Renata L Riha, Serafeim-Chrysovalantis Kotoulas, Athanasia Pataka, John Arthur Kvamme, Pavol Joppa, Jan Hedner
BACKGROUND: The impact of removing the upper airway lymphoid tissue and in particular, tonsillectomy, in adults with OSA has not been demonstrated in large populations. AIMS: To compare the severity of OSA and the prevalence of cardiovascular, metabolic and respiratory co-morbidities between patients with OSA who had undergone previous tonsillectomy and those who had not. METHODS: The 19,711 participants in this study came from the European sleep apnea database (ESADA) which comprises data from unselected adult patients aged 18-80 years with a history of symptoms suggestive of OSA referred to sleep centers throughout Europe...
November 24, 2020: Sleep Medicine
Joshua Nagler, Marc Auerbach, Michael C Monuteaux, John A Cheek, Franz E Babl, Ed Oakley, Lucia Nguyen, Arjun Rao, Sarah Dalton, Mark D Lyttle, Santiago Mintegi, Rakesh D Mistry, Andrew Dixon, Pedro Rino, Guillermo Kohn-Loncarica, Stuart R Dalziel, Simon Craig
BACKGROUND: Airway management procedures are critical for emergency medicine (EM) physicians, but rarely performed skills in pediatric patients. Worldwide experience with respect to frequency and confidence in performing airway management skills has not been previously described. OBJECTIVES: Our aims were 1) to determine the frequency with which emergency medicine physicians perform airway procedures including: bag-mask ventilation (BMV), endotracheal intubation (ETI), laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion, tracheostomy tube change (TTC), and surgical airways, and 2) to investigate predictors of procedural confidence regarding advanced airway management in children...
December 31, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Luca Valenti, Samantha Griffini, Giuseppe Lamorte, Elena Grovetti, Sara Colonia Uceda Renteria, Francesco Malvestiti, Luigia Scudeller, Alessandra Bandera, Flora Peyvandi, Daniele Prati, Pierluigi Meroni, Massimo Cugno
BACKGROUND: Genetic variation at a multigene cluster at chromosome 3p21.31 and the ABO blood group have been associated with the risk of developing severe COVID-19, but the mechanism remains unclear. Complement activation has been associated with COVID-19 severity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether chromosome 3p21.31 and the ABO variants are linked to the activation of the complement cascade in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We considered 72 unrelated European hospitalized patients with genetic data and evaluation of circulating C5a and soluble terminal complement complex C5b-9 (SC5b-9)...
January 9, 2021: Journal of Autoimmunity
Theo Crosson, Jo-Chiao Wang, Benjamin Doyle, Hannah Merrison, Mohammad Balood, Alexandre Parrin, Maud Pascal, Barbara C Mindt, Corey R Seehus, Alp Ozcan, Xuan Huang, Elise Semenara, Nicole Yy Lai, Abdelilah Majdoubi, Raja-Elie E Abdulnour, Trevor Rajchgot, Moutih Rafei, Simmie L Foster, Jacques Thibodeau, Jörg H Fritz, Bruce D Levy, Clifford J Woolf, Sebastien Talbot
BACKGROUND: Lung nociceptor neurons amplify immune cell activity and mucus metaplasia in response to an inhaled allergen challenge in sensitized mice. OBJECTIVE: We now sought to identify the cellular mechanisms by which these sensory neurons are activated upon allergen exposure. METHODS: We used calcium microscopy and electrophysiological recording to assess whether vagal neurons directly respond to the model allergen ovalbumin (OVA). Next, we generated the first nociceptor specific FcεR1γ knockdown (TRPV1Cre ::FcεR1γfl/fl ) mice to assess whether this targeted invalidation would impact the severity of allergic inflammation in response to allergen challenges...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Maha Zohra Ladjemi, Leonarda Di Candia, Nicolas Heddebaut, Camille Techoueyres, Eloise Airaud, David Soussan, Marie-Christine Dombret, Fatima Hamidi, Noëlline Guillou, Pierre Mordant, Yves Castier, Séverine Létuvé, Camille Taillé, Michel Aubier, Marina Pretolani
BACKGROUND: Phenotypes and endotypes predicting optimal response to bronchial thermoplasty (BT) in severe asthmatics remain elusive. OBJECTIVE: To compare clinical characteristics and hallmarks of airway inflammation and remodelling before and after BT in responders and partial responders severe asthmatics refractory to oral steroids and to omalizumab. METHODS: Twenty-three severe refractory asthmatics were divided into BT-responders (n=15) and BT-partial responders (n=8), according to the decrease in asthma exacerbations at 12 months after BT...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Zili Zhang, Tao Wang, Fei Liu, Airu Zhu, Guoping Gu, Jieping Luo, Jingyi Xu, Jincun Zhao, Yiming Li, Yuanyuan Li, Xiaoqing Liu, Nanshan Zhong, Wenju Lu
BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has brought a global public health crisis. However, the pathogenesis underlying COVID-19 are barely understood. METHODS: In this study, we performed proteomic analyses of airway mucus obtained by bronchoscopy from severe COVID-19 patients. In total, 2351 and 2073 proteins were identified and quantified in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, respectively. RESULTS: Among them, 92 differentiated expressed proteins (DEPs) (46 up-regulated and 46 down-regulated) were found with a fold change >1...
January 13, 2021: Life Sciences
Ashley R Deonarain, Robert V Harrison, Karen A Gordon, Thomas Looi, Anne M R Agur, Marvin Estrada, Nikolaus E Wolter, Evan J Propst
OBJECTIVE(S): To create and validate a synthetic simulator for teaching tracheostomy and laryngotracheal reconstruction (LTR) using anterior costal cartilage and thyroid ala cartilage grafts. METHODS: A late adolescent/adult neck and airway simulator was constructed based on CT scans from a cadaver and a live patient. Images were segmented to create three-dimensional printed molds from which anatomical parts were casted. To evaluate the simulator, expert otolaryngologists - head and neck surgeons performed tracheostomy and LTR using anterior costal cartilage and thyroid ala cartilage grafts on a live anesthetized porcine model (gold standard) followed by the synthetic simulator...
January 16, 2021: Laryngoscope
Tao Ai, Ronghua Luo, Lei Zhang, Li Wang, Huiling Liao, Yinghong Fan, Yaping Duan, Yijie Huang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) normal value of healthy children, and provide a reliable theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis. METHODS: 481 healthy children aged 6-15-y-old in three primary schools in Chengdu were subjected for FeNO detection. Through the statistical analysis, the upper limit normal value of FeNO among the healthy children was obtained, and the related influencing factors of FeNO value were analyzed. RESULTS: Among the 481 heathy children, the geometric mean value of FeNO was 14...
January 16, 2021: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Francesca Ricci, Ilia Bresesti, Paola Azzurra Maria LaVerde, Fabrizio Salomone, Costanza Casiraghi, Arianna Mersanne, Matteo Storti, Chiara Catozzi, Laura Tigli, Riccardo Zecchi, Pietro Franceschi, Xabier Murgia, Manuela Simonato, Paola Cogo, Virgilio Carnielli, Gianluca Lista
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, InSurE (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation) and LISA (less invasive surfactant administration) techniques allow for exogenous surfactant administration while reducing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. We compared the acute pulmonary response and lung deposition of surfactant by LISA and InSurE in surfactant-depleted adult rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-six spontaneously breathing surfactant-depleted adult rabbits (6-7 weeks old) with moderate RDS and managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure were randomized to 3 groups: (1) 200 mg/kg of surfactant by InSurE; (2) 200 mg/kg of surfactant by LISA; (3) no surfactant treatment (Control)...
January 15, 2021: Pediatric Research
Jeong-Whun Kim, Jae-Cheul Ahn, Young-Seok Choi, Chae-Seo Rhee, Hahn Jin Jung
Identification of obstructive level is crucial for successful surgical outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Unfortunately, most of the dynamic airway evaluations are performed for a short duration under drug-induced sleep; therefore, it is uncertain whether they represent airway events that occur during a whole night of sleep. This study was aimed to evaluate the correlation between obstructive levels that were identified by a short-time and a whole-night test in patients with OSA. Total 101 patients with OSA underwent drug-induced sleep fluoroscopy (DISF) and pressure manometry (PM)...
January 15, 2021: Scientific Reports
Hiroo Wada, Ai Ikeda, Koutatsu Maruyama, Kazumasa Yamagishi, Peter J Barnes, Takeshi Tanigawa, Akiko Tamakoshi, Hiroyasu Iso
To clarify how low BMI and weight loss were associated with risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality, in a large prospective cohort of the general population across Japan, the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study, conducted between 1988 and 2009. A total of 45,837 male residents were observed for a median period of 19.1 years. Self-administered questionnaires, collecting information on BMI, weight loss since the age of 20, lifestyles, history of diseases, as well as records of COPD mortality, were analysed at 2019...
January 15, 2021: Scientific Reports
Alice Bordessoule, Amelia Moreira, Cristina Felice Civitillo, Christophe Combescure, Angelo Polito, Peter C Rimensberger
OBJECTIVE: Patient's work of breathing may vary between different neonatal nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) devices. Therefore, we aimed to compare the inspiratory effort of three variable-flow NCPAP delivery systems used in preterm infants. DESIGN: Cross-over study. PATIENTS/SETTING: From June 2015 to August 2016, 20 preterm infants weighing ≤2500 g requiring NCPAP for mild respiratory distress syndrome were enrolled. INTERVENTIONS: Each patient was successively supported by three randomly assigned variable-flow NCPAP systems (MedinCNO, Infant Flow and Servo-i) for 20 min while maintaining the same continuous positive airway pressure level as the patient was on before the study period...
January 15, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Giulio Maurizi, Camilla Vanni, Erino Angelo Rendina, Anna Maria Ciccone, Mohsen Ibrahim, Claudio Andreetti, Federico Venuta, Antonio D'Andrilli
OBJECTIVE: Laryngotracheal resection is still considered a challenging operation and few high-volume institutions have reported large series of patients in this setting. During the 5 years, novel surgical techniques as well as new trends in the intra- and postoperative management have been proposed. We present results of our increased experience with laryngotracheal resection for benign stenosis. METHODS: Between 1991 and May 2019, 228 consecutive patients underwent laryngotracheal resection for subglottic stenosis...
December 14, 2020: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Reilly D Hobbs, Richard G Ohye
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2020: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Olivier Touzelet, Lindsay Broadbent, Stuart D Armstrong, Waleed Aljabr, Elaine Cloutman-Green, Ultan F Power, Julian A Hiscox
The respiratory epithelium comprises polarized cells at the interface between the environment and airway tissues. Polarized apical and basolateral protein secretions are a feature of airway epithelium homeostasis. Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a major human pathogen that primarily targets the respiratory epithelium. However, the consequences of hRSV infection on epithelium secretome polarity and content remain poorly understood. To investigate the hRSV-associated apical and basolateral secretomes, a proteomics approach was combined with an ex vivo pediatric human airway epithelial (HAE) model of hRSV infection (data are available via ProteomeXchange and can be accessed at https://www...
May 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Khyatiben V Pathak, Marissa I McGilvrey, Charles K Hu, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Karen Lewandoski, Zahra Eftekhari, Yate-Ching Yuan, Frederic Zenhausern, Emmanuel Menashi, Patrick Pirrotte
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hospital-acquired infection, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Currently, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used in hospitals for VAP diagnosis and guiding treatment options. Although BAL collection procedures are invasive, alternatives such as endotracheal aspirates (ETA) may be of diagnostic value, however, their use has not been thoroughly explored. Longitudinal ETA and BAL were collected from 16 intubated patients up to 15 days, of which 11 developed VAP...
October 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Anatte Margalit, James C Carolan, David Sheehan, Kevin Kavanagh
Individuals with cystic fibrosis are susceptible to co-infection by Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite the persistence of A. fumigatus in the cystic fibrosis lung P. aeruginosa eventually predominates as the primary pathogen. Several factors are likely to facilitate P. aeruginosa colonization in the airways, including alterations to the microbial environment. The cystic fibrosis airways are hypoxic, nitrate-rich environments, and the sputum has higher amino acid concentrations than normal...
August 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Marie-Caroline Rotty, Carey M Suehs, Jean-Pierre Mallet, Christian Martinez, Jean-Christian Borel, Claudio Rabec, Fanny Bertelli, Arnaud Bourdin, Nicolas Molinari, Dany Jaffuel
BACKGROUND: For some patients, Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) remains an uncomfortable therapy despite the constant development of technological innovations. To date, no real life study has investigated the relationship between mask related side-effects (MRSEs) and CPAP-non-adherence (defined as < 4 h/day) or residual-excessive-sleepiness (RES, Epworth-Sleepiness-Scale (ESS) score ≥ 11) in the long-term. METHODS: The InterfaceVent-CPAP study is a prospective real-life cross-sectional study conducted in an apneic adult cohort undergoing at least 3 months of CPAP with unrestricted mask-access (34 different masks)...
January 15, 2021: Respiratory Research
Antonino Maniaci, Giannicola Iannella, Salvatore Cocuzza, Claudio Vicini, Giuseppe Magliulo, Salvatore Ferlito, Giovanni Cammaroto, Giuseppe Meccariello, Andrea De Vito, Alice Nicolai, Annalisa Pace, Marco Artico, Samanta Taurone
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS) is a respiratory sleep disorder characterised by repeated episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during the night. This obstruction usually occurs with a reduction (hypopnea) or complete cessation (apnea) of the airflow in the upper airways with the persistence of thoracic-diaphragmatic respiratory movements. During the hypopnea/apnea events, poor alveolar ventilation reduces the oxygen saturation in the arterial blood (SaO2 ) and a gradual increase in the partial arterial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 )...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Maud Bollenbach, Simona Nemska, Patrick Wagner, Guillaume Camelin, François Daubeuf, Adeline Obrecht, Pascal Villa, Didier Rognan, Frédéric Bihel, Jean-Jacques Bourguignon, Martine Schmitt, Nelly Frossard
Mitogen- and Stress-Activated Kinase 1 (MSK1) is a nuclear kinase, taking part in the activation pathway of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-kB and is demonstrating a therapeutic target potential in inflammatory diseases such as asthma, psoriasis and atherosclerosis. To date, few MSK1 inhibitors were reported. In order to identify new MSK1 inhibitors, a screening of a library of low molecular weight compounds was performed, and the results highlighted the 6-phenylpyridin-2-yl guanidine (compound 1a , IC50 ~18 µM) as a starting hit for structure-activity relationship study...
January 13, 2021: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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