Nicholas J Burgraff, Nathan A Baertsch, Jan-Marino Ramirez
This study provides an in-depth analysis of the distinct consequences of the opioid drugs morphine and fentanyl during opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD). We explored the physiological implications of both drugs on ventilation and airway patency in anaesthetized mice. Our results revealed a similar reduction in respiratory frequency with equivalent scaled dosages of fentanyl and morphine, though the onset of suppression was more rapid with fentanyl. Additionally, fentanyl resulted in transient airflow obstructions during the inspiratory cycle, which were absent following morphine administration...
October 1, 2023: Journal of Physiology
M Ashrafuzzaman, M M Hossain, S T Reza, K M Adnan, M Asaduzzaman, M F Rahman
Endotracheal intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation are fundamental components for the resuscitation of neurocritically ill patients to achieve various goals which include ensuring the protection of the airway, participating in tissue oxygen delivery and indirectly modulating cerebral vascular reactivity. The neurocritical patients demand special attention to their systemic involvement regarding weaning. Physician prompt clinical decision criteria (PPC) can play a better role in weaning of such patients...
October 2023: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Dinah V Parums
The 2023 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) report includes relevant topics from the clinician's perspective and evidence published on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) since GOLD 2017. The World Health Organization (WHO) and GOLD 2023 have developed an updated definition of COPD as, "a heterogeneous lung condition characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, cough, expectoration, exacerbations) due to abnormalities of the airway (bronchitis, bronchiolitis) and/or alveoli (emphysema) that cause persistent, often progressive, airflow obstruction...
October 1, 2023: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jane Ryu, Teryn Igawa, Jyodi Mohole, Melissa Coward
There are many possible causes of congenital neck masses, with the most common ones being thyroglossal duct cysts, branchial cleft anomalies, and vascular malformations. Most congenital neck masses are asymptomatic in the neonatal period, but depending on the location and the size, they can cause airway obstruction and serious complications at birth. Proper diagnosis is important for optimal treatment planning, and if the airway is compromised, multidisciplinary teamwork is critical for proper airway management...
October 1, 2023: NeoReviews
Donna Y Chen, Bianca Devsam, Arun Sett, Elizabeth J Perkins, Mitchell D Johnson, David G Tingay
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of all neonatal endotracheal intubation attempts are unsuccessful and associated with airway injury and cardiorespiratory instability. The aim of this study was to describe intubation practice at a high-risk Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and identify factors associated with successful intubation at the first attempt. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all infants requiring intubation within the Royal Children's Hospital NICU over three years...
September 30, 2023: Pediatric Research
Santiago Martínez-Isasi, Aida Carballo-Fazanes, Cristina Jorge-Soto, Martín Otero-Agra, Felipe Fernández-Méndez, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Verónica Izquierdo, María García-Martínez, Antonio Rodríguez-Núñez
Foreign body airway obstruction (FBAO) is a relatively common emergency and a potential cause of sudden death both in children and older people; bystander immediate action will determine the victim's outcome. Although many school children's basic life support (BLS) training programs have been implemented in recent years, references to specific training on FBAO are lacking. Therefore, the aim was to assess FBAO-solving knowledge acquisition in 10-13-year-old school children. A quasi-experimental non-controlled simulation study was carried out on 564 ten-to-thirteen-year-old children from 5 schools in Galicia (Spain)...
September 30, 2023: European Journal of Pediatrics
Maen Zreaqat, Rozita Hassan, A R Samsudin, Sahal Alforaidi
UNLABELLED: Twin-block appliance had been advocated as a potential treatment option in paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) due to their favourable effect in enhancing upper airway parameters and improving OSA symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of twin-block appliance therapy on upper airway parameters/dimensions and the apnoea-hypopnea indexes (AHIs) in OSA children with class II mandibular retrognathic skeletal malocclusion using cone-beam computed tomography...
September 30, 2023: European Journal of Pediatrics
A L D'Rozario, C Kao, C L Phillips, A E Mullins, N Memarian, B J Yee, S L Duffy, G Cho, K K Wong, K Kremerskothen, J Chapman, C Haroutonian, D J Bartlett, S L Naismith, R R Grunstein
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Limited channel electroencephalography (EEG) investigations in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have revealed deficits in slow wave activity (SWA) and spindles during sleep and increased EEG slowing during resting wakefulness. High-density EEG (Hd-EEG) has also detected local parietal deficits in SWA (delta power) during NREM. It is unclear whether effective continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment reverses regional SWA deficits, and other regional sleep and wake EEG abnormalities, and whether any recovery relates to improved overnight memory consolidation...
September 30, 2023: Sleep
Bing Zhong, Silu Sun, Kai Sen Tan, Hsiao Hui Ong, Jintao Du, Feng Liu, Yafeng Liu, Shixi Liu, Luo Ba, Jing Li, De Yun Wang, Jing Liu
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an upper airway inflammation disease which is associated with hypoxia-mediated inflammation. The effect of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1(HIF-1)α on NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in the pathogenesis of sinonasal mucosa is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect and mechanism of HIF-1α on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs)...
September 28, 2023: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Erik Hoff, Christian Strassberger, Ding Zou, Ludger Grote, Kaj Stenlöf, Jan Hedner
BACKGROUND: The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor sulthiame (STM) reduces obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity, increases overnight oxygenation and improves sleep quality. Insights into how STM modulates OSA pathophysiology (endotypic traits) adds to our understanding of the breathing disorder itself, as well as the effects of carbonic anhydrases in respiratory regulation. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does STM treatment modify endotypic traits in OSA? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Per protocol tertiary analysis of a randomized controlled trial with the inclusion criteria: BMI ≥20 to ≤35 kg/m2 , age 18-75 years, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥15/h, Epworth sleepiness scale ≥6 as well as non-acceptance or non-tolerance of positive airway pressure treatment...
September 28, 2023: Chest
Emily Drury, Brian Anderson, Michael Haupert, Prasad John Thottam
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to describe a case in which a steroid-eluting implant was utilized to help prevent postoperative granulation and restenosis in a patient who underwent double-stage laryngotracheal reconstruction (dsLTR) for subglottic stenosis. METHODS: This case presents a 3-year-old female who underwent dsLTR with anterior cartilage graft placement and posterior sagittal split for subglottic stenosis. A silicone stent was placed at the time of the dsLTR...
September 30, 2023: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Craig Lyons, Ellen P O'Sullivan
Airway-related articles have featured heavily in the British Journal of Anaesthesia since it was founded in 1923. In the 100 years thereafter, 1102 airway-related articles have been published in the journal, written by 2955 unique authors from 55 different countries. In this editorial, we highlight some of the major publications in airway management and their impact on the specialty. Summaries of the most cited articles are contained within online supplementary material as well as links to all airway-related articles for readers who wish to delve deeper into this body of work...
September 27, 2023: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Mitali Sahni, Vineet Bhandari
In the age of surfactant and antenatal steroids, neonatal care has improved outcomes of preterm infants dramatically. Since the early 2000's neonatologists have strived to decrease bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) by decreasing ventilator-associated lung injury and utilizing many novel modes of non-invasive respiratory support. After the initial success with nasal continuous positive airway pressure, it was established that discontinuing invasive ventilation early in favor of non-invasive respiratory support is the most effective way to reduce the incidence of BPD...
September 9, 2023: Seminars in Perinatology
Ruyu Xia, Yutong Fei, Lishan Zhang, Zhijun Jie, Xiaoyun Fan, Mengyuan Dai, Michael Moore, Merlin Willcox, Xiaoyang Hu, Nick Francis, Changhao Liang, Guanghe Fei, Jianping Liu
INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represents one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Published clinical trials suggest that the Chinese patent herbal medicine Shufeng Jiedu capsule (SFJD) is safe and may be effective for treating acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD). However, these effects have been reported with low or very low certainty evidence. This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of SFJD for AECOPD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is designed as a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
September 29, 2023: BMJ Open
G M Donovan
Structure-function relationships occur throughout the sciences. Motivated by optimisation of such systems, we develop a framework for estimating the input modes from the singular value decomposition from the action of the forward operator alone. These can then be used to determine the input (structure) changes which induce the largest output (function) changes. The accuracy of the estimate is determined by reference to the method of snapshots. The proposed method is demonstrated on several example problems, and finally used to approximate the optimal airway treatment set for a problem in respiratory physiology...
September 29, 2023: Mathematical Medicine and Biology: a Journal of the IMA
Gokul Erumbala, Sabu Anzar, Samir Deiratany, Barbara Blackie, Colin Powell, Khalid Al Ansari
INTRODUCTION: A well-developed procedural sedation programme in the paediatric emergency department can minimise adverse events. We examined how adherence to current best evidence ensures safe delivery of paediatric sedation in a newly established tertiary paediatric hospital. METHODS: Our sedation service uses a robust provider training and privileging system, standardised policy and procedures and rigorous data collection all within an evidence-based clinical governance process...
September 29, 2023: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Christian Kjer Heerfordt, Christian Rønn, Zitta Barrella Harboe, Truls Sylvan Ingebrigtsen, Alexander Svorre Jordan, Jon Torgny Wilcke, Barbara Bonnesen, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Rikke Sørensen, Jon Gitz Holler, Theis Skovsgaard Itenov, Helle Krogh Johansen, Pradeesh Sivapalan, Josefin Eklöf, Jens-Ulrik Stæhr Jensen
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are associated with an increased risk of pneumonia among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The introduction of extrafine particle ICS has aimed to improve the distribution of medicine in the airways by altering deposition within the lungs, potentially affecting efficacy and side effects. It remains unclear if extrafine particle ICS administration alters the risk of pneumonia compared with standard particle size ICS. METHODS: An observational cohort study including all Danish COPD outpatients receiving ICS from 2010 to 2017...
September 2023: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
Alexandra Delay, Adélaïde Carlier, Andrea Varazzani, Pierre Breton, Patrick Feugier, Louis Brochet, Antoine Pierrefeu
Major defects of the facial structures cause severe functional and aesthetic impairment. Difficulty in head and neck reconstruction lies in cases of secondary, tertiary, or further reconstruction. This is not a rare situation for patients who had cancer of the upper airways, since the rate of recurrence, second location, or osteoradionecrosis is high. Multiple surgeries and radiation therapy cause significant fibrosis and scar tissues, making any further reconstruction a major challenge for the surgeon when operating patients with vessel- depleted neck...
September 27, 2023: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
R Bedford, G Smith, E Rothwell, S Martin, R Medhane, D Casentieri, A Daunt, G Freiberg, M Hollings
Despite increasing use of in vitro models that closely resemble in vivo human biology, their application in understanding downstream effects of airway toxicity, such as inflammation, are at an early stage. In this study, we used various assays to examine the inflammatory response induced in MucilAirTM tissues and A549 cells exposed to three products known to induce toxicity. Reduced barrier integrity was observed in tissues following exposure to each product, with reduced viability and increased cytotoxicity also shown...
September 27, 2023: Toxicology Letters
Junjie Ma, Egon Urgard, Solveig Runge, Cajsa H Classon, Laura Mathä, Julian M Stark, Liqin Cheng, Javiera A Álvarez, Silvia von Zedtwitz, Austeja Baleviciute, Sergio Martinez Hoyer, Muzhen Li, Anne Marleen Gernand, Lisa Osbelt, Agata Anna Bielecka, Till R Lesker, Huey-Jy Huang, Susanne Vrtala, Louis Boon, Rudi Beyaert, Mikael Adner, Itziar Martinez Gonzalez, Till Strowig, Juan Du, Susanne Nylén, Stephan P Rosshart, Jonathan M Coquet
Allergic disorders are caused by a combination of hereditary and environmental factors. The hygiene hypothesis postulates that early-life microbial exposures impede the development of subsequent allergic disease. Recently developed "wildling" mice are genetically identical to standard laboratory specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice but are housed under seminatural conditions and have rich microbial exposures from birth. Thus, by comparing conventional SPF mice with wildlings, we can uncouple the impact of lifelong microbial exposures from genetic factors on the allergic immune response...
September 29, 2023: Science Immunology
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