Calanit Hershkovich Shporen, Brian Reichman, Inna Zaslavsky-Paltiel, Liat Lerner-Geva, Orna Flidel-Rimon
AIM: To evaluate the association of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) therapy on the risk for cystic periventricular leukomalacia (c-PVL) in very low birth weight (VLBW), very preterm infants, whilst accounting for the occurrence of major neonatal morbidities; sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. METHODS: Population-based observational cohort study applying data collected by the Israel national VLBW infant database from 1995-2016...
January 23, 2021: Acta Paediatrica
Dana Chemali, Jeanie Cheong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2021: Acta Paediatrica
Felix Ines, Shandee Hutson, Katherine Coughlin, Andrew Hopper, Anamika Banerji, Cherry Uy, Neil Finer, Wade Rich, Ana Morales, Jane Steen, Anup C Katheria
INTRODUCTION: Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or surfactant deficiency occurs primarily in premature infants resulting in composite outcomes of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Initial management strategies for preterm infants with RDS includes early initiation of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and titration of fractional inspired oxygen (FiO2 ), and may include the use of less invasive surfactant administration (LISA) to avoid the need for mechanical ventilation. In order to optimise success of non-invasive support, the use of early caffeine therapy may be critical to the success of LISA...
January 22, 2021: BMJ Open
Jean-Pierre Guignard, Silvia Iacobelli
The use of diuretics is extremely frequent in sick neonates, the more so in very premature newborn infants. The use of diuretics in patients whose kidney function is immature necessitates a thorough knowledge of renal developmental physiology and pathophysiology. This review presents the basic aspects of body fluid homeostasis in the neonate, discusses the development of kidney function, and describes the mechanisms involved in electrolyte and water reabsorption along the nephron. Diuretics are then classified according to the site of their action on sodium reabsorption...
January 22, 2021: Pediatric Nephrology
Britt J van Keulen, Michelle Romijn, Bibian van der Voorn, Marita de Waard, Michaela F Hartmann, Johannes B van Goudoever, Stefan A Wudy, Joost Rotteveel, Martijn J J Finken
Objective Sex-specific differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity might explain why male preterm infants are at higher risk of neonatal mortality and morbidity than their female counterparts. We examined whether male and female preterm infants differed in cortisol production and metabolism at 10 days post-partum. Design and methods This prospective study included 36 preterm born infants (18 boys) with a very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1.500 gram). At 10 days postnatal age, urine was collected over a 4- to 6-hr period...
January 1, 2021: Endocrine Connections
Anthony A Sochet, Miranda Nunez, Michael J Wilsey, John M Morrison, Stacey K Bessone, Thomas A Nakagawa
OBJECTIVES: In children hospitalized for bronchiolitis, enteral nutrition (EN) practices during noninvasive ventilation (NIV) vary widely. We sought to assess the potential impact of EN by observing changes in physiometric indices (heart rate [HR] and respiratory rate [RR]) before and after EN initiation. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in children <2 years of age hospitalized for bronchiolitis receiving NIV from 2017 to 2019 in a quaternary ICU...
January 21, 2021: Hospital Pediatrics
Xiao-Hui Chen, Jin-Gai Zhu, Zhang-Bin Yu, Cheng-Yao Jiang, Shu-Ping Han
OBJECTIVE: To study the influence of twin pregnancy by assisted reproductive technology (ART) versus twin pregnancy by spontaneous conception (SC) on neonatal outcomes. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 3 356 live twins with a gestational age of ≥24 weeks who were born in Nanjing Maternal and Child Health Hospital from 2017 to 2019, with 2 006 twins (1 003 pairs) in the ART group and 1 350 (675 pairs) in the SC group. The two groups were compared in terms of the mother's general information and pregnancy comorbidities and the general information, diseases, and outcomes of neonates...
January 2021: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Ling-Song Yao, Xin-Zhu Lin, Jing Huang, Li-Xia Tang
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect of an additional maintenance dose (5 mg/kg) of caffeine citrate injection at 1 hour before ventilator weaning in improving the success rate of ventilator weaning in preterm infants (gestational age ≤32 weeks) with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) on mechanical ventilation. METHODS: A total of 338 preterm infants with RDS (gestational age of ≤32 weeks) who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Xiamen Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2017 to December 2019 and treated with mechanical ventilation were enrolled...
January 2021: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Marilena Savoia, Francesca Rech Morassutti, Luigi Castriotta, Daisy Pavoni, Peter M Mourani, Paola Freschi, Luigi Cattarossi, Antonio Tonutti
Neonatologist-performed echocardiography (NPE) is an established tool for bedside hemodynamic evaluation, including pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH may complicate bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) course. Aims of this retrospective study were to assess the feasibility of NPE follow-up of infants with BPD and to describe the course of PH of infants with moderate/severe BPD. Preterm infants <32 gestational weeks or birthweight ≤1500 g with moderate/severe BPD underwent NPE follow-up, from 36 weeks postmenstrual age up to 8 months postnatal age...
January 21, 2021: European Journal of Pediatrics
Raphaela Farias Teixeira, Cinthia Maria Costa, Catarina Maria de Abreu, Cicero Amsterdan Lessa, Aline Carla Carvalho, Samir Buainain Kassar, Ikaro Daniel Barreto, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel, Andrea Monteiro Medeiros
Objectives: Identifying and understanding the main risk factors associated with extubation failure of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants in different populations can subsequently help in establishing better criteria while taking decision of extubation. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with extubation failure in VLBW infants. Methods: A cohort study of VLBW infants who underwent their first extubation between April 2018 and December 2019 in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Alagoas, Brazil, were included in this study...
December 18, 2020: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Michele Arigliani, Chiara Stocco, Elena Valentini, Carlo De Pieri, Luigi Castriotta, Maria Elena Ferrari, Cristina Canciani, Lorenza Driul, Maria Orsaria, Luigi Cattarossi, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: The impact of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on lung function in very preterm children is largely unknown as current evidence is mainly based on studies in children born small for gestational age but not necessarily with IUGR. METHODS: Spirometry, transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLco), and lung clearance index (LCI) were cross-sectionally evaluated at 8.0-15.0 years of age in children born <32 weeks of gestation with IUGR (n = 28) and without IUGR (n = 67)...
January 19, 2021: Pediatric Research
Fumihiko Namba
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious complication of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants. The incidence of BPD has not decreased, and there is no effective treatment for the disease. Since the survival rate of premature infants has increased, it has become difficult to obtain pathological tissue samples from BPD death cases. There is also no in vitro experimental system for complex three-dimensional structures, such as alveolarization and pulmonary angiogenesis; thus, the use of animal models is necessary to elucidate the pathology of BPD and develop new treatments...
January 19, 2021: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Carlo Dani, Simone Pratesi
The role of oxygen, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and isoprostanes (IsoPs) in regulating patency and closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) have been studied in preterm infants. Also the possible correlation between a hemodynamically significant PDA and its pharmacological treatment with oxidative stress has been investigated. The National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE) database was searched without time limits. Available data demonstrate that free radicals are not always harmful and that ROS and IsoPs play a relevant role in DA closure...
December 2020: Translational Pediatrics
Ariane Lasry, Patrick Kavabushi, Anne-Marie Canakis, Thuy M Luu, Anne-Monique Nuyt, Thérèse Perreault, Jessica Simoneau, Jennifer Landry, Gabriel Altit
OBJECTIVE:  This study was aimed to describe the cardiopulmonary profiles of adult patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), comparing them to normative adult values. STUDY DESIGN:  This study presents a retrospective chart review of all BPD patients followed in the adult BPD clinic, identified from institutional and archive databases, born preterm at ≤33 weeks estimated gestational age (EGA) between January 1980 and December 2000. RESULTS:  Forty-four patients with BPD (26...
January 17, 2021: American Journal of Perinatology
Kenneth Strømmen, Jan Ludvig Lyche, Sissel Jennifer Moltu, Mette H B Müller, Elin Wahl Blakstad, Astrid Nylander Almaas, Amrit Kaur Sakhi, Cathrine Thomsen, Britt Nakstad, Arild Erlend Rønnestad, Christian A Drevon, Per Ole Iversen
Very low birth weight infants (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) are treated with pharmaceuticals and medical equipment containing parabens and bisphenol A (BPA). Parabens are used in pharmaceuticals, whereas BPA in medical equipment where concentrations are rarely reported in hospitalised VLBW infants. We measured urinary concentrations of parabens and BPA and hypothesised high and increasing concentrations in infants born at lower gestational ages (GAs), and among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and late-onset septicaemia (LOS) due to higher exposure from pharmaceuticals and medical equipment...
January 7, 2021: Chemosphere
Fanny Söderström, Erik Normann, Maria Jonsson, Johan Ågren
OBJECTIVE: To determine survival and outcomes in infants born at 22-24 weeks of gestation in a centre with a uniformly active approach to management of extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: Single-centre retrospective cohort study including infants born 2006-2015. Short-term morbidities assessed included retinopathy of prematurity, necrotising enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular haemorrhage, periventricular malacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia...
January 15, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Ioannis Bellos, Georgia Fitrou, Raffaella Panza, Aakash Pandita
OBJECTIVES: To compare surfactant administration via thin catheters, laryngeal mask, nebulisation, pharyngeal instillation, intubation and surfactant administration followed by immediate extubation (InSurE) and no surfactant administration. DESIGN: Network meta-analysis. SETTING: Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Google-scholar and databases were systematically searched from inception to 15 February 2020. PATIENTS: Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome...
January 15, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Peter Evans, Deirdre O'Reilly, Jonathan N Flyer, Roger Soll, Souvik Mitra
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. In these infants, prophylactic use of indomethacin, a non-selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, has demonstrated short-term clinical benefits. The effect of indomethacin in preterm infants with a symptomatic PDA remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of indomethacin (given by any route) compared to placebo or no treatment in reducing mortality and morbidity in preterm infants with a symptomatic PDA...
January 15, 2021: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Diksha Shrestha, George Xiangyun Ye, Deborah Stabley, Suhita Gayen Nee' Betal, Yan Zhu, Lisa Glazewski, Jennifer Holbrook, Meharpreet Sethi, Anne Hesek, Thomas H Shaffer, Zubair H Aghai, Sankar Addya, Deepthi Alapati
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) have lifelong increased risk of respiratory morbidities associated with environmental pathogen exposure and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The resident immune cells of the lung play vital roles in host defense. However, the effect of perinatal events associated with BPD on pulmonary-specific immune cells is not well understood. METHODS: We used a double-hit model of BPD induced by prenatal chorioamnionitis followed by postnatal hyperoxia, and performed a global transcriptome analysis of all resident pulmonary immune cells...
January 14, 2021: Pediatric Research
Joo Young Lee, Yong-Ho Choi, Jong Ho Cha, Ji Young Lee, Young-Jun Lee, Bo-Hyun Kim, Il-Kewon Kim, Jong-Min Lee, Hyun Ju Lee
This study aimed to elaborate upon prior findings suggestive of the altered lateralization of structural connectivity in the developing preterm brain by using diffusion tensor imaging tractography to explore how network topological asymmetries in fronto-limbic neural circuitry are altered at 36-41 weeks, postmenstrual age in 64 preterm infants without severe brain injury and 33 term-born infants. We compared the pattern of structural connectivity and network lateralization of the betweenness centrality in the medial fronto-orbital gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, amygdala, and hippocampus-the structures comprising the fronto-limbic brain circuit-between preterm and term infants...
January 14, 2021: Scientific Reports
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