the number of infected airway cells after cigarette smoke exposure as well as an increased number of apoptotic cells...
July 29, 2020: the Preprint Server for Biology
Azzam A Paroya, Kinner M Patel, Sahar Ahmad
Preventing the dispersion of virulent particles during aerosol generating procedures has never been more relevant than during the current coronavirus pandemic. The American Heart Association released interim guidelines to assist in limiting exposure during advanced cardiovascular life support. These include maintaining a closed circuit on the ventilator for intubated patients and to use a high-efficiency particulate air filter during airway management of nonintubated patients. We developed additional modifications to the suggested guidelines such that providers are even further protected from unnecessary aerosolization, and illustrate a sample protocol for provider safety during advanced cardiovascular life support in the coronavirus pandemic...
July 2020: Critical care explorations
Andrea Duca, Irdi Memaj, Federico Zanardi, Carlo Preti, Andrea Alesi, Lorenzo Della Bella, Elena Ghezzi, Fabiano Di Marco, Ferdinando Luca Lorini, Serena Venturelli, Stefano Fagiuoli, Roberto Cosentini
Background: Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is spreading around the world. At the end of February, the outburst of the pandemic has hit hard on northern Italian's hospitals. As of today, no data have been published regarding the severity of respiratory failure of patients presenting to the Emergency Departments. Moreover, the outcome the patients forced to undergo Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) or Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV) due to lack of Intensive Care resources is unknown...
July 2020: EClinicalMedicine
Jeong Eun Kim, Mariana Brewer, Regina Spinazzola, Elfriede Wallace, Joanne Casatelli, Joanna Beachy, Barry Weinberger, Shahana Perveen
Introduction: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and surfactant both improve outcomes for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome. However, prolonged trials of CPAP, as well as observation periods after intubation, may delay the administration of surfactant. Late surfactant treatment likely increases the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, which leads to significant morbidity and healthcare utilization. Methods: We aimed to decrease time from meeting standard criteria (start of a continuous run of Fi O2 > 40% or Pa CO2 > 65 for >90 min) to intubation, and from intubation to surfactant administration, for infants <1,500 g or younger than 32 weeks gestation...
July 2020: Pediatric Quality & Safety
Nicki Barker, Ravi Thevasagayam, Kelechi Ugonna, Jane Kirkby
Dysfunctional breathing (DB) is an overarching term describing deviations in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing which have a significant impact on quality of life, performance and functioning. Whilst it occurs in both children and adults, this article focuses specifically on children. DB can be viewed as having two components; breathing pattern disorder (BPD) and inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO). They can be considered in isolation, however, are intricately related and often co-exist. When both are suspected, we propose both BPD and ILO be investigated within an all-encompassing multi-disciplinary dysfunctional breathing clinic...
2020: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Nargiz Seyidova, Austin D Chen, Darya Kazei, Samuel J Lin
Persistent nasal airway obstruction (NAO) due to midvault soft tissue collapse in patients following rhinoplasty or nasal surgery is a clinical challenge for surgeons. An absorbable lateral nasal wall implant is one option available to help treat midvault soft tissue collapse and to improve NAO symptoms. Previous studies have not investigated its use in complex revision functional rhinoplasty with respect to patient-reported outcomes. Data were collected on all patients with a history of previous nasal procedures who underwent Latera implant placement in conjunction with functional rhinoplasty from January to December 2018...
June 2020: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Miles Weinberger, Manju Hurvitz
Cough is a natural process that protects the airway. Cough can occur spontaneously or voluntarily. It is considered chronic when it is present for longer than 4 weeks in children or 8 weeks in adults. In both, chronic cough causes patient distress and increased healthcare utilization. Etiologies of pediatric chronic cough include asthma, protracted bacterial bronchitis, tracheomalacia, habit cough, and various systemic disorders. While some diagnoses are identifiable by careful history alone, others require testing guided by specific pointers...
2020: F1000Research
Juan Liu, Biao Shang, Jing Bai
Asthma in children poses a threat to their health, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the mechanism by which the interleukin (IL)-22/IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1) signaling pathway regulates subepithelial fibrosis in children with asthma. A total of 41 children with asthma and 12 healthy children were included in the present study. ELISA was performed to measure the content of IL-22 in peripheral blood. Serum from children with asthma was used to incubate MRC-5 cells and IL-22 antibody rescued the effect of IL-22 on the biological functions of MRC-5 cells...
September 2020: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kak-Ming Ling, Luke W Garratt, Erin E Gill, Amy H Y Lee, Patricia Agudelo-Romero, Erika N Sutanto, Thomas Iosifidis, Tim Rosenow, Stuart E Turvey, Timo Lassmann, Robert E W Hancock, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
Early-life viral infections are responsible for pulmonary exacerbations that can contribute to disease progression in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The most common respiratory viruses detected in the CF airway are human rhinoviruses (RV), and augmented airway inflammation in CF has been attributed to dysregulated airway epithelial responses although evidence has been conflicting. Here, we exposed airway epithelial cells from children with and without CF to RV in vitro . Using RNA-Seq, we profiled the transcriptomic differences of CF and non-CF airway epithelial cells at baseline and in response to RV...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
Denes Toth, Edina Szabo, Andrea Tamas, Tamas Juhasz, Gabriella Horvath, Eszter Fabian, Balazs Opper, Dora Szabo, Grazia Maugeri, Agata G D'Amico, Velia D'Agata, Viktoria Vicena, Dora Reglodi
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide widely distributed in the nervous system, where it exerts strong neuroprotective effects. PACAP is also expressed in peripheral organs but its peripheral protective effects have not been summarized so far. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to review the existing literature regarding the cytoprotective effects of PACAP in non-neuronal cell types, peripheral tissues, and organs. Among others, PACAP has widespread expression in the digestive system, where it shows protective effects in various intestinal pathologies, such as duodenal ulcer, small bowel ischemia, and intestinal inflammation...
2020: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Karen McQuillan, Fatma Gargoum, Mark P Murphy, Oliver J McElvaney, Noel G McElvaney, Emer P Reeves
In people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF), inflammation with concurrent infection occurs from a young age and significantly influences lung disease progression. Studies indicate that neutrophils are important effector cells in the pathogenesis of CF and in the development of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA). ANCA specific for bactericidal permeability increasing protein (BPI-ANCA) are detected in people with CF, and correlate with infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The aim of this study was to determine the signaling mechanism leading to increased BPI release by CF neutrophils, while identifying IgG class BPI-ANCA in CF airways samples as the cause for impaired antimicrobial activity of BPI against P...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Robert G Hooper
Introduction: There are many options available to patients who are placed on constant positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea. Despite the success of CPAP in correcting apnea, a significant number of patients have difficulty with the therapy. A large number of those patients who have difficulty stop therapy and are often labeled as "CPAP Failure". Non-sleep specialists may view CPAP therapy as a singular course of treatment, but there are many ways CPAP may be ordered for a patient...
2020: Pragmatic and Observational Research
Jason K Panchamia, Carmelina Gurrieri, Adam W Amundson
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the upper and lower motor neurons. Patients present with a variety of clinical manifestations inevitably resulting in death secondary to respiratory insufficiency from muscle weakness and consequential pulmonary complications. Despite the lack of universal consensus on the ideal anesthetic approach to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients undergoing lower extremity total joint surgery, there are few noteworthy anesthetic considerations in this cohort...
2020: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Amalie Hartvig Pall, Anne Fog Lomholt, Christian von Buchwald, Anette Bygum, Eva Rye Rasmussen
Purpose: To give a better understanding of primary AE, the clinical characteristics and the possible therapeutic approaches. Background: Angioedema (AE) is a non-pitting, non-itching swelling of skin or mucosa. The symptom can become life-threatening if located in the airways. Primary (monosymptomatic) AE is a manifestation of several different diseases and the diagnosis is not always straight-forward. The aetiological and pathophysiological factors of primary AE are not completely clarified...
2020: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Yuki Yoshimatsu, Kazunori Tobino, Shinsuke Nagami, Naomi Yagi, Yoshitaka Oku
Introduction: Dysphagia is a newly acknowledged multifactorial risk factor for the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Effective screening methods are awaited. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the impact of musculature and breathing-swallowing discoordination on the exacerbation of COPD with a novel swallowing monitor using a piezoelectric sensor. Patients and Methods: This was the second part of a prospective study of patients with COPD from the Iizuka COPD cohort...
2020: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Dimitrios Toumpanakis, Eleftheria Mizi, Vyronia Vassilakopoulou, Maria Dettoraki, Athanasia Chatzianastasiou, Fotis Perlikos, Georgia Giatra, Marina Moscholaki, Stamatios Theocharis, Theodoros Vassilakopoulos
Introduction: Resistive breathing (RB), the pathophysiologic hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially during exacerbations, is associated with significant inflammation and mechanical stress on the lung. Mechanical forces are implicated in the progression of emphysema that is a major pathologic feature of COPD. We hypothesized that resistive breathing exacerbates emphysema. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 0.75 units of pancreatic porcine elastase intratracheally to develop emphysema...
2020: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
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