Charles Ochieng' Olwal, Nora Nghuchuzie Nganyewo, Kesego Tapela, Alexandra Lindsey Djomkam Zune, Oloche Owoicho, Yaw Bediako, Samuel Duodu
Sepsis is a life-threatening systemic illness attributed to a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis is a global burden killing ~11 million persons annually. In December 2019, a novel pneumonia condition termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and has resulted in more than 1,535,982 deaths globally as of 8th December 2020. These two conditions share many pathophysiological and clinical features. Notably, both sepsis and COVID-19 patients experience consumptive thrombocytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, vascular microthrombosis, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, coagulopathy, septic shock, respiratory failure, fever, leukopenia, hypotension, leukocytosis, high cytokine production and high predisposition to opportunistic infections...
2021: Frontiers in Immunology
Brandon L Waters, Andrew J Michalak, Danielle Brigham, Kiran T Thakur, Amelia Boehme, Jan Claassen, Michelle Bell
Critical illness and sepsis are commonly associated with subclinical seizures. COVID-19 frequently causes severe critical illness, but the incidence of electrographic seizures in patients with COVID-19 has been reported to be low. This retrospective case series assessed the incidence of and risks for electrographic seizures in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 who underwent continuous video electroencephalography monitoring (cvEEG) between March 1st, 2020 and June 30th, 2020. One hundred and twenty-two patients were initially identified who resulted SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal RT-PCR swab positivity with any electroencephalography order placed in the EMR...
2021: Frontiers in Neurology
Wen Hao Justin Leong, Xia Huang Andrew Tan, Ennaliza Salazar
Hepatic angiomyolipomas (AML) are rare mesenchymal tumours of which the epithelioid type is a rare type with malignant potential. We report a case of primary hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma masquerading as liver abscess. A 46-year-old man presented with a 5-day history of fever with epigastric pain and nausea. On the night of admission, his temperature spiked to 39°C, his blood pressure was 135/79, his heart rate 98, his liver function test revealed albumin 37 g/L, bilirubin 25 μmol/L, ALP 298 U/L, ALT 247 U/L, and AST 344 U/L...
January 2021: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Aaron J Heffernan, Kerina J Denny
Purpose of Review: Early identification of infection in the critically ill patient and initiation of appropriate treatment is key to reducing morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, the indiscriminate use of antimicrobials leads to harms, many of which may be exaggerated in the critically ill population. The current method of diagnosing infection in the intensive care unit relies heavily on clinical gestalt; however, this approach is plagued by biases. Therefore, a reliable, independent biomarker holds promise in the accurate determination of infection...
2021: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Zhiheng Sun, Junxing Qu, Xiaoyu Xia, Yuchen Pan, Xinghan Liu, Huaping Liang, Huan Dou, Yayi Hou
Sepsis is a common serious clinical infectious disease accompanied by more severe injuries and higher mortality rates in men than women. The much higher level of 17β-estradiol (E2 ) in female is one of the significant reasons for better sepsis resistance ability. Trained immunity is a novel way to fight against infection by improving innate immunity. However, whether β-glucan-induced trained immunity can promote macrophage phagocytosis to clear infections in early sepsis has not been clarified. And whether E2 involved in this process needs further investigation...
2021: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Paige S Bicoll, Ashima Goyal, Neal B Blatt, Bishara J Freij
Moraxella lacunata , a low-virulence Gram-negative coccobacillus, is classically associated with conjunctivitis and upper respiratory tract infections; systemic infections such as sepsis have rarely been reported, especially in children. We describe a 28-month-old girl with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and stage II chronic kidney disease on long-term eculizumab therapy who presented with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and was found to have Moraxella lacunata bloodstream infection. Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-C5 antibody, has been associated with susceptibility to infections with encapsulated bacteria, especially Neisseria meningitidis ...
2021: Clinical Medicine Insights. Pediatrics
S Gleich, M Graw, S Viehöver, S Schmidt, D Wohlrab
Introduction: In December 2019, the new infectious coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first appeared in China. So far, no systematic evaluation of death certificates of COVID-19-associated deaths has been presented. Methods: The death certificates of all deaths in Munich during the period from 1 March to 31 July 2020 were analyzed. The previously defined inclusion criteria were the indication of corona, COVID-19 and SARS-CoV‑2 in the death certificates. The variables were entered anonymously according to a developed key...
February 15, 2021: Rechtsmedizin: Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft Für Rechtsmedizin
N Ganesan, N Embi, M S Hasidah
Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiologic agent of melioidosis, a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis in the endemic areas. The overall mortality of patients with severe melioidosis remains high due to severe sepsis attributed to overwhelming inflammatory cytokine response in spite of recommended antibiotic therapy. It is crucial that therapeutic approaches beyond just effective antibiotic treatment such as adjunct therapy be considered to mitigate the dysregulated inflammatory signaling and augment host defenses...
June 1, 2020: Tropical Biomedicine
A Thatrimontrichai, N Premprat, W Janjindamai, S Dissaneevate, G Maneenil
Third-generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae (TCRE) is a global concern especially in neonatal sepsis. We performed a secondary data analysis in a Thai neonatal intensive care unit to identify the risk factors for acquisition of TCRE sepsis and mortality of Enterobacteriaceae sepsis between 1991 and 2017. Multivariate logistic and Cox proportional regression were used for analysis. Numbers of neonates with TCRE and nonTCRE sepsis were 100 and 41 patients, respectively. Medians (interquartile ranges) of gestational age, birthweight, onset of sepsis and total hospital stay of neonates with Enterobacteriaceae sepsis were 32 (28, 38) weeks, 1670 (1025, 2750) grams, 11 (6, 25) days and 41 (22, 74) days, respectively...
September 1, 2020: Tropical Biomedicine
Kazumasa Kotake, Takashi Hongo, Akihiro Tahira, Nana Niimi, Ikue Haisa, Yasuhiro Kawakami
Recombinant human thrombomodulin (rhTM) is an anti-coagulant used to treat disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). The efficacy of rhTM in patients with sepsis-induced DIC has been proved in some clinical trials, but the determining factors are not known. The aim of this study was to identify patients for whom rhTM will be effective and the factors that determine rhTM efficacy in alleviating DIC. A single-center, retrospective, observational study was conducted in patients with sepsis-induced DIC who were treated with rhTM in Okayama Saiseikai General Hospital (Okayama, Japan) between January 2010 and December 2019...
February 20, 2021: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Wen-Jun Zhao, Gui-E Liu, Yuan Tian, Shuang-Ming Song, Lei Li
Throughout the past 2020, the pandemic COVID-19 has caused a big global shock, meanwhile it brought a great impact on the public health network. Trauma emergency system faced a giant challenge and how to manage trauma under the pandemic of COVID-19 was widely discussed. However, the trauma treatment of special population (geriatric patients and anticoagulant drugs patients) has received inadequate attention. Due to the high mortality following severe traumatic hemorrhage, hemostasis and trauma-induced coagulopathy are the important concerns in trauma treatment...
February 1, 2021: Chinese Journal of Traumatology
Fei Peng, Chenglong Liang, Wei Chang, Qin Sun, Jianfeng Xie, Haibo Qiu, Yi Yang
BACKGROUND: To assess any correlation of plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels with relevant endothelial cell injury parameters and determine the prognostic value in septic patients. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was conducted in patients with sepsis admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine at the Zhongda Hospital from November 2017 to March 2018. Plasma HGF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the first 24 h after admission (day 1) and on day 3...
February 22, 2021: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Ameer Hamza Shakur, Shuai Huang, Xiaoning Qian, Xiangyu Chang
Survival data analysis has been leveraged in medical research to study disease morbidity and mortality, and to discover significant bio-markers affecting them. A crucial objective in studying high dimensional medical data is the development of inherently interpretable models that can efficiently capture sparse underlying signals while retaining a high predictive accuracy. Recently developed rule ensemble models have been shown to effectively accomplish this objective; however, they are computationally expensive when applied to survival data and do not account for sparsity in the number of variables included in the generated rules...
February 18, 2021: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
L Velly, S Volant, C Fitting, D A Ghazali, F Salipante, J Mayaux, G Monsel, J-M Cavaillon, P Hausfater
OBJECTIVE: To define the best combination of biomarkers for the diagnosis of infection and sepsis in the emergency room. METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with a suspicion of infection in the emergency room were included. Eighteen different biomarkers measured in plasma, and twelve biomarkers measured on monocytes, neutrophils, B and T-lymphocytes were studied and the best combinations determined by a gradient tree boosting approach. RESULTS: Overall, 291 patients were included and analysed, 148 with bacterial infection, and 47 with viral infection...
February 18, 2021: Journal of Infection
Neel Chudgar, Shi Yan, Meier Hsu, Kay See Tan, Katherine D Gray, Daniela Molena, David R Jones, Valerie W Rusch, Gaetano Rocco, James M Isbell
OBJECTIVE: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Surgical Risk Calculator (NSQIP SRC) was developed to estimate the risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality within 30 days of an operation. We sought to externally evaluate the performance of the NSQIP SRC for patients undergoing pulmonary resection. METHODS: Patients undergoing pulmonary resection at our center between January 2016 and December 2018 were included. Using data from our institution's prospectively maintained Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Database, we identified 2514 patients...
January 21, 2021: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Mustafa Özkan, Nurullah Günay, Elif Funda Sener, Özgür Karcıoglu, Reyhan Tahtasakal, Fatma Dal, Nahide Ekici Günay, Abdullah Tuncay Demiryürek
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by a dysregulated host response to infections and is a leading cause of death in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the possible association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene -308G/A (rs1800629), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, NOS3) gene -786T/C (rs2070744), 4a/4b (27bp-VNTR in intron 4, rs61722009), and 894G/T (Glu298Asp, rs1799983) polymorphisms and sepsis. METHODS: A total of 188 septic adult cases and 188 healthy controls enrolled to this study...
February 20, 2021: Journal of Gene Medicine
L Knaapen, O Buyne, N Slater, B Matthews, H Goor, C Rosman
BACKGROUND: The surgical treatment of patients with complex ventral hernias is challenging. The aim of this study was to present an international overview of expert opinions on current practice. METHODS: A survey questionnaire was designed to investigate preoperative risk management, surgical approach and mesh choice in patients undergoing complex hernias repair, and treatment strategies for infected meshes. Geographical location of practice, experience and annual volumes of the surgeons were compared...
January 8, 2021: BJS Open
Erzsébet Komorowicz, Nóra Balázs, Anna Tanka-Salamon, Zoltán Varga, László Szabó, Attila Bóta, Colin Longstaff, Krasimir Kolev
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) containing DNA and histones are expelled from neutrophils in infection and thrombosis. Heparins, anticoagulant polyanions, can neutralize histones with a potential therapeutic advantage in sepsis. Polyphosphates, procoagulant polyanions, are released by platelets and microorganisms. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the combined effects of NET components and polyanions on clot structure, mechanical properties and lytic susceptibility...
February 20, 2021: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Imogen Jury, Kelly Thompson, Jane E Hirst
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of maternal death. Antimicrobials save lives, but inappropriate overuse increases risk of antimicrobial resistance(AMR). OBJECTIVE: A scoping review comparing peripartum prophylactic antimicrobial use in low and middle-income countries(LMICs) with World Health Organization(WHO) recommendations for prevention and treatment of maternal peripartum infection. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Global Health, LILACS and the WHO Library databases were searched...
February 20, 2021: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Dristhi Ragoonanan, Sajad J Khazal, Hisham Abdel-Azim, David McCall, Branko Cuglievan, Francesco Paolo Tambaro, Ali Haider Ahmad, Courtney M Rowan, Cristina Gutierrez, Keri Schadler, Shulin Li, Matteo Di Nardo, Linda Chi, Alison M Gulbis, Basirat Shoberu, Maria E Mireles, Jennifer McArthur, Neena Kapoor, Jeffrey Miller, Julie C Fitzgerald, Priti Tewari, Demetrios Petropoulos, Jonathan B Gill, Christine N Duncun, Leslie E Lehmann, Sangeeta Hingorani, Joseph R Angelo, Rita D Swinford, Marie E Steiner, Fiorela N Hernandez Tejada, Paul L Martin, Jeffery Auletta, Sung Won Choi, Rajinder Bajwa, Natalie Dailey Garnes, Partow Kebriaei, Katayoun Rezvani, William G Wierda, Sattva S Neelapu, Elizabeth J Shpall, Selim Corbacioglu, Kris M Mahadeo
Cancer immunotherapies are associated with remarkable therapeutic response rates but also with unique and severe toxicities, which potentially result in rapid deterioration in health. The number of clinical applications for novel immune effector-cell therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing cells, and other immunotherapies, such as immune-checkpoint inhibitors, is increasing. In this Consensus Statement, members of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Cancer Immunotherapy (HCT-CI) Subgroup, Paediatric Diseases Working Party (PDWP) of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), Supportive Care Committee of the Pediatric Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Consortium (PTCTC) and MD Anderson Cancer Center CAR T Cell Therapy-Associated Toxicity (CARTOX) Program collaborated to provide updated comprehensive recommendations for the care of children, adolescents and young adults receiving cancer immunotherapies...
February 19, 2021: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
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