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Beibei Zhang, Zhixia Zhuang, Xiaoru Wang, Huabin Huang, Qi Fu, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a highly pathogenic bacterium for maricultured fish and causes serious losses. A transcriptional regulator gene RK21_RS10315 was found up-regulated during the whole infection process, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Five shRNA were designed to silence RK21_RS10315 gene, and the gene expression was reduced up to 96.1%. Compared with the counterpart infected with wild type strain, the infection of RK21_RS10315-RNAi strain resulted in the death time delay, and 90% reduction in mortality of Epinephelus coioides, as well as the alleviation in the symptoms of E...
February 15, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rômulo Dias Novaes, Antônio Lúcio Teixeira, Aline Silva de Miranda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Parisa Kalantari, Stephen C Bunnell, Miguel J Stadecker
Schistosomiasis is a major helminthic disease in which damage to the affected organs is orchestrated by a pathogenic host CD4 T helper (Th) cell-mediated immune response against parasite eggs. In the case of the species Schistosoma mansoni , the resulting granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis takes place in the liver and intestines. The magnitude of disease varies greatly from individual to individual but in a minority of patients, there is severe disease and death. S. mansoni infection in a murine model similarly results in marked strain variation of immunopathology...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Frederick Leo Sossah, Zhenghui Liu, Chentao Yang, Benjamin Azu Okorley, Lei Sun, Yongping Fu, Yu Li
Cladobotryum protrusum is one of the mycoparasites that cause cobweb disease on cultivated edible mushrooms. However, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and pathogenesis of C. protrusum on mushrooms are largely unknown. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of C. protrusum using the single-molecule, real-time sequencing platform of PacBio and perform a comparative analysis with closely related fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. The C. protrusum genome, the first complete genome to be sequenced in the genus Cladobotryum , is 39...
February 8, 2019: Genes
Swapnil Kumar, Kumari Snehkant Lata, Priyanka Sharma, Shivarudrappa B Bhairappanavar, Subhash Soni, Jayashankar Das
Leptospirosis is the most emerging zoonotic disease of epidemic potential caused by pathogenic species of Leptospira. The bacterium invades the host system and causes the disease by interacting with the host proteins. Analyzing these pathogen-host protein interactions (PHPIs) may provide deeper insight into the disease pathogenesis. For this analysis, inter-species as well as intra-species protein interactions networks of Leptospira interrogans and human were constructed and investigated. The topological analyses of these networks showed lesser connectivity in inter-species network than intra-species, indicating the perturbed nature of the inter-species network...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Allison J Hempenstall, Simon Smith, David Stanton, Josh Hanson
Burkholderia pseudomallei , a bacterium that lives in the soil of the tropics, causes the disease melioidosis. This retrospective study investigated the temporospatial epidemiology of the 49 laboratory-confirmed melioidosis cases in the Torres Straits Islands of tropical Australia between 1997 and 2017. An identifiable risk factor for the disease was present in 43/49 (88%) cases and in 35/36 (97%) cases with complete clinical data. The mean incidence of melioidosis varied across the region, from 0/100,000 persons/year in the Eastern Island Cluster to 116...
January 21, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Anshul Sinha, Sammy Nyongesa, Charles Viau, Samantha Gruenheid, Frédéric J Veyrier, Hervé Le Moual
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are naturally produced by Gram-negative bacteria by a bulging of the outer membrane (OM) and subsequent release in the environment. By serving as vehicles for various cargos, including proteins, nucleic acids and small metabolites, OMVs are central to interbacterial interactions and both symbiotic and pathogenic host bacterial interactions. However, despite their importance, the mechanism of OMV formation remains unclear. Recent evidence indicates that covalent modifications of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) influence OMV biogenesis...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Jessica E Manning, Tineke Cantaert
The current increase in vector-borne disease worldwide necessitates novel approaches to vaccine development targeted to pathogens delivered by blood-feeding arthropod vectors into the host skin. A concept that is gaining traction in recent years is the contribution of the vector or vector-derived components, like salivary proteins, to host-pathogen interactions. Indeed, the triad of vector-host-pathogen interactions in the skin microenvironment can influence host innate and adaptive responses alike, providing an advantage to the pathogen to establish infection...
January 21, 2019: Vaccines
Jesús Mateos, Olivia Estévez, África González-Fernández, Luis Anibarro, Ángeles Pallarés, Rajko Reljic, José M Gallardo, Isabel Medina, Mónica Carrera
Our goal was to establish panels of protein biomarkers that are characteristic of patients with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and their contacts, including latent TB-infected (LTBI) and uninfected patients. Since the first pathogen-host contact occurs in the oral and nasal passages the saliva and sputum were chosen as the biological fluids to be studied. Quantitative shotgun proteomics was performed using a LTQ-Orbitrap-Elite platform. For active TB patients, both fluids exhibited a specific accumulation of proteins that were related to complement activation, inflammation and modulation of immune response...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Proteomics
Ihsanul Khaliq, Giles E St J Hardy, Keith L McDougall, Treena I Burgess
Plant deaths had been observed in the sub-alpine and alpine areas of Australia. Although no detailed aetiology was established, patches of dying vegetation and progressive thinning of canopy suggested the involvement of root pathogens. Baiting of roots and associated rhizosphere soil from surveys conducted in mountainous regions New South Wales and Tasmania resulted in the isolation of eight Phytophthora species; Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cryptogea, Phytophthora fallax, Phytophthora gonapodyides, Phytophthora gregata, Phytophthora pseudocryptogea, and two new species, Phytophthora cacuminis sp...
January 2019: Fungal Biology
Emily A Machala, Brian P McSharry, Barry T Rouse, Allison Abendroth, Barry Slobedman
Viruses, as a class of pathogenic microbe, remain a significant health burden globally. Viral infections result in significant morbidity and mortality annually and many remain in need of novel vaccine and anti-viral strategies. The development of effective novel anti-viral therapeutics, in particular, requires detailed understanding of the mechanism of viral infection, and the host response, including the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. In recent years, the role of glycans and lectins in pathogen-host interactions has become an increasingly relevant issue...
January 16, 2019: Journal of General Virology
Monica E Embers, Aparna Krishnavajhala, Brittany Armstrong, Michael W Curtis, Bapi Pahar, Hannah K Wilder, Mike Allen, Paul Beare, Nicole R Hasenkampf, Job E Lopez
The global public health impact of relapsing fever (RF) spirochetosis is significant, as the pathogens exist on five of seven continents. The hallmark sign of infection is episodic fever and the greatest threat is to the unborn. With the goal of better understanding the specificity of B cell responses and the role of immune responses in pathogenicity, we infected Rhesus macaques with Borrelia turicatae (a new world RF spirochete species) by tick bite and monitored the immune responses generated in response to the pathogen...
January 14, 2019: Infection and Immunity
Liting Wan, Jian Lin, Hongwen Du, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Ming Sun, Donghai Peng
Pathogenic bacteria use different strategies to infect their hosts, including the simultaneous production of pore forming toxins and several virulence factors that may synergize their pathogenic effects. However, how the pathogenic bacteria are able to break out the host intestinal barrier is poorly understood. The infectious cycle of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium in Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model system to study the early stages of the infection process. Bt produces Cry pore-forming toxins during the sporulation phase that are key virulence factors involved in its pathogenesis...
January 13, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Marcia Saraiva, Max J Beckmann, Sara Pflaum, Marianne Pearson, Daniel Carcajona, James W Treasurer, Pieter van West
Samples from moribund lumpfish were collected in a marine hatchery in Scotland in 2015. Black nodules were noted on the skin, and gills and fungal hyphae were extensively distributed in musculature and internal organs. Multifocal chronic inflammatory lesions displaced structures in all affected organs. Mortalities commenced on completion of spawning in May and were evenly distributed over the second year in the temperature range 11-15°C. The main systemic infection causing agent was initially identified based on morphological characteristics as an Exophiala species...
January 11, 2019: Journal of Fish Diseases
Ramon Hochstrasser, Aline Kessler, Tobias Sahr, Sylvia Simon, Ursula Schell, Laura Gomez-Valero, Carmen Buchrieser, Hubert Hilbi
The causative agent of Legionnaires' pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila, colonizes amoebae and biofilms in the environment. The opportunistic pathogen employs the Lqs (Legionella quorum sensing) system and the signaling molecule LAI-1 (Legionella autoinducer-1) to regulate virulence, motility, natural competence, and expression of a 133 kb genomic island, including a putative novel regulator. Here, we show that the regulator termed LvbR is an LqsS-regulated, pleotropic transcription factor that binds to the promoter of lpg1056/hnox1 (encoding an inhibitor of the diguanylate cyclase Lpg1057), and thus regulates proteins involved in c-di-GMP metabolism...
January 8, 2019: Environmental Microbiology
Chao Li, Yanjian Li, Chen Ding
Copper is an essential trace element participating in many vital biological processes, however it becomes a toxic agent when in excess. Thus, precise and tight regulation of copper homeostasis processes, including transport, delivery, storage, detoxification, and efflux machineries, is important, ensuring that only the amount needed to sustain basic biological functions and simultaneously prevent copper toxicity in the cell is maintained. Numerous exciting studies have revealed that copper plays an indispensable role at the microbial pathogen-host axis for entities ranging from pathogenic bacteria to deadly fungal species...
January 5, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Allon Weiner, Jost Enninga
Pathogens survive and propagate within host cells through a wide array of complex interactions. Tracking the molecular and cellular events by multidimensional fluorescence microscopy has been a widespread tool for research on intracellular pathogens. Through major advancements in 3D electron microscopy, intracellular pathogens can also be visualized in their cellular environment to an unprecedented level of detail within large volumes. Recently, multidimensional fluorescence microscopy has been correlated with volume electron microscopy, combining molecular and functional information with the overall ultrastructure of infection events...
December 29, 2018: Trends in Microbiology
Jingliang Huang, Liping Xie, Rongqing Zhang
The pearl oyster Pinctada fucata is famous for producing luxurious pearls. As filter feeders, they are confronted with various infectious microorganisms. Despite a long history of aquaculture, diseases in P. fucata are not well studied, which limits the development of the pearl industry. We report here a shell disease in P. fucata and a study of the shell repair processes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the nacreous layer gradually recovered from disordered CaCO3 deposition, accompanied by a polymorphic transition from a calcite-aragonite mixture to an aragonite-dominant composition, as revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis...
December 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Thomas Hiller, Andrea Rasche, Stefan Dominik Brändel, Alexander König, Lara Jeworowski, M Teague O'Mara, Veronika Cottontail, Rachel A Page, Dieter Glebe, Jan Felix Drexler, Marco Tschapka
The tent-making bat hepatitis B virus (TBHBV) is a hepadnavirus closely related to human hepatitis B virus. The ecology of TBHBV is unclear. We show that it is widespread and highly diversified in Peters' tent-making bats (Uroderma bilobatum) within Panama, while local prevalence varied significantly between sample sites, ranging from 0 to 14.3%. Females showed significantly higher prevalence than males, and pregnant females were more often acutely infected than non-reproductive ones. The distribution of TBHBV in bats was significantly affected by forest cover, with higher infection rates in areas with lower forest cover...
December 18, 2018: EcoHealth
Christopher M Gibb, Robert Jackson, Sabah Mohammed, Jinan Fiaidhi, Ingeborg Zehbe
Summary: The Pathogen-Host Analysis Tool (PHAT) is an application for processing and analyzing next-generation sequencing (NGS) data as it relates to relationships between pathogens and their hosts. Unlike custom scripts and tedious pipeline programming, PHAT provides an integrative platform encompassing raw and aligned sequence and reference file input, quality control (QC) reporting, alignment and variant calling, linear and circular alignment viewing, and graphical and tabular output...
December 18, 2018: Bioinformatics
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