Niraj C Patel, Troy Torgerson, Monica S Thakar, M Elizabeth M Younger, Panida Sriaroon, Tamara C Pozos, Rebecca H Buckley, David Morris, Diana Vilkama, Jennifer Heimall
Primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) comprises a group of disorders of immune function. Some of the most severe PIDD can be treated with hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Hizentra® is a 20% liquid IgG product approved for subcutaneous administration in adults and children greater than 2 years of age with PIDD-associated antibody deficiency. Limited information is available on the use of Hizentra® in children following HCT for PIDD. A multicenter retrospective chart review demonstrated 37 infants and children (median age 70...
June 2, 2023: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Pier Paolo Duchini, Gabriella Bottari, Akash Deep, Zaccaria Ricci
Application of extracorporeal blood purification in children is increasing with the improvement of technology and the broadening of indications in critically ill patients. Furthermore, novel devices are being made available with a miniaturized design to be applicable to pediatric machines and circuits. Current literature in the pediatric setting is essentially based on case series and observational studies. Novel prospective uncontrolled databases are underway, and the interest is growing in children, since the potential indications for pediatric sepsis and other inflammatory conditions might rely on the enhanced mediator clearance warranted by these techniques...
June 1, 2023: Contributions to Nephrology
Erin K Stenson, Russell K Banks, Ron W Reeder, Aline B Maddux, Jerry Zimmerman, Kathleen L Meert, Peter M Mourani
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between fluid balance (FB) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) among children at 1 month following community-acquired septic shock. DESIGN: Nonprespecified secondary analysis of the Life After Pediatric Sepsis Evaluation. FB was defined as 100 × [(cumulative PICU fluid input - cumulative PICU fluid output)/PICU admission weight]. Three subgroups were identified: low FB (< 5%), medium FB (5%-15%), and high FB (> 15%) based on cumulative FB on days 0-3 of ICU stay...
June 1, 2023: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Ivanna Natasha Maxson, Erik Su, Kyle A Brown, M Hossein Tcharmtchi, Sarah Ginsburg, Vidit Bhargava, Jesse Wenger, Gabriela I Centers, Kiyetta H Alade, Stephanie K Leung, Sharada H Gowda, Saul Flores, Alan Riley, Satid Thammasitboon
Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) is increasingly accepted in pediatric critical care medicine as a tool for guiding the evaluation and treatment of patients. POCUS is a complex skill that requires user competency to ensure accuracy, reliability, and patient safety. A robust competency-based medical education (CBME) program ensures user competency and mitigates patient safety concerns. A programmatic assessment model provides a longitudinal, holistic, and multimodal approach to teaching, assessing, and evaluating learners...
June 1, 2023: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Helena Sofia Ribeiro, André Assunção, Rafael José Vieira, Paulo Soares, Hercília Guimarães, Filipa Flor-de-Lima
Platelet transfusions (PTx) are the principal approach for treating neonatal thrombocytopenia, a common hematological abnormality affecting neonates, particularly preterm infants. However, evidence about the outcomes associated with PTx and whether they provide clinical benefit or harm is lacking. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the association between PTx in preterm infants and mortality, major bleeding, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in comparison to not transfusing or using different platelet count thresholds for transfusion...
June 1, 2023: European Journal of Pediatrics
Luca Marchetto, Rosanna Comoretto, Dario Gregori, Liviana Da Dalt, Angela Amigoni, Marco Daverio
OBJECTIVE: To compare the performance of several prognostic scores calculated in the first 24 hours of admission (day 1) in predicting mortality and morbidity among critically ill children with sepsis presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) and then admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: Single-center, retrospective cohort study in children with a diagnosis of sepsis visiting the PED and then admitted to the PICU from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2019...
June 1, 2023: Pediatric Emergency Care
Trung C Nguyen, Juan C Marini, Bobby Guillory, Christian Valladolid-Brown, Marina Martinez-Vargas, Deepika Subramanyam, Daniel Cohen, Sonya C Cirlos, Fong Lam, Barbara Stoll, Inka C Didelija, Caitlin Vonderohe, Renan Orellana, Arun Saini, Subhashree Pradhan, Dalia Bashir, Moreshwar S Desai, Saul Flores, Manpreet Virk, Hossein Tcharmtchi, Amir Navaei, Sheldon Kaplan, Linda Lamberth, Kristina G Hulten, Brooks P Scull, Carl E Allen, Ayse Akcan-Arikan, K Vinod Vijayan, Miguel A Cruz
UNLABELLED: Sepsis-induced coagulopathy leading to disseminated microvascular thrombosis is associated with high mortality and has no existing therapy. Despite the high prevalence of Gram-positive bacterial sepsis, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), there is a paucity of published Gram-positive pediatric sepsis models. Large animal models replicating sepsis-induced coagulopathy are needed to test new therapeutics before human clinical trials. HYPOTHESIS: Our objective is to develop a pediatric sepsis-induced coagulopathy swine model that last 70 hours...
June 2023: Critical care explorations
Guillaume Emeriaud, Marti Pons-Òdena, Anoopindar K Bhalla, Steven L Shein, Elizabeth Y Killien, Vicent Modesto I Alapont, Courtney Rowan, Florent Baudin, John C Lin, Gabrielle Grégoire, Natalie Napolitano, Juan Mayordomo-Colunga, Franco Diaz, Pablo Cruces, Alberto Medina, Lincoln Smith, Robinder G Khemani
OBJECTIVES: The worldwide practice and impact of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) is unknown. We sought to describe NIV use and associated clinical outcomes in PARDS. DESIGN: Planned ancillary study to the 2016/2017 prospective Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Incidence and Epidemiology study. SETTING: One hundred five international PICUs. PATIENTS: Patients with newly diagnosed PARDS admitted during 10 study weeks...
May 31, 2023: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Mariana Miranda, Simon Nadel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. This review will summarize the main aspects of the definition, the current evidence base for interventions discuss some controversial themes and point towards possible areas of improvement. RECENT FINDINGS: Controversy remains regarding the accurate definition, resuscitation fluid volume and type, choice of vasoactive/inotropic agents, and antibiotic depending upon specific infection risks...
2023: Current Pediatrics Reports
Aislinn Cook, Andrew Atkinson, Andreas Kronenberg, Philipp K A Agyeman, Luregn J Schlapbach, Christoph Berger, Julia Anna Bielicki
In light of rising antibiotic resistance, better methods for selection of empiric antibiotic treatment based on clinical and microbiological data are needed. Most guidelines target specific clinical infections, and variably adjust empiric antibiotic selection by certain patient characteristics. Coverage estimates reflect the probability that an antibiotic regimen will be active against the causative pathogen once confirmed and can provide an objective basis for empiric regimen selection. Coverage can be estimated for specific infections using a weighted incidence syndromic combination antibiograms (WISCAs) framework...
2023: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ganga S Moorthy, Jordan S Pung, Neel Subramanian, B Jason Theiling, Emily C Sterrett
UNLABELLED: Approximately 75,000 children are hospitalized for sepsis yearly in the United States, with 5%-20% mortality estimates. Outcomes are closely related to the timeliness of sepsis recognition and antibiotic administration. METHODS: A multidisciplinary sepsis task force formed in the Spring of 2020 aimed to assess and improve pediatric sepsis care in the pediatric emergency department (ED). The electronic medical record identified pediatric sepsis patients from September 2015 to July 2021...
2023: Pediatric Quality & Safety
Ahmed Kamel Ali, Moataz Elagan, Fatma A Monib, Tarek Abdelazeem Sabra
INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: Infantile umbilical hernia is common in children. It has a regressive course in most cases. Conservative management is the standard in most cases before the age of 3 years unless there are complications such as incarceration, rupture with evisceration which are extremely rare and warrants emergency surgery. CASE PRESENTATION: Our case was a full term 6-month-old male of normal birth weight with history of umbilical hernia but with no obvious risk factors to develop complications...
May 24, 2023: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Addison Gearhart, Paul Esteso, Francesca Sperotto, Eleni G Elia, Kenneth A Michelson, Stu Lipsitz, Mingwei Sun, Christopher Knoll, Christina Vanderpluym
PURPOSE: We sought to establish whether nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) are predictive of disposition, morbidity, and mortality for pediatric patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: A single-center retrospective cohort study examining all ED encounters from patients aged younger than 19 years between January 2016 and March 2020, during which a complete blood count was obtained. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to test the presence of NRBCs as an independent predictor of patient-related outcomes...
May 29, 2023: Pediatric Emergency Care
Kevin J Downes, Athena F Zuppa, Anna Sharova, Michael N Neely
Area under the curve (AUC)-directed vancomycin therapy is recommended, but Bayesian AUC estimation in critically ill children is difficult due to inadequate methods for estimating kidney function. We prospectively enrolled 50 critically ill children receiving IV vancomycin for suspected infection and divided them into model training (n = 30) and testing (n = 20) groups. We performed nonparametric population PK modeling in the training group using Pmetrics, evaluating novel urinary and plasma kidney biomarkers as covariates on vancomycin clearance...
April 25, 2023: Pharmaceutics
Fuat H Saner, Alexandra Frey, Björn-Ole Stüben, Dieter P Hoyer, Katharina Willuweit, Martina Daniel, Jassin Rashidi-Alavieh, Jurgen W Treckmann, Hartmut H Schmidt
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is characterized by inflammation of the whole bile duct system. Liver transplantation is only approved as a curative treatment when it comes to end-stage liver disease. The aim of our study was to assess morbidity, survival rates and PSC recurrence and the impact of donor characteristics in long-term follow-up. This was an IRB-approved retrospective study. A total of 82 patients were identified who were transplanted between January 2010 and December 2021 for PSC. Among these patients, 76 adult liver transplant PSC patients and their corresponding donors were analyzed...
May 11, 2023: Journal of Clinical Medicine
George Daskalakis, Alexandros Psarris, Antonios Koutras, Zacharias Fasoulakis, Ioannis Prokopakis, Antonia Varthaliti, Christina Karasmani, Thomas Ntounis, Ekaterini Domali, Marianna Theodora, Panos Antsaklis, Kalliopi I Pappa, Angeliki Papapanagiotou
As the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, preterm birth is recognized as a major public health concern around the world. The purpose of this review is to analyze the connection between infections and premature birth. Spontaneous preterm birth is commonly associated with intrauterine infection/inflammation. The overproduction of prostaglandins caused by the inflammation associated with an infection could lead to uterine contractions, contributing to preterm delivery. Many pathogens, particularly Chlamydia trachomatis , Neisseria gonorrhoeae , Trichomonas vaginalis , Gardnerella vaginalis , Ureaplasma urealyticum , Mycoplasma hominis , Actinomyces , Candida spp...
May 22, 2023: Children
Sevasti Koulouraki, Vasileios Paschos, Panagiota Pervanidou, Panagiotis Christopoulos, Angeliki Gerede, Makarios Eleftheriades
Preeclampsia is a multisystemic clinical syndrome characterized by the appearance of new-onset hypertension and proteinuria or hypertension and end organ dysfunction even without proteinuria after 20 weeks of pregnancy or postpartum. Residing at the severe end of the spectrum of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, preeclampsia occurs in 3 to 8% of pregnancies worldwide and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality, accounting for 8-10% of all preterm births. The mechanism whereby preeclampsia increases the risk of the neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular, and metabolic morbidity of the mother's offspring is not well known, but it is possible that the preeclamptic environment induces epigenetic changes that adversely affect developmental plasticity...
May 1, 2023: Children
Carlo Dani, Martina Ciarcià, Vittoria Barone, Mariarosaria Di Tommaso, Federico Mecacci, Lucia Pasquini, Simone Pratesi
Background Meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is considered an alarming sign of possible fetal compromise and it has recently been reported that neonatal outcome correlates with the degree of meconium thickness. Methods We retrospectively studied 400 term infants allocated in clear amniotic fluid and grade 1, 2, and 3 MSAF groups on the basis of color and thickness of AF. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential independent effect of delivery with MSAF of different severity on the risk of a composite adverse neonatal outcome...
April 26, 2023: Children
Evangelia Steletou, Dimitra Metallinou, Alexandra Margeli, Theodoros Giannouchos, Athanasios Michos, Christina Kanaka-Gantenbein, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Tania Siahanidou
Although YKL-40 is a promising diagnostic biomarker of sepsis in adults, its value in neonatal sepsis is not known. The study objectives included assessing the levels and diagnostic value of serum YKL-40 in term neonates with sepsis and comparing YKL-40 with other commonly used inflammatory biomarkers. In this pilot case-control study, 45 term neonates (30 septic and 15 non-septic, as controls), 4 to 28 days old, were prospectively studied. The International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference criteria were applied to diagnose sepsis...
April 25, 2023: Children
Yufan Yang, Jiaotian Huang, Haipeng Yan, Xun Li, Pingping Liu, Wu Zhou, Xinping Zhang, Xiulan Lu, Zhenghui Xiao
BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vascular inflammatory disease with unknown pathogenesis. There are few studies on KD combined with sepsis worldwide. PURPOSE: To provide valuable data regarding clinical characteristics and outcomes related to pediatric patients with KD combined with sepsis in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 44 pediatric patients admitted in PICU at Hunan Children's Hospital with KD combined with sepsis between January 2018 and July 2021...
2023: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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