Jeroen Dudink, Sylke Jeanne Steggerda, Sandra Horsch
In the past three decades, cerebral ultrasound (CUS) has become a trusted technique to study the neonatal brain. It is a relatively cheap, non-invasive, bedside neuroimaging method available in nearly every hospital. Traditionally, CUS was used to detect major abnormalities, such as intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular hemorrhagic infarction, post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilatation, and (cystic) periventricular leukomalacia (cPVL). The use of different acoustic windows, such as the mastoid and posterior fontanel, and ongoing technological developments, allows for recognizing other lesion patterns (e...
March 2020: Pediatric Research
Donnamay T Brown, James C Vickers, Kimberley E Stuart, Katerina Cechova, David D Ward
Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is an abundant and multi-function neurotrophin in the brain. It is released following neuronal activity and is believed to be particularly important in strengthening neural networks. A common variation in the BDNF gene, a valine to methionine substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met), has been linked to differential expression of BDNF associated with experience-dependent plasticity. The Met allele has been associated with reduced production of BDNF following neuronal stimulation, which suggests a potential role of this variation with respect to how the nervous system may respond to challenges, such as brain ageing and related neurodegenerative conditions (e...
March 25, 2020: Brain Sciences
Melanie T Almonte, Pamela Capellàn, Timothy E Yap, Maria Francesca Cordeiro
Diagnosis and monitoring of psychiatric disorders rely heavily on subjective self-reports of clinical symptoms, which are complicated by the varying consistency of accounts reported by patients with an impaired mental state. Hence, more objective and quantifiable measures have been sought to provide clinicians with more robust methods to evaluate symptomology and track progression of disease in response to treatments. Owing to the shared origins of the retina and the brain, it has been suggested that changes in the retina may correlate with structural and functional changes in the brain...
2020: Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease
Ziyang Liu, Cheng Peng, Yinghan Zhuang, Ying Chen, Thomas Behnisch
The hippocampal formation plays a vital role in memory formation and takes part in the control of the default neuronal network activity of the brain. It also represents an important structure to analyze drug-induced effects on subregion-specific synchronization of neuronal activity. However, the consequences of an altered functional state of synapses for subregion-specific synchronization of neuronal microcircuits remain to be fully understood. Therefore, we analyzed the direct interaction of neuronal microcircuits utilizing a genetically encoded calcium sensor (GCaMP6s) and local field potential (LFP) recording in acute hippocampal-entorhinal brain slices in response to a modulator of synaptic transmission...
2020: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Tian-Yu Wang, Jia-Lin Meng, Ming-Yi Rao, Zhen-Yu He, Lin Chen, Hao Zhu, Qing-Qing Sun, Shi-Jin Ding, Wenzhong Bao, Peng Zhou, David Wei Zhang
To construct an artificial intelligence system with high efficient information integration and computing capability like human brain, it is necessary to realize the biological neurotransmission and information processing in artificial neural network (ANN), rather than a single electronic synapse. Due to the power consumption of single synaptic event is ~10 fJ in biology, designing an intelligent memristors-based 3D ANN with energy consumption lower than femtojoule-level (e.g., attojoule-level) makes it possible for constructing a higher energy efficient computing system than human brain...
March 18, 2020: Nano Letters
Imane Ben M'Barek, Mikael Tassin, Agnes Guët, Isabelle Simon, Valerie Mairovitz, Laurent Mandelbrot, Olivier Picone
The absence of septum pellucidum (ASP) is a rare disease, which affects the structure of the brain. It is either isolated or associated with various congenital brain malformations. The diagnosis of ASP can be performed by second-trimester ultrasound. When the ASP is isolated, prenatal counseling is optimistic regarding neurological outcome, but there is a 20% risk of septo-optic dysplasia in the neonate.
March 2020: Clinical Case Reports
Xinjian Zhu, Yuanyuan Yao, Jiurong Yang, Qiyue Ge, Diejing Niu, Xiufang Liu, Chenchen Zhang, Guangming Gan, Aifeng Zhang, Honghong Yao
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder often associated with recurrent seizures. A growing body of evidence suggests that seizures cause structural and functional alterations of the brain. It is reported that behavioral abnormalities frequently occur in patients with epilepsy and experimental epilepsy models. However, the precise pathological mechanisms associated with these epilepsy comorbidities remain largely unknown. Neurogenesis persists throughout life in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) to maintain proper brain function...
March 7, 2020: Neuropharmacology
Thomas von Arx, Scott Lozanoff, Michael M. Bornstein
In this review about extraoral anatomy as depicted by cone beam computed tomography, the retromaxillary region is discussed. A medium-sized (6 x 6 cm) or large (≥ 8 x 8 cm) field of view of the maxilla will inevitably depict the retromaxillary region that can be considered a «transition» zone between the viscerocranium and the neurocranium. Major structures of the region include the sphenoid bone and the pterygopalatine fossae. The sphenoid bone is a single but complex bone located between the maxilla and the brain...
March 9, 2020: Swiss Dental Journal
Yanan Liu, Youcong Gong, Wenjie Xie, Anlian Huang, Xiaoyu Yuan, Hui Zhou, Xufeng Zhu, Xu Chen, Jiawei Liu, Jie Liu, Xiuying Qin
The delivery of drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) effectively and safely is one of the major challenges in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we constructed a nano-system using microbubbles to promote the crossing of drugs across the BBB, where microbubbles in combination with focused ultrasound were used to mediate the transient opening of the BBB and delivery of nanomedicines. This system (Qc@SNPs-MB) was formed by embedding quercetin-modified sulfur nanoparticles (Qc@SNPs) in microbubbles (MB)...
March 10, 2020: Nanoscale
Diana Salas-Gomez, Mario Fernandez-Gorgojo, Ana Pozueta, Isabel Diaz-Ceballos, Maider Lamarain, Carmen Perez, Martha Kazimierczak, Pascual Sanchez-Juan
Introduction : In recent years, the study of the benefits that physical exercise has on brain health has acquired special relevance. In order to implement exercise as an intervention to protect the brain, it is important to have a more clear idea of its effect in the young population. However, few studies have been carried out on these ages. Objective : The main objective of our study was to evaluate the association between physical activity (PA) with memory and executive function, in university students, analyzing the modulatory effect of sex...
2020: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
M A Gonzalez-Lozano, F Koopmans, P F Sullivan, J Protze, G Krause, M Verhage, K W Li, F Liu, A B Smit
Synaptic transmission is the predominant form of communication in the brain. It requires functionally specialized molecular machineries constituted by thousands of interacting synaptic proteins. Here, we made use of recent advances in cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) in combination with biochemical and computational approaches to reveal the architecture and assembly of synaptic protein complexes from mouse brain hippocampus and cerebellum. We obtained 11,999 unique lysine-lysine cross-links, comprising connections within and between 2362 proteins...
February 2020: Science Advances
Mohamad Anuar Ahad, Kesevan Rajah Kumaran, Tiang Ning, Nur Izzati Mansor, Mohamad Azmeer Effendy, Thenmoly Damodaran, Kamilla Lingam, Habibah Abdul Wahab, Norshariza Nordin, Ping Liao, Christian P Müller, Zurina Hassan
Cerebral ischemia is a result of insufficient blood flow to the brain. It leads to limited supply of oxygen and other nutrients to meet metabolic demands. These phenomena lead to brain damage. There are two types of cerebral ischemia: focal and global ischemia. This condition has significant impact on patient's health and health care system requirements. Animal models such as transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and permanent occlusion of extracranial vessels have been established to mimic the conditions of the respective type of cerebral ischemia and to further understand pathophysiological mechanisms of these ischemic conditions...
March 3, 2020: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Catherine M Gorick, Alexander S Mathew, William J Garrison, E Andrew Thim, Delaney G Fisher, Caitleen A Copeland, Ji Song, Alexander L Klibanov, G Wilson Miller, Richard J Price
Treatment of many pathologies of the brain could be improved markedly by the development of noninvasive therapeutic approaches that elicit robust, endothelial cell-selective gene expression in specific brain regions that are targeted under MR image guidance. While focused ultrasound (FUS) in conjunction with gas-filled microbubbles (MBs) has emerged as a noninvasive modality for MR image-guided gene delivery to the brain, it has been used exclusively to transiently disrupt the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which may induce a sterile inflammation response...
March 2, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rashid Rasheed, Syed Ali Raza Naqvi, Rida Siraj, Nosheen Aslam, Muhammad Waqas Nasir, Ali Abbas, Muhammad Yaseen, Abdul Qaddus, Samina Roohi
Cerebrovascular diseases are known as serious public health problem worldwide, which can be addressed more precisely through molecular imaging of non-functional brain cells. CDP-choline is an active cerebrovascular chemotherapeutic agent that can be used for diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases post radiolabeling with γ-emitter radioisotopes. In this study we developed 99m Tc labeled CDP-choline for imaging of cerebrovascular diseases particularly alzheimer, stroke, and parkinson's diseases. The radiosynthesis reaction resulted 97...
January 2020: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Marc Fakhoury, Israa Salman, Wassim Najjar, George Merhej, Nada Lawand
The roles of the hypothalamus and particularly the lateral hypothalamus (LH) in the regulation of inflammation and pain have been widely studied. The LH consists of a parasympathetic area that has connections with all the major parts of the brain. It controls the autonomic nervous system (ANS), regulates feeding behavior and wakeful cycles, and is a part of the reward system. In addition, it contains different types of neurons, most importantly the orexin neurons. These neurons, though few in number, perform critical functions such as inhibiting pain transmission and interfering with the reward system, feeding behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA)...
2020: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Maiko Higuchi
Exposure to early life stress (ELS) can increase vulnerability to various psychiatric disorders. Although ELS has been shown to alter structure and functions of the hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex in the adult mammalian brain, it remains largely unclear whether ELS also affects embryonic or early-stage brain development. In this study, I investigated the effects of a maternal stress (maternal starvation for 4 days) of adult zebrafish on sibling's larval brain development. Although maternal starvation did not largely affect proliferation rate in the midbrain and hindbrain, it significantly decreased that in the forebrain of larvae at 5 days post-fertilization (dpf)...
February 20, 2020: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Michael Kühhirt, Markus Klein
The association between television exposure and children's development is subject to controversial debates. Heavy television exposure may be detrimental to children by overstimulating their developing brains. It may also infringe on time that children would otherwise spend on more developmentally beneficial activities or parental interactions. In the present analysis, we use data from the 2004/5 birth cohort of the Growing Up in Scotland study to investigate relations between hours of weekly television measured around the ages of two to four and as average over this period with children's linguistic, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes around the age of five...
February 2020: Social Science Research
Shun Yao, Pan Lin, Matthew Vera, Farhana Akter, Ru-Yuan Zhang, Ailiang Zeng, Alexandra J Golby, Guozheng Xu, Yanmei Tie, Jian Song
Prolactinomas are tumors of the pituitary gland, which overproduces prolactin leading to dramatic fluctuations of endogenous hormone levels throughout the body. While it is not fully understood how endogenous hormone disorders affect a patient's brain, it is well known that fluctuating hormone levels can have negative neuropsychological effects. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI), we investigated whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) and its relationship with hormone levels in prolactinomas...
February 1, 2020: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Mohamed A Abdallah, Ashwani K Singal
Wilson disease (WD), or hepatolenticular degeneration, is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by copper accumulation in the liver and many extrahepatic organs especially eyes and brain. It is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene, which encodes a transmembrane copper ATPase that excretes copper into bile for synthesis of ceruloplasmin, a major copper-transporting protein in the blood. This results in hepatic copper overload and oxidative damage of hepatocytes, which in turn leads to copper being released into circulation and its accumulation in extrahepatic organs...
February 7, 2020: Liver Transplantation
Judith Kouassi Nzoughet, Khadidja Guehlouz, Stéphanie Leruez, Philippe Gohier, Cinzia Bocca, Jeanne Muller, Odile Blanchet, Dominique Bonneau, Gilles Simard, Dan Milea, Vincent Procaccio, Guy Lenaers, Juan M Chao de la Barca, Pascal Reynier
Glaucoma is an age related disease characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, which are the neurons that transduce the visual information from the retina to the brain. It is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. To gain further insights into primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) pathophysiology, we performed a non-targeted metabolomics analysis on the plasma from POAG patients ( n = 34) and age- and sex-matched controls ( n = 30). We investigated the differential signature of POAG plasma compared to controls, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS)...
January 28, 2020: Metabolites
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