David Sweet , Julian Marsden , Kendall Ho , Christina Krause , James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: British Columbia Medical Journal
T Avni, H Hammud, O Itzhaki, A Gafter-Gvili, B Rozen-Zvi, H Ben-Zvi, J Bishara, A Atamna
OBJECTIVE: Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) may present as sepsis with acute kidney injury (AKI). Herein, we aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with AKI complicating CDI. METHODS: All consecutive adult patients hospitalized in Rabin Medical Center between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2018 with laboratory confirmed CDI, were included in the study. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with AKI and controls. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 30 days after the CDI episode...
October 24, 2020: International Journal of Clinical Practice
L V Marino, F V Valla, L N Tume, C Jotterand-Chaparro, C Moullet, L Latten, K Joosten, S C A T Verbruggen
There are reports of children COVID-19 or COVID-19 like symptoms with hyperinflammatory multisystem syndrome, ARDS, gastrointestinal and atypical Kawasaki disease presenting to PICU worldwide temporally associated with COVID-19, for which there are important nutrition support considerations. As a result, the European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care - Metabolism, Endocrine and Nutrition group (ESPNIC-MEN) and paediatric nutritionists working in PICUs are being consulted regarding nutrition management of critically ill children with COVID-19 or COVID-19 like symptoms...
October 12, 2020: Clinical Nutrition
Xiaoyan Wen, Jicheng Zhang, Xiaojian Wan, Alicia A Frank, Xin Qu, John A Kellum
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-2 has been identified as a predictive marker for acute kidney injury (AKI), including sepsis-associated AKI (S-AKI). Whether TIMP-2 might be causally related to AKI and hence represent a viable drug target is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether suppression of TIMP-2 attenuates S-AKI. METHODS: Balb/c mice were randomized to sham or cecal ligation and puncture surgery and treated with or without a TIMP-2-neutralizing antibody...
October 22, 2020: Nephron
Pranav Mahajan, Bhagwan Dass, Nila Radhakrishnan, Peter A McCullough
INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic that has affected >188 countries, involved >24 million people, and caused >840,000 deaths. COVID-19, in its severe form, presents as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), shock, and multiorgan failure. Thrombotic microangiopathy of the lungs and kidneys has been observed in these patients. Elevated D-dimer levels have been observed in people with serious COVID-19 illness, and this could be helpful in guiding treatment with anticoagulation in these patients...
October 22, 2020: Cardiorenal Medicine
Jifei Miao, Peng Ye, Jiao Lan, Sen Ye, Jun Zhong, Austin Gresham, Siyan Li, Aijia You, Xianjie Chen, Xiaoyi Liu, Hui Li
Phagocytosis is a basic immune response to the pathogens invading. Immunosuppression may occur in diseases like sepsis and cancer, and cause a low phagocytic ability of phagocytes. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a DNA chaperone which is closely related to the phagocytosis. Nonetheless, its influence on phagocytosis is still controversial. We found that paeonol could inhibit the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, it may have an impact on phagocytosis. In the present study, we performed in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate the influence of paeonol on phagocytosis...
October 19, 2020: International Immunopharmacology
Shupeng Hu, Qiangzhong Pi, Xiudan Xu, Jianghong Yan, Yongzheng Guo, Wanying Tan, An He, Zhe Cheng, Suxin Luo, Yong Xia
AIMS: Sepsis is a severe endothelial dysfunction syndrome. The role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in endothelial dysfunction induced by sepsis is controversial. To explore the role of eNOS in vascular dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: The effect of sepsis on vasodilation and eNOS levels was examined in septic mouse arteries and in cell models. KEY FINDINGS: In early sepsis mouse arteries, endothelium-dependent relaxation decreased and phosphorylation of the inhibitory Thr495 site in endothelial nitric oxide synthase increased...
October 19, 2020: Life Sciences
Jordan Cates, Cynthia Lucero-Obusan, Rebecca M Dahl, Patricia Schirmer, Shikha Garg, Gina Oda, Aron J Hall, Gayle Langley, Fiona P Havers, Mark Holodniy, Cristina V Cardemil
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, although increasing evidence indicates that infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, can affect multiple organ systems (1). Data that examine all in-hospital complications of COVID-19 and that compare these complications with those associated with other viral respiratory pathogens, such as influenza, are lacking. To assess complications of COVID-19 and influenza, electronic health records (EHRs) from 3,948 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (March 1-May 31, 2020) and 5,453 hospitalized patients with influenza (October 1, 2018-February 1, 2020) from the national Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest integrated health care system in the United States,* were analyzed...
October 23, 2020: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
N Akhter, S Ahmad, F A Alzahrani, S A Dar, M Wahid, S Haque, K Bhatia, S Sr Almalki, R A Alharbi, A A A Sindi
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) uses Angiotensin- converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors to infect host cells which may lead to coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Given the presence of ACE2 receptors in the brain and the critical role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in brain functions, special attention to brain microcirculation and neuronal inflammation is warranted during COVID-19 treatment. Neurological complications reported among COVID-19 patients range from mild dizziness, headache, hypogeusia, hyposmia to severe like encephalopathy, stroke, Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), CNS demyelination, infarcts, microhemorrhages and nerve root enhancement...
October 2020: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Maria Luciana Larrouyet-Sarto, Augusto Shuiti Tamura, Vinícius Santos Alves, Patrícia T Santana, Roberta Ciarlini-Magalhães, Thuany Prado Rangel, Cassiana Siebert, Josiane R Hartwig, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela T S Wyse, Christina Maeda Takiya, Robson Coutinho-Silva, Luiz Eduardo Baggio Savio
Sepsis is a severe disease characterized by an uncontrolled systemic inflammation and consequent organ dysfunction generated in response to an infection. Extracellular ATP acting through the P2X7 receptor induces the maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-1β) and the production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species that lead to oxidative tissue damage. Here, we investigated the role of the P2X7 receptor in inflammation, oxidative stress, and liver injury in sepsis. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) in wild-type (WT) and P2X7 knockout (P2X7-/- ) mice...
October 22, 2020: Purinergic Signalling
Mohamed Bakr, Khaled M Abdelhalim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 22, 2020: Journal of Endourology
Christian J Wiedermann
OBJECTIVE: Positive fluid balance is common among critically ill patients and leads to worse outcomes, particularly in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury. Restrictive fluid infusion and active removal of accumulated fluid are being studied as approaches to prevent and treat fluid overload. Use of human albumin solutions has been investigated in different phases of restrictive fluid resuscitation, and this narrative literature review was undertaken to evaluate hypoalbuminemia and the roles of human serum albumin with respect to hypovolemia and its management...
October 22, 2020: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Michael M Ward
PURPOSE: Studies using administrative hospitalization data often classify patients as having inflammatory arthritis based on diagnoses recorded at the hospitalization. We examined the agreement of these diagnoses with patients' prior medical histories. METHODS: We identified Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized in 2011 - 2015 for total hip arthroplasty (THA), total knee arthroplasty (TKA), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), or sepsis. We compared diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or ankylosing spondylitis (AS) at the index hospitalization to diagnoses over prior inpatient and outpatient claims...
October 22, 2020: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Bashar Abuzayed, Nabil Al-Zoubi, Ziad Bataineh, Khaled Alawneh, Majdi Al Qawasmeh, Liqaa Raffee
Ventriculo-femoral vein shunts have been described in few case reports as an alternative for treating complex cases of hydrocephalus in which other accesses are discarded. To our best knowledge, only 6 cases have been reported in the literature to date. We present a case of a 2-year-old female patient with hydrocephalus secondary to neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Patient was operated with various types of shunting procedures, such as ventriculo-peritoneal (V-P) shunt, ventriculo-atrial (V-A) shunt, ventriculo-pleural (V-PL) shunt, ventriculo-vesical shunt, ventriculo-superior sagittal sinus (V-SSS) shunt, and ventriculo-caval (V-C) shunt...
October 22, 2020: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Roberto Cirocchi, Georgi Popivanov, Marina Konaktchieva, Sonia Chipeva, Guglielmo Tellan, Andrea Mingoli, Mauro Zago, Massimo Chiarugi, Gian Andrea Binda, Reinhold Kafka, Gabriele Anania, Annibale Donini, Riccardo Nascimbeni, Mohammed Edilbe, Sorena Afshar
INTRODUCTION: Damage control surgery (DCS) is the classic approach to manage severe trauma and has recently also been considered an appropriate approach to the treatment of critically ill patients with severe intra-abdominal sepsis. The purpose of the present review is to evaluate the outcomes following DCS for Hinchey II-IV complicated acute diverticulitis (CAD). METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was undertaken to identify all randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and observational studies, irrespectively of their size, publication status, and language...
October 22, 2020: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Sky W Brubaker, Susan M Brewer, Liliana M Massis, Brooke A Napier, Denise M Monack
In mammalian cells, inflammatory caspases detect Gram-negative bacterial invasion by binding lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Murine caspase-11 binds cytosolic LPS, stimulates pyroptotic cell death, and drives sepsis pathogenesis. Extracellular priming factors enhance caspase-11-dependent pyroptosis. Herein we compare priming agents and demonstrate that IFN γ priming elicits the most rapid and amplified macrophage response to cytosolic LPS. Previous studies indicate that IFN-induced expression of caspase-11 and guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are causal events explaining the effects of priming on cytosolic LPS sensing...
October 23, 2020: IScience
Kalyan R Chitturi, Sameer Thacker, Mukhtar A Al-Saadi, Mahwash Kassi
Background: SARS-CoV-2 is known to induce a cytokine storm, a hyperinflammatory state driven by up-regulation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and immunomodulatory chemokines that may result in acute heart failure. Case summary: A 65-year-old woman with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 developed shock with multiorgan system failure, including acute biventricular heart failure, 2 weeks after the initial onset of fever, cough, and shortness of breath. The patient experienced myocardial recovery within 48 h after administration of tocilizumab, a humanized monoclonal anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, and multiple supportive vasoactive medications...
October 2020: European Heart Journal. Case Reports
Zemene Tigabu Kebede, Yohannes Hailu Matebe, Abayneh Girma Demisse, Mulugeta Ayalew Yimer, Amha Mekasha, Alemayehu Worku, Asrat Demtse Gebremedhin, Elizabeth M McClure, Assaye K Nigussie, Bogale Worku, Netsanet Workneh Gidi, Gesit Metaferia, Robert L Goldenberg, Lulu M Muhe
Objective. To determine the hematologic profile of preterm infants with regard to different diseases. Methods. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational study, conducted in 5 hospitals in Ethiopia from July 2016 to May 2018. Preterm babies <7 days of age were included and investigated with complete blood counts (CBC) and other investigations, accordingly. Results. Out of 4919 preterms, 3852 (78.3%) were admitted to a newborn intensive care unit, and of these, 68.3% had a CBC performed. The mean values of hemoglobin, white blood cell (WBC) and platelet counts were 17...
2020: Global Pediatric Health
Andrew S Johnson, Rouholah Fatemi, William Winlow
The emergence of the COVID-19 virus and the subsequent pandemic have driven a great deal of research activity. The effects of COVID-19 are caused by the severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and it is the underlying actions of SARs-CoV-2 virions on the endothelial glycocalyx that we consider here. One of the key factors in COVID-19 infection is its almost unique age-related profile, with a doubling in mortality every 10 years after the age of 50. The endothelial glycocalyx layer is essential in maintaining normal fluid homeostasis, but is fragile and prone to pathophysiological damage...
2020: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Sahra Pajenda, Andreja Figurek, Ludwig Wagner, Daniela Gerges, Alice Schmidt, Harald Herkner, Wolfgang Winnicki
Background: Sepsis-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with high morbidity and mortality among patients. Underlying pathomechanisms include capillary leakage and fluid loss into the interstitial tissue and constant exposure to pathogens results in activation of inflammatory cascades, organ dysfunction and subsequently organ damage. Methods: To identify novel factors that trigger sepsis-related acute kidney injury, plasma levels of Granzyme A, as representative of a lymphocyte-derived protease, and heparin-binding protein as indicator for neutrophil-derived mediators, were investigated retrospectively in 60 sepsis patients...
2020: PeerJ
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