Takenobu Kashihara, Ichiro Nozaki, Kenji Sakai, Jota Minamikawa, Keiko Nakamura-Shindo, Akio Akagi, Taro Ozaki, Hiroto Nakano, Ai Shimizu, Junji Komatsu, Keisuke Shima, Tokuhei Ikeda, Miharu Samuraki-Yokohama, Tsuyoshi Hamaguchi, Kazuo Iwasa, Keiko Tanaka, Masahito Yamada
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2021: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Anthony Cyr, Yanjun Zhong, Steven E Reis, Rami A Namas, Andrew Amoscato, Brian Zuckerbraun, Jason Sperry, Ruben Zamora, Yoram Vodovotz, Timothy R Billiar
BACKGROUND: Trauma is the leading cause of death and disability for individuals under age 55. Many severely injured trauma patients experience complicated clinical courses despite appropriate initial therapy. We sought to identify novel circulating metabolomic signatures associated with clinical outcomes following trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Untargeted metabolomics and circulating plasma immune mediator analysis was performed on plasma collected during three post-injury time periods (<6h, 6h-24h, D2-D5) in critically ill trauma patients enrolled between April 2004 and May 2013 at UPMC Presbyterian Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA...
January 13, 2021: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Julian W Tang, William P Bahnfleth, Philomena M Bluyssen, Giorgio Buonanno, Jose L Jimenez, Jarek Kurnitski, Yuguo Li, Shelly Miller, Chandra Sekhar, Lidia Morawska, Linsey C Marr, Arsen Krikor Melikov, William W Nazaroff, Peter V Nielsen, Raymond Tellier, Pawel Wargocki, Stephanie J Dancer
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused untold disruption and enhanced mortality rates around the world. Understanding the mechanisms for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is key to preventing further spread but there is confusion over the meaning of "airborne" whenever transmission is discussed. Scientific ambivalence originates from evidence published many years ago, which has generated mythological beliefs that obscure current thinking. This article gathers together and explores some of the most commonly held dogmas on airborne transmission in order to stimulate revision of the science in the light of current evidence...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Hospital Infection
Prateek Lohia, Shweta Kapur, Sindhuri Benjaram, Abhilasha Pandey, Tanveer Mir, Berhane Seyoum
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is highly prevalent worldwide and its individual components obesity, diabetes and hypertension have been identified as risk factors to develop severe COVID-19 illness, however data on MetS and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 is scarce. This study aims to determine association between MetS and severe disease outcomes, i.e. mortality, need for mechanical ventilation and ICU requirement among COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A retrospective multi-hospital cohort study on 1871 patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis...
January 16, 2021: Journal of Diabetes
Miriana d'Alessandro, Laura Bergantini, Paolo Cameli, Giuseppe Curatola, Lorenzo Remediani, David Bennett, Francesco Bianchi, Felice Perillo, Luca Volterrani, Maria Antonietta Mazzei, Elena Bargagli
SARS-CoV2-induced direct cytopathic effects against type II pneumocytes are suspected to play a role in mediating and perpetuating lung damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum KL-6 behavior in COVID-19 patients to investigate its potential role in predicting clinical course. Sixty patients (median age IQR, 65 (52-69), 43 males), hospitalized for COVID-19 at Siena COVID Unit University Hospital, were prospectively enrolled. Twenty-six patients were selected (median age IQR, 63 (55-71), 16 males); all of them underwent follow-up evaluations, including clinical, radiological, functional, and serum KL-6 assessments, after 6 (t1) and 9 (t2) months from hospital discharge...
January 16, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Maxens Decavèle, Aliénor Dreyfus, Nicolas Gatulle, Nicolas Weiss, Caroline Houillier, Sophie Demeret, Julien Mayaux, Isabelle Rivals, Martin Dres, Julie Delemazure, Elise Morawiec, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Khe Hoang-Xuan, Sylvain Choquet, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule
INTRODUCTION: To describe the reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) admitted to the ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 101 PCNSL patients admitted to 3 ICUs over a two-decade period. RESULTS: Acute respiratory failure, mainly secondary to aspiration pneumonia and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, was the leading reason for ICU admission (33%)...
January 16, 2021: Journal of Neurology
Sudha Rao, Vrushabh Gavali, Shakuntala S Prabhu, Radhika Mathur, Larissa Robert Dabre, Sanjay B Prabhu, Minnie Bodhanwala
OBJECTIVES: To study clinical characteristics and outcome of children with admitted to a paediatric hospital in Mumbai, India. METHODS: Review of medical records of 969 children admitted between 19 March and 7 August, 2020, to assess the clinico-demographic characteristics, disease severity and factors predicting outcome in COVID-19 children. Variables were compared between children who were previously healthy (Group I) and those with co-morbidity (Group II). RESULTS: 123 (71 boys) children with median (IQR) age of 3 (0...
January 11, 2021: Indian Pediatrics
Francesca Ricci, Ilia Bresesti, Paola Azzurra Maria LaVerde, Fabrizio Salomone, Costanza Casiraghi, Arianna Mersanne, Matteo Storti, Chiara Catozzi, Laura Tigli, Riccardo Zecchi, Pietro Franceschi, Xabier Murgia, Manuela Simonato, Paola Cogo, Virgilio Carnielli, Gianluca Lista
BACKGROUND: In preterm infants, InSurE (Intubation-Surfactant-Extubation) and LISA (less invasive surfactant administration) techniques allow for exogenous surfactant administration while reducing lung injury associated with mechanical ventilation. We compared the acute pulmonary response and lung deposition of surfactant by LISA and InSurE in surfactant-depleted adult rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-six spontaneously breathing surfactant-depleted adult rabbits (6-7 weeks old) with moderate RDS and managed with nasal continuous positive airway pressure were randomized to 3 groups: (1) 200 mg/kg of surfactant by InSurE; (2) 200 mg/kg of surfactant by LISA; (3) no surfactant treatment (Control)...
January 15, 2021: Pediatric Research
Ioannis Bellos, Georgia Fitrou, Raffaella Panza, Aakash Pandita
OBJECTIVES: To compare surfactant administration via thin catheters, laryngeal mask, nebulisation, pharyngeal instillation, intubation and surfactant administration followed by immediate extubation (InSurE) and no surfactant administration. DESIGN: Network meta-analysis. SETTING: Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, Web of Science, Google-scholar and databases were systematically searched from inception to 15 February 2020. PATIENTS: Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome...
January 15, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Januar Wibawa Martha, Arief Wibowo, Raymond Pranata
PURPOSE: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the prognostic performance of elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase and EuropePMC on 19 November 2020. The outcome of interest was composite poor outcome, defined as a combined endpoint of mortality, severity, need for invasive mechanical ventilation and need for intensive care unit care. Severity followed the included studies' criteria...
January 15, 2021: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Thomas C Williams, Clare MacRae, Olivia V Swann, Haris Haseeb, Steve Cunningham, Philip Davies, Neil Gibson, Christopher Lamb, Richard Levin, Catherine M McDougall, Jillian McFadzean, Ian Piper, Alastair Turner, Stephen W Turner, Margrethe Van Dijke, Donald S Urquhart, Bruce Guthrie, Ross J Langley
OBJECTIVES: To determine the indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on paediatric healthcare utilisation and severe disease at a national level following lockdown on 23 March 2020. DESIGN: National retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Emergency childhood primary and secondary care providers across Scotland; two national paediatric intensive care units (PICUs); statutory death records. PARTICIPANTS: 273 455 unscheduled primary care attendances; 462 437 emergency department attendances; 54 076 emergency hospital admissions; 413 PICU unplanned emergency admissions requiring invasive mechanical ventilation; and 415 deaths during the lockdown study period and equivalent dates in previous years...
January 15, 2021: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Natasha R Kumar, William A Grobman, Olivia Barry, Amelia C Clement, Nicola Lancki, Lynn M Yee
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are widespread and have long-standing implications for women's health. Historically, the management of "severe gestational hypertension," or the presence of severely elevated blood pressures without any other signs or symptoms of end-organ damage meeting the criteria for preeclampsia, has been unclear. The new American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines based on expert opinion recommend that severe gestational hypertension be treated similarly to preeclampsia with severe features, but data regarding outcomes for women with this diagnosis have been limited...
January 2021: American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Khyatiben V Pathak, Marissa I McGilvrey, Charles K Hu, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Karen Lewandoski, Zahra Eftekhari, Yate-Ching Yuan, Frederic Zenhausern, Emmanuel Menashi, Patrick Pirrotte
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hospital-acquired infection, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Currently, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used in hospitals for VAP diagnosis and guiding treatment options. Although BAL collection procedures are invasive, alternatives such as endotracheal aspirates (ETA) may be of diagnostic value, however, their use has not been thoroughly explored. Longitudinal ETA and BAL were collected from 16 intubated patients up to 15 days, of which 11 developed VAP...
October 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Saman Fouladirad, Horacio Bach
The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, was first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, China. This virus has led to 61.8 million cases worldwide being reported as of December 1st, 2020. Currently, there are no definite approved therapies endorsed by the World Health Organization for COVID-19, focusing only on supportive care. Treatment centers around symptom management, including oxygen therapy or invasive mechanical ventilation. Immunotherapy has the potential to play a role in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2...
January 13, 2021: Microorganisms
Danchen Wu, Asish Dasgupta, Austin D Read, Rachel E T Bentley, Mehras Motamed, Kuang-Hueih Chen, Ruaa Al-Qazazi, Jeffrey D Mewburn, Kimberly J Dunham-Snary, Elahe Alizadeh, Lian Tian, Stephen L Archer
The homeostatic oxygen sensing system (HOSS) optimizes systemic oxygen delivery. Specialized tissues utilize a conserved mitochondrial sensor, often involving NDUFS2 in complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, as a site of pO2 -responsive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS are converted to a diffusible signaling molecule, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), by superoxide dismutase (SOD2). H2 O2 exits the mitochondria and regulates ion channels and enzymes, altering plasma membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ and Ca2+ -sensitization and controlling acute, adaptive, responses to hypoxia that involve changes in ventilation, vascular tone and neurotransmitter release...
January 12, 2021: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jean P Molleston, William E Bennett
OBJECTIVES: To use a large administrative database to determine the mortality, risk factors, and co-morbidities of esophageal variceal bleeding in children. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) data from 50 tertiary children's hospitals in the US. ICD codes from 2004 through 2019 identified children 18 years and younger with variceal bleeding and complications. Univariate analyses used the Student t-test for continuous variables (age) and chi-square test for categorical variables (all others)...
January 12, 2021: Journal of Pediatrics
Cihan Atila, Clara O Sailer, Stefano Bassetti, Sarah Tschudin-Sutter, Roland Bingisser, Martin Siegemund, Stefan Osswald, Katharina Rentsch, Marco Rüegg, Sabrina Schaerli, Gabriela M Kuster, Raphael Twerenbold, Mirjam Christ-Crain
OBJECTIVE: The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread globally and infected millions of people. The prevalence and prognostic impact of dysnatremia in COVID-19 is inconclusive. Therefore, we investigated the prevalence and outcome of dysnatremia in COVID-19. DESIGN: The prospective, observational, cohort study included consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 triaged to a Swiss Emergency Department between March and July 2020...
January 1, 2021: European Journal of Endocrinology
Brett S Kirby, Matthew A Sparks, Eduardo R Lazarowski, Denise A Lopez Domowicz, Hongmei Zhu, Timothy J McMahon
Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels export ATP and may contribute to increased concentration of the vasodilator ATP in plasma during hypoxia in vivo. We hypothesized that Panx1 channels and associated ATP export contributes to hypoxic vasodilation, a mechanism that facilitates the matching of oxygen delivery to tissue metabolic demand. Male and female mice devoid of Panx1 (Panx1-/-) and wild-type controls (WT) were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented with a carotid artery catheter or femoral artery flow transducer for hemodynamic and plasma ATP monitoring during inhalation of 21% (normoxia) or 10% oxygen (hypoxia)...
January 15, 2021: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Shoko Fujimori, Katsuhisa Sunada
This study aimed to investigate the hypothesis that vasopressin extends the anesthetic response time of lidocaine and does not affect the circulatory dynamics. Rats were sedated with isoflurane; subsequently, breathing was maintained through mechanical ventilation. We infiltrated the first molar area of the upper left jaw with saline (NS, test solution), 2% lidocaine (L), 0.025 IU vasopressin-supplemented 2% lidocaine, 0.05 IU vasopressin-supplemented 2% lidocaine, 0.1 IU vasopressin-supplemented 2% lidocaine, and 0...
January 15, 2021: Odontology
Leyla Talan, F Gonca Şaşal Solmaz, Uğur Ercan, İrem Akdemir Kalkan, Bülent Mustafa Yenigün, Cabir Yüksel, N Defne Altıntaş
Barotrauma is a commonly reported complication in critically ill patients with ARDS caused by different etiologies, it's rate is reported to be around %10. Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients seem to be more common and have different clinical characteristics. Here we report 9 patients who had pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum during their stay in the ICU. Patients who were admitted to ICU between March 2020 and December 2020, were reviewed for presence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema during their ICU stay...
December 2020: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
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