Colleen E Bennett, Atheendar Venkataramani, Fred M Henretig, Jennifer Faerber, Lihai Song, Joanne N Wood
OBJECTIVES: Multiple states have passed legislation permitting marijuana use. The impact of legalization on trends in hospital encounters for marijuana exposures in young children across states remains unknown. We aimed to describe trends in marijuana-related hospital encounters over time in children <6 years and assess the association of state-level marijuana legislation with the rate of marijuana-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We identified inpatient, emergency department and observation encounters for children <6 years with marijuana exposures (defined by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes) unique on the patient-year level at 52 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database from 01/01/2004-12/31/2018...
July 26, 2021: Academic Pediatrics
Maya Aboumrad, Brian Shiner, Natalie Riblet, Hugh Huizenga, Nabin Neupane, Yinong Young-Xu
OBJECTIVE: We explored longitudinal trends in sociodemographic characteristics, reported symptoms, laboratory findings, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, comorbidities, and 30-day in-hospital mortality among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the United States Veterans Health Administration between 03/01/20 and 08/31/20 and followed until 09/30/20...
2021: PloS One
Stacy A Shackelford, Deborah J Del Junco, Jamie C Riesberg, Douglas Powell, Edward L Mazuchowski, Russ S Kotwal, Paul E Loos, Harold R Montgomery, Michael A Remley, Jennifer M Gurney, Sean Keenan
BACKGROUND: Quantification of medical interventions administered during prolonged field care (PFC) is necessary to inform training and planning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of Department of Defense Trauma Registry casualties with maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) score of 2 or greater and prehospital records during combat operations 2007 to 2015; US military nonsurvivors were linked to Armed Forces Medical Examiner System data. Medical interventions administered to survivors of 4 hours to 72 hours of PFC and nonsurvivors who died prehospital were compared by frequency-matching on mechanism (explosive, firearm, other), injury type (penetrating, blunt) and injured body regions with MAIS score of 3 or greater...
August 1, 2021: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Erika R O'Neil, Rachel E Quinn, Taylor L Olson, Peter T Rycus, Marc M Anders, Corey A Chartan, Tiphanie P Vogel, Manuel Silva-Carmona, Ryan D Coleman
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides with pulmonary involvement include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and can present with life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage in up to 40% of patients. Mortality in those patients who require intubation and mechanical ventilation can reach 77%. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to support these patients through definitive diagnosis and treatment, although minimizing the risk of ventilator-induced lung injury...
July 27, 2021: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Jenna E Aziz, Jeffrey DellaVolpe, Salim Aziz, Rachel Sterling
COVID-19 can be associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which increases the likelihood of morbidity and mortality. Ventilator-induced lung injury (VLI) is a known complication of mechanical ventilation (MV) and can further compound lung injury and recovery. Escalation to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be required in patients who deteriorate on MV. We report our experience with complete avoidance of MV using an ECMO First strategy deployed in an awake non-intubated COVID-19 patient with severe pneumonia...
July 28, 2021: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
David Wilkins, Andrew S Lane, Sam R Orde
A low tidal volume ventilation (LTVV) strategy improves outcomes in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Subsequently, a LTVV strategy has become the standard of care for patients receiving mechanical ventilation. This strategy is poorly adhered to within intensive care units (ICUs). A retrospective analysis was conducted of prescribed tidal volumes in mechanically ventilated patients with hypoxic respiratory failure between April 2013 and March 2017. Data collection included the establishment of a new data-entry box for patient height in March 2016, aimed at assisting the calculation of LTVV...
July 29, 2021: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
Sachin Talwar, Neralakere Suresha Sujith, Palleti Rajashekar, Neeti Makhija, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Ashish Datt Upadhyay, Manoj Kumar Sahu, Choudhary Shiv Kumar
BACKGROUND: Expected benefits of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) include increased hematocrit, reduction of total body water and inflammatory mediators, improved left ventricular systolic function, and improved systolic blood pressure and cardiac index (CI) following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). This prospective randomized trial tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Seventy-nine patients undergoing intracardiac repair of tetralogy of fallot were randomized to conventional ultrafiltration (CUF) + MUF (n = 39) or only CUF group (n = 40)...
July 29, 2021: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Li Lan, Jieyu Tang, Pawel Wargocki, David P Wyon, Zhiwei Lian
This study managed to create thermal comfort conditions at three temperatures (24°C-T24, 26°C-T26, and 28°C-T28) by adjusting clothing and air velocity. Thirty-six subjects (18 males and 18 females) were exposed to each of the three conditions for 4.5 h in a design balanced for order of presentation of conditions. During each exposure, they rated the physical environment, their comfort, the intensity of acute subclinical health symptoms, and their mental load, and they performed a number of cognitive tasks...
July 29, 2021: Indoor Air
Carlla A Araujo-Silva, Alléxya A A Marcos, Paula M Marinho, Ana M C Branco, Alexandre Roque, André C Romano, Mateus L Matuoka, Michel Farah, Miguel Burnier, Nara F Moraes, Paulo F G M M Tierno, Paulo Schor, Victoria Sakamoto, Heloisa Nascimento, Wanderley de Sousa, Rubens Belfort
Importance: The presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in the retina of deceased patients with COVID-19 has been suggested through real-time reverse polymerase chain reaction and immunological methods to detect its main proteins. The eye has shown abnormalities associated with COVID-19 infection, and retinal changes were presumed to be associated with secondary microvascular and immunological changes. Objective: To demonstrate the presence of presumed SARS-CoV-2 viral particles and its relevant proteins in the eyes of patients with COVID-19...
July 29, 2021: JAMA Ophthalmology
Mahsa Malekahmadi, Naseh Pahlavani, Safieh Firouzi, Zachary S Clayton, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam, Sanaz Rezaei Zonooz, Omid Moradi Moghaddam, Sepideh Soltani
BACKGROUND: Enteral immunomodulatory nutrition is recommended as an adjuvant therapy for patients in intensive care units (ICU), but its effectiveness is incompletely understood. AIM: The aim of this review was to examine the effect of a commonly used immunomodulatory formula-omega-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, and antioxidants-on clinical outcomes and mortality risk in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 29, 2021: Nursing in Critical Care
Brittany D Bissell, Taylor Gabbard, Erica A Sheridan, Maher A Baz, George A Davis, Ayesha Ather
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a potential option for the management of severe acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. Conflicting the use of this therapy is the known coagulopathy within COVID-19, leading to an incidence of venous thrombotic events of 25% to 49%. To date, limited guidance is available on optimal anticoagulation strategies in this population. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utilization of a pharmacist-driven bivalirudin dosing protocol for anticoagulation in the setting of ECMO for COVID-19-associated respiratory failure...
July 29, 2021: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Khalid Sawalha, Kamesh Gupta, Anis John Kadado, Mohammed Abozenah, Ayman Battisha, Colby Salerno, Ahmad Khan, Ashequl M Islam
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve trans-catheter edge-to-edge repair (TEER) using MitraClip is a treatment option for patients with moderate to severe mitral regurgitation who are not surgical candidate. Liver cirrhosis is associated with higher operative morbidity and mortality however it is not part of preoperative risk assessments calculators. We sought to evaluate the in-hospital outcomes in TEER and SMVR in liver cirrhosis. METHODS: National Inpatient Database from 2013-2017 was used to obtain all patients with cirrhosis who underwent TEER or SMVR using ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes...
July 29, 2021: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Dieter Munker, Tobias Veit, Jürgen Barton, Pontus Mertsch, Carlo Mümmler, Andreas Osterman, Elham Khatamzas, Michaela Barnikel, Johannes C Hellmuth, Maximilian Münchhoff, Julia Walter, Alessandro Ghiani, Stefan Munker, Julien Dinkel, Jürgen Behr, Nikolaus Kneidinger, Katrin Milger
OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of pulmonary function impairment after COVID-19 in persistently symptomatic and asymptomatic patients of all disease severities and characterisation of risk factors. METHODS: Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection underwent prospective follow-up with pulmonary function testing and blood gas analysis during steady-state cycle exercise 4 months after acute illness. Pulmonary function impairment (PFI) was defined as reduction below 80% predicted of DLCOcSB, TLC, FVC, or FEV1...
July 28, 2021: Infection
Filip Hallgren, Martin Stenlo, Anna Niroomand, Ellen Broberg, Snejana Hyllén, Malin Malmsjö, Sandra Lindstedt
Introduction: Mechanical ventilation can be monitored by analysing particles in exhaled air as measured by particle flow rate (PFR). This could be a potential method of detecting ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) before changes in conventional parameters can be detected. The aim of this study was to investigate PFR during different ventilation modes in patients without lung pathology. Method: A prospective study was conducted on patients on mechanical ventilation in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (ICU)...
July 2021: ERJ Open Research
Waleed Burhamah, Iman Qahi, Melinda Oroszlányová, Sameera Shuaibi, Razan Alhunaidi, May Alduwailah, Maryam Alhenaidi, Zahraa Mohammad
BACKGROUND:  The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains today a global health pandemic. Those with severe infection are at risk of rapid clinical deterioration; as a result, intensive care unit (ICU) admission is not uncommon in such patients. A number of determinants have been identified as predictors of poor prognosis and in-hospital mortality, ranging from demographic characteristics, laboratory and/or radiological findings. AIM: To identify determinants of in-hospital mortality and examine the accuracy of seven early warning scores in predicting in-hospital mortality...
July 2021: Curēus
Imran M Omar, Ankur Garg
Purpose: Coronavirus-19 (COVID-19) is most commonly associated with respiratory syndromes, although patients are presenting more frequently with neurological symptoms. When they occur, neurological conditions most commonly involve the central nervous system, and peripheral nervous system effects, particularly in the extremities, have been less commonly described. The mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy in critically ill patients with COVID-19 are likely to be multifactorial, and extremity peripheral nerve imaging in these cases has not been well described...
2021: Polish Journal of Radiology
Yuzo Fujino, Kensuke Shiga, Masatoshi Hori, Aiko Tamura, Takahiro Iizuka
Introduction: Progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus (PERM) is a severe form of stiff-person spectrum disorder characterized by painful spasms, myoclonic jerks, hyperekplexia, brainstem dysfunction, and dysautonomia, which is sometimes resistant to γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA)-ergic agents. The response to immunotherapy varies depending on identified autoantibodies. We report a dramatic response to dexmedetomidine in a patient with glycine receptor (GlyR) antibody-positive PERM who developed intractable clusters of myoclonic jerks and paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) that was highly refractory to conventional symptomatic treatment with GABAergic drugs and immunotherapy...
2021: Frontiers in Neurology
Klara J Lohkamp, Amanda J Kiliaan, Justin Shenk, Vivienne Verweij, Maximilian Wiesmann
Stroke treatment is limited to time-critical thrombectomy and rehabilitation by physiotherapy. Studies report beneficial effects of exercise; however, a knowledge gap exists regarding underlying mechanisms that benefit recovery of brain networks and cognition. This study aims to unravel therapeutic effects of voluntary exercise in stroke-induced mice to develop better personalized treatments. Male C57Bl6/JOlaHsd mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. After surgery, the animals were divided in a voluntary exercise group with access to running wheels (RW), and a control group without running wheels (NRW)...
2021: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Alonso Soto, Dante M Quiñones-Laveriano, Faviola Valdivia, Eduardo Juscamayta-López, Johan Azañero-Haro, Liliana Chambi, Helen Horna, Gladys Patiño, Elizabet Guzman, Jhony A De la Cruz-Vargas
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the frequency of viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens detected by molecular methods in sputum samples of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 and to evaluate its impact on mortality and unfavorable outcomes (in-hospital death or mechanical ventilation). Patients and Methods: The prospective cohort included patients with diagnosis of COVID-19 hospitalized at Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected from clinical records...
2021: Infection and Drug Resistance
Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Saad Nseir
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current evidence of secondary pneumonias in COVID-19 patients, its incidence, risk factors and impact outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Early studies reported low incidence of hospital-acquired infections in COVID-19 patients. More recent large studies clearly showed that the incidence of secondary pneumonias was markedly high in patients under mechanical ventilation. Duration of mechanical ventilation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, prone position and male sex were identified as risk factors...
July 27, 2021: Current Opinion in Critical Care
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