Nidhi Singh, SachchidaNand Rai, Veer Singh, Mohan P Singh
COVID-19 has forsaken the world because of extremely high infection rates and high mortality rates. At present we have neither medicine nor vaccine to prevent this pandemic. Lockdowns, curfews, isolations, quarantines, and social distancing are the only ways to mitigate their infection. This is badly affecting the mental health of people. Hence, there is an urgent need to address this issue. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a novel Betacorona virus named SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) which has emerged in the city of Wuhan in China and declared a pandemic by WHO since it affected almost all the countries the world, infected 24,182,030 people and caused 825,798 death as per data are compiled from John Hopkins University (JHU)...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
Gustavo Nino, Carlos E Rodríguez-Martínez, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez
Despite scientific evidence proving that inhaled β2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 -AR) agonists can reverse bronchoconstriction in all ages, current guidelines advocate against the use of β2 -AR bronchodilators in infants with viral bronchiolitis because clinical trials have not demonstrated an overall clinical benefit. However, there are many different types of viral bronchiolitis, with variations occurring at an individual and viral level. To discard a potentially helpful treatment from all children regardless of their clinical features may be unwarranted...
October 2020: ERJ Open Research
Qi Li, Qingsen Ran, Lidong Sun, Jie Yin, Ting Luo, Li Liu, Zheng Zhao, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Ying Chen, Xiaogang Weng, Yajie Wang, Weiyan Cai, Xiaoxin Zhu
Besides pathogen evading, Acute Lung Injury (ALI), featuring the systematic inflammation and severe epithelial damages, is widely believed to be the central non-infectious factor controlling the progression of infectious diseases. ALI is partly caused by host immune responses. Under the inspiration of unsuccessful treatment in COVID-19, recent insights into pathogen-host interactions are leading to identification and development of a wide range of host-directed therapies with different mechanisms of action...
2020: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Fang Xu, Hui Qi, Jieqiong Li, Lin Sun, Juanjuan Gong, Yuanying Chen, Adong Shen, Wei Li
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in children. However, the mechanisms by which MTB infects its cellular host, activates an immune response and triggers inflammation remain unknown. Mitochondria play important roles in the initiation and activation of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor with a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, where mitochondria associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) may serve as the platform for inflammasome assembly and activation...
October 16, 2020: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yue-Jin Peng, Jia-Jia Wang, Hai-Yan Lin, Jin-Li Ding, Ming-Guang Feng, Sheng-Hua Ying
In pathogenic filamentous fungi, conidial germination not only is fundamental for propagation in the environment but is also a critical step of infection. In the insect mycopathogen Beauveria bassiana , we genetically characterized the role of the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor HapX ( BbHapX ) in conidial nutrient reserves and pathogen-host interaction. Ablation of BbHapX resulted in an almost complete loss of virulence in the topical inoculation and intrahemocoel injection assays. Comparative transcriptomic analysis revealed that BbHapX is required for fatty acid (FA)/lipid metabolism, and biochemical analyses indicated that BbHapX loss caused a significant reduction in conidial FA contents...
October 13, 2020: MSystems
Carsten Tschöpe, Enrico Ammirati, Biykem Bozkurt, Alida L P Caforio, Leslie T Cooper, Stephan B Felix, Joshua M Hare, Bettina Heidecker, Stephane Heymans, Norbert Hübner, Sebastian Kelle, Karin Klingel, Henrike Maatz, Abdul S Parwani, Frank Spillmann, Randall C Starling, Hiroyuki Tsutsui, Petar Seferovic, Sophie Van Linthout
Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis...
October 12, 2020: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Simon Chioma Weli, Lisa-Victoria Bernhardt, Lars Qviller, Mette Myrmel, Atle Lillehaug, Marit Leinaas Kjellin
Waterborne viral infections represent a major threat to fish health. For many viruses, understanding the interplay between pathogens, host and environment presents a major hurdle for transmission. Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) can infect and cause pancreas disease (PD) in farmed salmonids in seawater. During infection, SAV is excreted from infected fish to the seawater. We evaluated two types of filters and four different eluents, for concentration of SAV3. One L of seawater was spiked with SAV3, followed by filtration and virus elution from membrane filters...
October 6, 2020: Journal of Virological Methods
Jingtao Li, Mingming Gao, Dean W Gabriel, Wenxing Liang, Limin Song
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) is the causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease in tomato. Proteins secreted by this pathogen during initial host colonization largely determine the outcome of pathogen-host interactions. Lysine acetylation (Kac) plays a vital role in the functions of many proteins, but little is known about Kac in Fol secreted proteins. In this study, we analyzed lysine acetylation of the entire Fol secretome. Using high affinity enrichment of Kac peptides and LC-MS/MS analysis, 50 potentially secreted Fol proteins were identified and acetylation sites determined...
2020: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexa N Roth, Pavithra Aravamudhan, Isabel Fernández de Castro, Raquel Tenorio, Cristina Risco, Terence S Dermody
Cell entry and egress are essential steps in the viral life cycle that govern pathogenesis and spread. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are nonenveloped viruses implicated in human disease that serve as tractable models for studies of pathogen-host interactions. In this review we discuss the function of intracellular vesicular transport systems in reovirus entry, trafficking, and egress and comment on shared themes for diverse viruses. Designing strategic therapeutic interventions that impede these steps in viral replication requires a detailed understanding of mechanisms by which viruses coopt vesicular trafficking...
September 29, 2020: Trends in Microbiology
Zhi Li, Ya Wang, Yan Chun Fan, Bilal Ahmad, Xianhang Wang, Songlin Zhang, Yanxun Zhu, Lin Lin Gao, Ping Ping Chang, Xiping Wang
Elsinoë ampelina is an ascomycetous fungus that causes grape anthracnose, a potentially devastating disease worldwide. In this study, a dual RNA-seq analysis was used to simultaneously monitor the fungal genes related to pathogenesis and grape genes related to defence during the interaction at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Consistent with their potential roles in pathogenicity, genes for carbohydrate-active enzymes, secondary metabolites synthesis, pathogen-host interaction and those encoding secreted proteins are upregulated during infection...
October 2, 2020: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Jing Yang, Tian Tian, Kan Xiao, Qingkai Zeng, Chun Tan, Hejun Du
Citrobacter freundii is one of the important bacterial diseases responsible for disease outbreaks to wild and cultured fishes globally. However, no known empirical research has focused on exploring relationships between immune response after C. freundii infection in sturgeons. In this study, C. freundii was isolated and identified from artificially breeding Chinese sturgeon, and global measurement of transcriptome response to C. freundii infection in head-kidney and spleen of A. sinensis were conducted to the acknowledgement of the potential mechanisms of pathogen-host interaction triggered by the bacterial infection...
September 17, 2020: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Robert Faris, Alix McCullough, Shelby E Andersen, Thomas O Moninger, Mary M Weber
As an obligate intracellular pathogen, host cell invasion is paramount to Chlamydia trachomatis proliferation. While the mechanistic underpinnings of this essential process remain ill-defined, it is predicted to involve delivery of prepackaged effector proteins into the host cell that trigger plasma membrane remodeling and cytoskeletal reorganization. The secreted effector proteins TmeA and TarP, have risen to prominence as putative key regulators of cellular invasion and bacterial pathogenesis. Although several studies have begun to unravel molecular details underlying the putative function of TarP, the physiological function of TmeA during host cell invasion is unknown...
September 18, 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Caterina Carpino, Inmaculada Ferriol Safont, Laura Elvira-González, Vicente Medina, Luis Rubio, Ezio Peri, Salvatore Davino, Luis Galipienso Torregrosa
Broad bean wilt virus 1 (BBWV-1, genus Fabavirus, family Secoviridae) is a bipartite, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus infecting many horticultural and ornamental crops worldwide. RNA1 encodes proteins involved in viral replication whereas RNA2 encodes two coat proteins (the large and small coat proteins) and two putative movement proteins (MPs) of different sizes with overlapping C-terminal regions. In this work, we determined the role played by the small putative BBWV-1 MP (VP37) on virus pathogenicity, host specificity, and suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS)...
September 16, 2020: Molecular Plant Pathology
Sabina Kędzierska-Mieszkowska, Zbigniew Arent
Bacterial ClpB is an ATP-dependent disaggregase that belongs to the Hsp100/Clp subfamily of the AAA+ ATPases and cooperates with the DnaK chaperone system in the reactivation of aggregated proteins, as well as promotes bacterial survival under adverse environmental conditions, including thermal and oxidative stresses. In addition, extensive evidence indicates that ClpB supports the virulence of numerous bacteria, including pathogenic spirochaete Leptospira interrogans responsible for leptospirosis in animals and humans...
September 11, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hongxia Bao, Shuang Wang, Jian-Hua Zhao, Shu-Lin Liu
The bacterial genus Salmonella includes a large group of food-borne pathogens that cause a variety of gastrointestinal or systemic diseases in hosts. Salmonella use several secretion devices to inject various effectors targeting eukaryotic hosts, or bacteria. In the past few years, considerable progress has been made towards understanding the structural features and molecular mechanisms of the secretion systems of Salmonella, particularly regarding their roles in host-pathogen interactions. In this review, we summarize the current advances about the main characteristics of the Salmonella secretion systems...
September 5, 2020: Microbiological Research
Dongyue Zhao, Danfeng Lin, Chen Xu
Adhesins are virulence factors expressed on the surfaces of pathogenic bacteria that mediate pathogen-host interactions, a critical step in the infection process. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis protease Rv3194c functions not only as an enzyme but as an adhesin. The heterologous Rv3194c protein was purified from Escherichia coli and was shown to bind to hyaluronic acid (HA). The HA-binding site was identified as a 20 amino acid peptide between residues 91 and 110 (P91-110). Rv3194c bound to A549 alveolar basal epithelial cells and the interaction was abolished by the addition of hyaluronidase or P91-110...
September 12, 2020: Microbial Pathogenesis
Artur Yakimovich, Moona Huttunen, Jerzy Samolej, Barbara Clough, Nagisa Yoshida, Serge Mostowy, Eva-Maria Frickel, Jason Mercer
The use of deep neural networks (DNNs) for analysis of complex biomedical images shows great promise but is hampered by a lack of large verified data sets for rapid network evolution. Here, we present a novel strategy, termed "mimicry embedding," for rapid application of neural network architecture-based analysis of pathogen imaging data sets. Embedding of a novel host-pathogen data set, such that it mimics a verified data set, enables efficient deep learning using high expressive capacity architectures and seamless architecture switching...
September 9, 2020: MSphere
Angela R Harrison, Kim G Lieu, Florence Larrous, Naoto Ito, Hervé Bourhy, Gregory W Moseley
Many viruses target signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 to antagonise antiviral interferon signalling, but targeting of STAT3, a pleiotropic molecule that mediates signalling by diverse cytokines, is poorly understood. Here, using lyssavirus infection, quantitative live cell imaging, innate immune signalling and protein interaction assays, and complementation/depletion of STAT expression, we show that STAT3 antagonism is conserved among P-proteins of diverse pathogenic lyssaviruses and correlates with pathogenesis...
September 2020: PLoS Pathogens
Nasrin Masoudzadeh, Amir Mizbani, Sima Rafati
INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), caused by different Leishmania parasite species, is associated with parasite-induced immune-mediated skin inflammation and ulceration. Whereas many CL studies focus on gene expression signatures in mouse models, the transcriptional response driving human patients in the field is less characterized. Human studies in CL disease provide the opportunity to directly investigate the host-pathogen interaction in the cutaneous lesion site. AREAS COVERED: Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, particularly their application for evaluation of the global gene expression changes, have made transcriptomics as a powerful tool to understand the pathogen-host molecular interactions...
September 4, 2020: Expert Review of Proteomics
Miroslaw Jarzab, Gernot Posselt, Nicole Meisner-Kober, Silja Wessler
Persistent infections with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) have been closely associated with the induction and progression of a wide range of gastric disorders, including acute and chronic gastritis, ulceration in the stomach and duodenum, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is determined by a complicated network of manifold mechanisms of pathogen-host interactions, which involves a coordinated interplay of H. pylori pathogenicity and virulence factors with host cells...
August 31, 2020: Microorganisms
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"