Salvatore Vaccarella, Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Murielle Colombet, Louise Davies, Charles A Stiller, Joachim Schüz, Kayo Togawa, Freddie Bray, Silvia Franceschi, Luigino Dal Maso, Eva Steliarova-Foucher
BACKGROUND: There has been a considerable increase in thyroid cancer incidence among adults in several countries in the past three decades, attributed primarily to overdiagnosis. We aimed to assess global patterns and trends in incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents, in view of the increased incidence among adults. METHODS: We did a population-based study of the observed incidence (in 49 countries and territories) and mortality (in 27 countries) of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents aged 0-19 years using data from the International Incidence of Childhood Cancer Volume 3 study database, the WHO mortality database, and the cancer incidence in five continents database (CI5plus; for adult data [age 20-74 years])...
January 19, 2021: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Abraham M Getaneh, Eveline A M Heijnsdijk, Harry J de Koning
The benefit of prostate cancer screening is counterbalanced by the risk of overdiagnosis and overtreatment. The use of a multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) test after a positive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test followed by magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy (MRIGB) may reduce these harms. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mpMRI and MRIGB vs the regular screening pathway in a population-based prostate cancer screening setting. A micro-simulation model was used to predict the effects of regular PSA screening (men with elevated PSA followed by TRUSGB) and MRI based screening (men with elevated PSA followed by mpMRI and MRIGB)...
January 19, 2021: Scientific Reports
Ravi Taneja, Robert Sibbald, Launa Elliott, Elizabeth Burke, Kristen A Bishop, Philip M Jones, Mark Goldszmidt
PURPOSE: A discordance, predominantly towards overtreatment, exists between patients' expressed preferences for life-sustaining interventions and those documented at hospital admission. This quality improvement study sought to assess this discordance at our institution. Secondary objectives were to explore if internal medicine (IM) teams could identify patients who might benefit from further conversations and if the discordance can be reconciled in real-time. METHODS: Two registered nurses were incorporated into IM teams at a tertiary hospital to conduct resuscitation preference conversations with inpatients either specifically referred to them (group I, n = 165) or randomly selected (group II, n = 164) from 1 August 2016 to 31 August 2018...
January 15, 2021: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia
Jamal Zekri, Meteb Al-Foheidi, Maaz Alata, Reem Zabani, Ayman Rasmy
Introduction: Oncotype DX assay recurrence score (ODX-RS) cut-off values have recently changed after the publication of the TAILOR-X trial results. We aim to explore decisions for adjuvant chemotherapy (ACT) based on physicians' clinical assessment and the evolving ODX-RS. Methodology: Patients who underwent ODX testing after curative surgical resection of estrogen receptor positive (ER+), Her2 non-overexpressed (Her2-) and lymph node-negative (LN-) breast cancer (BC) were eligible...
December 2020: Breast Care
Yang Zhang, Zongwei Chen, Hong Hu, Haiquan Chen
We discuss the optimal timing of surgery for lung cancer, and propose three surgical strategies for pre- and minimally invasive lung adenocarcinoma to avoid "overdiagnosis" and "overtreatment". Benign disease should not be treated as malignancy, pre- and minimally invasive disease should not be treated as invasive disease, and indolent malignancy should not be treated as aggressive malignancy.
January 11, 2021: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Maja V Garcia, Meera R Agar, Wee-Kheng Soo, Timothy To, Jane L Phillips
Importance: Older adults with cancer are at risk of overtreatment or undertreatment when decision-making is based solely on chronological age. Although a geriatric assessment is recommended to inform care, the time and expertise required limit its feasibility for all patients. Screening tools offer the potential to identify those who will benefit most from a geriatric assessment. Consensus about the optimal tool to use is lacking. Objective: To appraise the evidence on screening tools used for older adults with cancer and identify an optimal screening tool for older adults with cancer who may benefit from geriatric assessment...
January 14, 2021: JAMA Oncology
Dominiek Coates, Danielle Coppleson, Jo Travaglia
In Australia and internationally there is a strong policy commitment to the redesign of health services toward integrated physical and mental health care. When executed well, integrated care has been demonstrated to improve the access to, clinical outcomes from, and quality of care while reducing overtreatment and duplication. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness and promise of integrated care, exactly how integrated care is best achieved remains less clear. The aim of this review study was to identify factors that support the implementation of integrated care between physical and mental health services...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Alexander J Papachristos, Anthony Glover, Mark S Sywak, Stan B Sidhu
The debate regarding the surgical management of low-risk differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is ongoing. The recommended extent of surgery in DTC is based on an assessment of the predicted risk of recurrence and recent guidelines reflect an evolving philosophy of de-escalation of surgical management, informed by a growing understanding of the determinants of tumour biology and important prognostic factors. However, our current clinical and pathological risk stratification processes are imperfect and hence there is significant variation in clinical practice...
January 12, 2021: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Sandra Guimaraes, Andreia Soares, Cristina Freitas, Pedro Barros, Ricardo Dourado Leite, Patrício Soares Costa, Eduardo D Silva
Objective: To study the effectiveness of amblyopia screening at ages 3-4. Methods and Analysis: From a population with no previous screening, a cohort of 2300 children with 3-4 years old attending school (91% of children this age attend school in Portugal), were submitted to a complete ophthalmological evaluation. Amblyopia was diagnosed, treated and followed. Amblyopia prevalence, treatment effectiveness, absolute risk reduction (ARR), number needed to screen (NNS) and relative risk reduction (RRR) were estimated...
2021: BMJ Open Ophthalmology
Jennifer J Iyengar, Matthew Johnson, Shafaq Khairi, Jessica E Fennelly, Jennifer Wyckoff
Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Despite established guidelines, the percentage of patients meeting the target blood pressure (BP) of <140/90 mm Hg in clinic remains suboptimal. In this project, we sought to improve BP measurement in an outpatient diabetes clinic.Two interventions were performed: (1) Changes were made to the timing of BP measurement during patient intake and (2) An electronic medical record (EMR) alert reminded staff to repeat BP if the initial reading was above target...
January 2021: BMJ Open Quality
Andrew Beck, John C LeBlanc, Kate Morissette, Candyce Hamel, Becky Skidmore, Heather Colquhoun, Eddy Lang, Ainsley Moore, John J Riva, Brett D Thombs, Scott Patten, Heather Bragg, Ian Colman, Gary S Goldfield, Stuart Gordon Nicholls, Kathleen Pajer, Beth K Potter, Robert Meeder, Priya Vasa, Brian Hutton, Beverley J Shea, Eva Graham, Julian Little, David Moher, Adrienne Stevens
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is common, debilitating, and affects feelings, thoughts, mood, and behaviors. Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for the development of depression and adolescence is marked by an increased incidence of mental health disorders. This protocol outlines the planned scope and methods for a systematic review update that will evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for depression in children and adolescents. METHODS: This review will update a previously published systematic review by Roseman and colleagues...
January 12, 2021: Systematic Reviews
Alvydas Vėželis, Gediminas Platkevičius, Marius Kinčius, Liutauras Gumbys, Ieva Naruševičiūtė, Rūta Briedienė, Donatas Petroška, Albertas Ulys, Feliksas Jankevičius
Background and objectives: Overdiagnosis, overtreatment, and the need for repeated procedures caused by transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies and their related complications places a heavy burden on healthcare systems. This was a prospective cohort validating study to access the clinical accuracy of systematic and MRI-cognitive targeted transperineal prostate biopsies in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer after a previous negative biopsy and persistent suspicion of malignancy. The primary goal was to assess the ability of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to detect clinically significant prostate cancer with an additional goal to assess the diagnostic value of systematic and MRI-cognitive transperineal biopsies...
January 10, 2021: Medicina
Xavier Serra-Aracil, Jesus Badia-Closa, Anna Pallisera-Lloveras, Laura Mora-Lopez, Sheila Serra-Pla, Albert Garcia-Nalda, Salvador Navarro-Soto
INTRODUCTION: Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) is a safe procedure and the rates of intra- and post-operative complications are low. The information in the literature on the management of these complications is limited, and so their importance may be either under- or overestimated (which may in turn lead to under- or overtreatment). The present article reviews the most relevant series of TEM procedures and their complications and describes various approaches to their management...
January 12, 2021: Minerva Chirurgica
Craig V Labbate, Gladell P Paner, Scott E Eggener
INTRODUCTION: ISUP Grade Group 1 prostate cancer is the lowest histologic grade of prostate cancer with a clinically indolent course. Removal of the term 'cancer' has been proposed and has historical precedent both in urothelial and thyroid carcinoma. METHODS: Evidence-based review identifying arguments for and against Grade Group 1 being referred to as cancer. RESULTS: Grade Group 1 has histologic evidence of tissue microinvasion and 0.3-3% rate of extraprostatic extension...
January 11, 2021: World Journal of Urology
A Andama, D Jaganath, R Crowder, L Asege, M Nakaye, D Katumba, J Mukwatamundu, S Mwebe, C F Semitala, W Worodria, M Joloba, S Mohanty, A Somoskovi, A Cattamanchi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has endorsed the next-generation Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) cartridge, and Uganda is currently transitioning from the older generation Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) cartridge to Ultra as the initial diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Ultra for pulmonary TB among adults in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: We sampled adults referred for Xpert testing at two hospitals and a health center over a 12-month period...
January 11, 2021: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ivona Lončar, Sam P J van Dijk, Madelon J H Metman, Jia Feng Lin, Schelto Kruijff, Robin P Peeters, Anton Engelsman, Tessa Malaika van Ginhoven
Background The worldwide incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has increased. Efforts to reduce overtreatment follow two parallel approaches; limiting diagnostic work-up of low-risk thyroid nodules, and pursuing active surveillance (AS) after diagnosis of the mPTC. However, most studies on AS have been performed in countries with a relatively high proportion of overdiagnosis and thus incidental mPTC. The role of AS in a population with a restrictive diagnostic work-up protocol for imaging and FNA remains unknown...
January 11, 2021: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
João Lobo, Ana Rita Cardoso, Vera Miranda-Gonçalves, Leendert H J Looijenga, Marie Lopez, Paola B Arimondo, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo
Less toxic treatment strategies for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients are needed, as overtreatment is a concern due to the long-term side effects of platin-based chemotherapy. Although clinical benefit from classical hypomethylating agents has to date been limited, TGCTs show an abnormal DNA methylome indicating the potential of treating TGCTs with hypomethylating drugs. We tested, for the first time in TGCT cell lines, a new synthetic flavonoid compound (MLo1302) from the 3-nitroflavanone family of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors...
January 7, 2021: Pharmaceutics
R Naveen, Upendra Rathore, Vikas Agarwal, Latika Gupta
Overlap myositis (OM), an important subset of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), is being increasingly recognized with wider myositis-specific autoantibody (MSA) testing. We studied the differences in clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of OM with Dermatomyositis (DM), Polymyositis (PM), anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD), and Cancer-associated IIM (CAM). Data from the MyoCite registry (Dec2017-May2020), a prospective dataset of IIM was extracted for the clinical profile, and MSAs, immunosuppressants received, disease activity (relapses and incomplete response), and treatment-related (drugs ADRs and infections) adverse events (DRAE and TRAE) were collected and analyzed between groups...
January 10, 2021: Rheumatology International
Paola Solis-Pazmino, Jorge Salazar-Vega, Eddy Lincango-Naranjo, Cristhian Garcia, Gabriela Jaramillo Koupermann, Esteban Ortiz-Prado, Tannya Ledesma, Tatiana Rojas, Benjamin Alvarado-Mafla, Cesar Carcamo, Oscar J Ponce, Juan P Brito
BACKGROUND: In contrast to the rapid increase in thyroid cancer incidence, the mortality has remained low and stable over the last decades. In Ecuador, however, thyroid cancer mortality has increased. The objective of this study is to determine possible drivers of high rates of thyroid cancer mortality, through a cross-sectional analysis of all patients attending a thyroid cancer referral center in Ecuador. METHODS: From June 2014 to December 2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hospital de Especialidades Eugenio Espejo, a regional reference public hospital for endocrine neoplasia in adults in Quito, Ecuador...
January 8, 2021: BMC Cancer
Tania Pilli, Sandro Cardinale, Silvia Cantara, Gilda Dalmazio, Raffaella Forleo, Marco Capezzone, Cristian Bassi, Massimo Negrini, Manuela Ferracin, Maria Grazia Castagna
PURPOSE: Conventional (CONV) treatment of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is associated with risk of overtreatment: glyco-metabolic impairment, bone loss, and reduced quality of life. Recent findings suggest that modified-release hydrocortisone (MOD) may restore a more physiological cortisol profile. Our aims were: (1) to compare the gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from patients, with secondary AI (SAI), under CONV (cortisone acetate or hydrocortisone) or MOD versus healthy controls; and (2) to evaluate MOD effects on serum cortisol profile, glucose, lipid, bone, and clinical parameters...
January 8, 2021: Endocrine
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