Shruti Rawal, Vivek Bora, Bhoomika Patel, Mayur Patel
Nanoparticle-aided combination chemotherapy offers several advantages like ratiometric drug delivery, dose reduction, multi-targeted therapy, synergism, and overcoming multi-drug resistance. The current research was instigated to facilitate targeted and ratiometric co-delivery of docetaxel (DT) and curcumin (CR) through the development of folate (FA)-appended nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), i.e., FA-DTCR-NLCs to lung cancer cells. The FA-DTCR-NLCs were formulated by employing a scaleable and solvent-free high-pressure homogenization approach...
November 19, 2020: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Michael Boettcher, Melina Esser, Julian Trah, Stefan Klohs, Nariman Mokhaberi, Julia Wenskus, Madgalena Trochimiuk, Birgit Appl, Konrad Reinshagen, Laia Pagerols Raluy, Michaela Klinke
Appendicitis is one of the most frequent emergencies in pediatric surgery, yet current biomarkers for diagnosis are unspecific and have low predictive values. As neutrophils and extracellular traps (ETs) are an essential component of the immune defense against bacterial infections, and appendicitis is considered an inflammation reaction of the appendix, we hypothesized that neutrophil activation and NET formation play an essential role in appendicitis development and maintenance. Therefore, this pilot study aimed to establish a murine model of appendicitis and to evaluate ETs markers to diagnose appendicitis in mice and humans...
October 26, 2020: Scientific Reports
Juan Orellana-Henriquez, Ivan Robalino-Rodriguez, Hugo Sanchez-Alban, John Franco-Orellana, Roberto Oleas, Jorge Baquerizo-Burgos, Mario Patiño-Aquin, Carlos Torres-Herrera, Miguel Puga-Tejada
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of known biomarkers as pre-operative predictors of complicated acute appendicitis (CAA) and perforated appendicitis (PA). Materials and methods: This was an observational, analytic, cross-sectional, and prospective study at Hospital Teodoro Maldonado Carbo (August 2016-December 2017). Evaluated biomarkers: white blood cells count, neutrophil percentage (N%), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, glucose, total bilirubin, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin (PCT)...
2020: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Toon Peeters, Sandrina Martens, Valentino D'Onofrio, Mark H T Stappers, Jeroen C H van der Hilst, Bert Houben, Ruth Achten, Leo A B Joosten, Inge C Gyssens
Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency worldwide. Exaggerated immune responses could be associated with appendicitis. This study aimed at characterizing immune responses towards a large variety of gut commensals and pathogens, and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) ligands, and investigating the course of systemic inflammation in a prospective cohort of acute appendicitis patients. PBMC responses of 23 patients of the cohort and 23 healthy controls were characterized more than 8 months post-surgery...
October 15, 2020: Scientific Reports
M A Zarog, D P O'Leary, M G Kiernan, J Bolger, P Tibbitts, S N Coffey, A Lowery, G J Byrnes, C Peirce, C P Dunne, J C Coffey
BACKGROUND: Improved diagnostic biomarkers are required for acute appendicitis. The circulating fibrocyte percentage (CFP) is increased in inflammatory states, but has not been studied in acute appendicitis. This study aimed to determine CFP in acute appendicitis and compare diagnostic accuracy with standard serological biomarkers. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried out between June 2015 and February 2016 at University Hospital Limerick. The CFP was determined by dual-staining peripheral venous samples for CD45 and collagen I using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and correlated with histopathological diagnoses...
October 13, 2020: BJS Open
Ayman Abouhamda
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies that present in the hospital. With acute appendicitis, there is always a possibility of complications of perforation and peritonitis. Even though medicine has advanced substantially in different investigational modalities, appendicitis is confirmed clinically with the aid of a clinical approach (i.e., Alvarado Score), laboratory, and investigational modalities. However, biomarkers such as pentraxin-3 and interleukin-6 have been recently researched to assess the possibility of confirming the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in both adults and the pediatric age group...
August 24, 2020: Curēus
Levent Duman, Özkan Cesur, Duygu Kumbul Doğuç, Seda Çelik, Adnan Karaibrahimoğlu, Mustafa Çağrı Savaş
BACKGROUND: Appendicitis is one of the most common surgical emergencies. Early diagnosis of appendicitis is important in children because any delay in treatment substantially leads to complicated appendicitis. In this study, we aimed to test the diagnostic value of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) level in children with acute appendicitis and to investigate whether there is a relationship between the progression of the disease and PTX3 level. METHODS: This prospective study included 70 children...
September 2020: Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Wen Liu, Anrong Zeng, Hanzhou Tang, JinWei Qiang
C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), a low-molecular-weight cytokine, is upregulated in inflammation-related diseases. However, the underlying function of CCL2 remains unknown in human appendicitis. The present study aimed to examine the role of CCL2 in appendicitis. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine the secretion of CCL2 in the peripheral blood of patients with simple and complex appendicitis, respectively. A flow cytometry assay was used to quantify the level of the CCL2 receptor, CCR2...
August 27, 2020: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Wenwei Pan, Ziyu Han, Ye Chang, Xuexin Duan
We have developed a new three-dimensional (3D) surface for use in biosensors that is based on modified novel thorns-like polyelectrolytes (3D-PETx), which comprises of poly-L-lysine (PLL) appended with multitude oligo (ethylene glycol) (OEG) and biotin moieties. It tethered to the sensor surface by PLL, while the OEG-biotin chains are forced to stretch away from the surface for target detections. Due to its 3D structure, the number of the OEG-biotin per surface unit is markedly increased compared to conventional 2D polyelectrolytes (2D-PET) coating...
August 13, 2020: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yosuke Sasaki, Fumiya Komatsu, Naoyasu Kashima, Takeshi Suzuki, Ikutaka Takemoto, Sho Kijima, Tadashi Maeda, Taito Miyazaki, Yoshiko Honda, Hiroaki Zai, Nagato Shimada, Kimihiko Funahashi, Yoshihisa Urita
BACKGROUND: Since high-quality evidence on conservative treatment of acute appendicitis using antibiotics has increased, differentiation of patients with complicated appendicitis (CA) from those with simple appendicitis (SA) has become increasingly important. Previous studies have revealed that male gender, advanced age, comorbid conditions, prehospital delay, fever, and anorexia are risk factors of perforated appendicitis. Elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level and hyponatremia have also been reported as predictive biomarkers of CA...
June 6, 2020: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Qiang Liu, Ke Xu
Laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis in children has the advantages of quick recovery, little influence of inflammatory and oxidative stress and low infection rate. Altogether 115 children with perforated appendicitis treated in our hospital from June 2018 to August 2019 were selected and divided into two groups according to different treatment methods. Laparoscopic appendectomy was used as the research group (RG) (67 cases) and open appendectomy (48 cases) as the control group (CG). The clinical indexes (operation time, intraoperative blood loss, ambulation time, incision length, postoperative exhaust time and length of stay) of the two groups were observed...
June 5, 2020: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Serkan Sengul, Yilmaz Guler, Hasan Calis, Zulfikar Karabulut
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if serum biomarkers could differentiate complicated and uncomplicated appendicitis in adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: An cross sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of General Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Alanya Alaaddin Keykubat University, Alanya, Turkey, between January 2016 and December 2018. METHODOLOGY: Patients operated for acute appendicitis, aged between 10 and 19 years, were retrospectively evaluated...
April 2020: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Lianjie Liu, Zhuo Shao, Hang Yu, Wei Zhang, Hao Wang, Zubing Mei
BACKGROUND: Although several previous studies have examined the association between the platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and acute appendicitis (AA), findings have been controversial. We aimed to systematically assess the available evidence to elucidate the overall relationship between the PLR and AA. METHODS: Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for all available published literature before August, 2019 by two independent investigators for observational studies reporting the association between the PLR and AA...
2020: PloS One
Hidetoshi Arima
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of death from cancer in Japan, after lung, colorectal, and stomach cancers and has the lowest survival among these tumors, because of not only no symptoms, no screening tool and no biomarkers but also high rates of recurrence and metastasis. In addition, pancreatic cancer has excessive stroma which serves as a severe biological barrier for anticancer drug delivery and successful treatment. Therefore, there are many challenges for drug delivery systems for the treatment of pancreatic cancer...
2020: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Yinghua Zhao, Lianying Yang, Changqing Sun, Yang Li, Yangzhige He, Li Zhang, Tieliu Shi, Guangshun Wang, Xuebo Men, Wei Sun, Fuchu He, Jun Qin
Acute appendicitis is one of the most common acute abdomens, but the confident preoperative diagnosis is still a challenge. In order to profile noninvasive urinary biomarkers that could discriminate acute appendicitis from other acute abdomens, we carried out mass spectrometric experiments on urine samples from patients with different acute abdomens and evaluated diagnostic potential of urinary proteins with various machine-learning models. Firstly, outlier protein pools of acute appendicitis and controls were constructed using the discovery dataset (32 acute appendicitis and 41 control acute abdomens) against a reference set of 495 normal urine samples...
2020: BioMed Research International
Alireza Rastgoo Haghi, Parvin Pourmohammad, Mohammad Ali Seyf Rabiee
Introduction: Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of the abdominal pain in surgery. Despite its significant prevalence, the diagnosis is associated with many problems in some cases, which leads to false appendectomy. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the validity of diagnostic tests of mean platelet volume (MPV) and red cell distribution width (RDW), as a new possible tool in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: In this study, all patients who referred to the emergency department of Besat Hospital, Hamadan, Iran, in 2015, with abdominal pain and first impression of acute appendicitis, undergone appendectomy, were evaluated...
2020: Advanced journal of emergency medicine
Mohit Kakar, Mathilde Delorme, Renars Broks, Lasma Asare, Marisa Butnere, Aigars Reinis, Arnis Engelis, Juta Kroica, Amulya Saxena, Aigars Petersons
PURPOSE: The study aim is to determine whether serum and urine interleukin-6 (IL-6) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can be included in the early diagnostic algorithm for pediatric appendicitis. METHODS: Prospective single-center cohort study included 92 children divided into control, acute complicated appendicitis (AcA) and acute uncomplicated appendicitis (AnA) groups. Serum and urine samples were assayed for IL-6 and NGAL preoperatively, and on the second and fifth postoperative days...
March 26, 2020: Pediatric Surgery International
Te-Lu Yap, Jing Dan Fan, Meng Fatt Ho, Candy S C Choo, Lin Yin Ong, Yong Chen
PURPOSE: Assays of salivary biomarkers for diagnosis are gaining popularity in pediatric diseases due to their non-invasive nature. Our pilot project aims to evaluate the utility of salivary leucine-rich-alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG) in the diagnosis of pediatric acute appendicitis (AA). METHODS: We prospectively recruited 34 patients, aged between 4 and 16 years, admitted with acute abdominal pain suspicious of appendicitis. The patients' demography, clinical characteristics, laboratory investigations, imaging examination results, operative findings, and discharge diagnoses were recorded...
May 2020: Pediatric Surgery International
Hirotaka Minagawa, Yuka Kataoka, Masayasu Kuwahara, Katsunori Horii, Ikuo Shiratori, Iwao Waga
We used base-appended base modification to develop a new adenine analog, which incorporates an adenine derivative at position 7 of adenine. Using the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment method with a modified DNA library including this analog, we obtained Aad1 , an aptamer that binds strongly to human β-defensin 2, a biomarker of physical stress found in saliva. The dissociation constant of Aad1 with respect to human β-defensin 2 was found to be low (6.8 nM), and was found to bind specifically to human β-defensin 2 in saliva spiked with the protein, as confirmed using pull-down with magnetic beads...
February 15, 2020: Analytical Biochemistry
Lixia Chen, Yuezhan Zhang
BACKGROUND: To compare the diagnostic values of leukocytes, neutrophils, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in distinguishing between acute appendicitis (AA) and right ureterolithiasis (RU). METHODS: In this retrospective study, 106 patients diagnosed with AA (Appendicitis group) and 33 cases with RU (Ureterolithiasis group) were enrolled due to acute right lower abdominal pain. The levels of peripheral blood leukocyte counts (leukocytes), neutrophil counts (neutrophils), lymphocyte counts (lymphocytes), platelet counts (platelets), NLR and PLR were recorded and compared between the two groups...
January 1, 2020: Clinical Laboratory
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