Yunqi Liu, Ziwei Yin, Xueqin Xu, Chen Liu, Xiaoying Duan, Qinlan Song, Ying Tuo, Cuiping Wang, Jing Yang, Shengli Yin
AIMS: Previous reports indicated that the Slit2-Robo signalling pathway is involved in embryonic heart development and fibrosis in other solid organs, but its function in adult cardiac fibrosis has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the role of the Slit2-Robo1 signalling pathway in cardiac fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The right atrial tissue samples were obtained from patients with valvular heart disease complicated by atrial fibrillation during heart valve surgery and from healthy heart donors...
November 24, 2020: ESC Heart Failure
Ni Li, Linwen Zhu, Hua Zhou, Dawei Zheng, Guodong Xu, Lebo Sun, Jianqing Gao, Guofeng Shao
To determine whether up-regulation of miR-1183 targeting the gene for anti-apoptotic factor, B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) contributes to apoptosis in patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Peripheral blood samples were isolated for miR-1183 characterization. The function of miRNA-1183 in RHD using miRNA mimic on PBMCs and THP-1 cell models. The binding of miR-1183 and Bcl-2 gene was confirmed by luciferase activity test.We also measured expression levels of BCL-2 in heart valve tissue from patients with RHD using ELISA and immunohistochemistry...
October 19, 2020: Bioscience Reports
Marina A Heuschkel, Nikolaos T Skenteris, Joshua D Hutcheson, Dewy D van der Valk, Juliane Bremer, Philip Goody, Jesper Hjortnaes, Felix Jansen, Carlijn V C Bouten, Antoon van den Bogaerdt, Ljubica Matic, Nikolaus Marx, Claudia Goettsch
Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most prevalent valvular heart disease in the developed world, yet no pharmacological therapy exists. Here, we hypothesize that the integration of multiple omic data represents an approach towards unveiling novel molecular networks in CAVD. Databases were searched for CAVD omic studies. Differentially expressed molecules from calcified and control samples were retrieved, identifying 32 micro RNAs (miRNA), 596 mRNAs and 80 proteins. Over-representation pathway analysis revealed platelet degranulation and complement/coagulation cascade as dysregulated pathways...
September 24, 2020: Cells
Ming Fang, Kangyong Liu, Xinming Li, Yudai Wang, Wei Li, Bin Li
We aimed to investigate the role of the miR-29b and its effect on TGF-β3 pathway in vascular and valvular calcification in a rat model of calcific aortic valve diseases (CAVD). A rat model of CAVD was established by administration of warfarin plus vitamin K. The expression levels of miR-29b, osteogenic markers and other genes were determined by qRT-PCR, Western blot and/or immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. The calcium content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. The calcium content, ALP activity and osteogenic markers levels in calcified aorta and aortic valve were augmented compared to controls...
August 26, 2020: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Silvia Farkašová Iannaccone, Alžbeta Ginelliová, Dorota Sopková, Lucia Mistríková, Lucia Fröhlichová, Reinhard Dettmeyer, Daniel Farkaš
In this article, we report the autopsy findings of a 48-year-old man who sustained blunt trauma to the thorax. A medical record review revealed no history of cardiac disease. He presented to the hospital with a computed tomography-verified fracture of the left fourth and fifth ribs, and pulmonary and cardiac contusion. He was released from the hospital in stable condition at his own request 7 days later. Because of sudden deterioration, he was readmitted to the hospital the next day. Electrocardiogram detected cardiac arrhythmia on the 15th day after chest trauma...
July 24, 2020: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Kosuke Saku, Nobuhiro Tahara, Tohru Takaseya, Hiroyuki Otsuka, Kazuyoshi Takagi, Takahiro Shojima, Yusuke Shintani, Yasuyuki Zaima, Satoshi Kikusaki, Tomofumi Fukuda, Atsunobu Oryoji, Yuri Nishino, Takanori Matsui, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Jun Akiba, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Sho-Ichi Yamagishi, Hiroyuki Tanaka
Background Aortic stenosis (AS) is highly prevalent in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) play a pivotal role for vascular calcification in atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that the AGEs-RAGE axis could also be involved in the pathophysiological mechanism of calcified AS. Methods and Results A total of 54 patients with calcified AS who underwent aortic valve replacement were prospectively enrolled from 2014 to 2016 (mean age 75...
June 17, 2020: Journal of the American Heart Association
Jan Willem van Rijswijk, Hanna Talacua, Khadija Mulder, Gerardus P J van Hout, Carlijn V C Bouten, Paul F Gründeman, Jolanda Kluin
OBJECTIVE: Decellularized extracellular matrix made from porcine small intestinal submucosa, commercially available as CorMatrix (CorMatrix Cardiovascular, Inc, Roswell, Ga) is used off-label to reconstruct heart valves. Recently, surgeons experienced failures and words of caution were raised. The aim of this study was to evaluate decellularized porcine small intestinal submucosa as right-sided heart valved conduit in a xenogeneic animal model. METHODS: A pulmonary valve replacement was performed with custom-made valved conduits in 10 lambs and 10 sheep (1 month [3 lambs and 3 sheep], 3 months [3 lambs and 3 sheep], 6 months [4 lambs and 4 sheep])...
January 10, 2020: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Zhiwei Zhao, Danqing He, Fei Ling, Tianshu Chu, Dake Huang, Huaxun Wu, Jianjun Ge
The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of CD4+ T cells and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ1) in the pathological process of valvular hyperblastosis and fibrosis of patients with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). A total of 151 patients were enrolled, among whom, 78 patients were with RHD, and 73 were age and gender matched RHD negative patients. Blood samples and valve specimens were collected for analysis. Pathological changes and collagen fibers contents of valves were analyzed using HE and Masson staining...
February 13, 2020: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Ang Chen, Jianlin Wen, Chuanghong Lu, Beiyou Lin, Shenglin Xian, Feng Huang, Yunjiao Wu, Zhiyu Zeng
Autoimmunity is involved in the valvular damage caused by rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Increased evidence has linked microRNAs (miRNAs/miRs) to autoimmune disease. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and sphingosine‑1‑phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) have been widely studied for their roles in autoimmunity and inflammation. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the role played by miR‑155‑5p in RHD‑induced valvular damage via the S1PR1, SOCS1/STAT3 and interleukin (IL)‑6/STAT3 signaling pathways...
December 6, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Sunil Jit R J Logantha, Sanjay R Kharche, Yu Zhang, Andrew J Atkinson, Guoliang Hao, Mark R Boyett, Halina Dobrzynski
In adult mammalian hearts, atrioventricular rings (AVRs) surround the atrial orifices of atrioventricular valves and are hotbed of ectopic activity in patients with focal atrial tachycardia. Experimental data offering mechanistic insights into initiation and maintenance of ectopic foci is lacking. We aimed to characterise AVRs in structurally normal rat hearts, identify arrhythmia predisposition and investigate mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenicity. Extracellular potential mapping and intracellular action potential recording techniques were used for electrophysiology, qPCR for gene and, Western blot and immunohistochemistry for protein expression...
August 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alberto Zanatta, Elisa Carturan, Stefania Rizzo, Cristina Basso, Gaetano Thiene
Myocarditis was discovered as heart disease at autopsy with the use of microscope. In 1900, with the name of acute interstitial myocarditis, Carl Ludwig Alfred Fiedler first reported the history of a sudden cardiac heart failure, in the absence of coronary, valve, pericardial disease or classical specific infections with multiorgan involvement. He postulated a peculiar isolated acute inflammation of the myocardium with poor prognosis due to invisible microorganisms, which years later would have been identified as viruses...
November 1, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Miguel A Ortega, Ángel Asúnsolo, Beatriz Romero, María J Álvarez-Rocha, Felipe Sainz, Javier Leal, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Julia Buján, Natalio García-Honduvilla
Chronic venous disorder (CVeD), is a disorder in which there is a modification in the conditions of blood return to the heart. The disorder may arise from incompetent valves and the resultant venous reflux (chronic venous insufficiency, CVI). The economic burden of CVeD on health systems is high, and research efforts have sought to elucidate the mechanisms involved as possible therapeutic targets. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) enzymes mediate a wide array of physiopathological processes in human tissues...
June 14, 2019: Cells, Tissues, Organs
Sharon H Kim, Michael J Thomas, Dayong Wu, Christopher V Carman, José M Ordovás, Mohsen Meydani
BACKGROUND: Commonly consumed mushrooms, portobello (PBM) and shiitake (SHM), are abundant in nutrients, soluble dietary fibers, and bioactive compounds that have been implicated as beneficial in reducing inflammation, improving lipid profiles, and ameliorating heart disease and atherosclerosis, an inflammatory disease of the arteries. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine effects of PBM and SHM in preventing atherosclerosis and associated inflammation in an animal model...
June 4, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Mengyao Yu, Adrien Georges, Nathan R Tucker, Sergiy Kyryachenko, Katelyn Toomer, Jean-Jacques Schott, Francesca N Delling, Leticia Fernandez-Friera, Jorge Solis, Patrick T Ellinor, Robert A Levine, Susan A Slaugenhaupt, Albert A Hagège, Christian Dina, Xavier Jeunemaitre, David J Milan, Russell A Norris, Nabila Bouatia-Naji
Background Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a common heart valve disease, the most frequent indication for valve repair or replacement. MVP is characterized by excess extracellular matrix secretion and cellular disorganization, which leads to bulky valves that are unable to coapt correctly during ventricular systole resulting in mitral regurgitation, and it is associated with sudden cardiac death. Here we aim to characterize globally the biological mechanisms underlying genetic susceptibility to MVP to better characterize its triggering mechanisms...
May 2019: Circulation. Genomic and Precision Medicine
Reza Khorramirouz, Jason L Go, Christopher Noble, David Morse, Amir Lerman, Melissa D Young
Current heart valve prostheses have limitations that include durability, inability to grow in pediatric patients, and lifelong anticoagulation. Transcatheter aortic valve replacements are minimally invasive procedures, and therefore have emerged as an alternative to traditional valve prostheses. In this experiment, the regenerative capacity of potential tissue engineered transcatheter valve scaffolds (1) acellular porcine pericardium and (2) mesenchymal stem cell-seeded acellular porcine pericardium were compared to native porcine aortic valve cusps in a rat subcutaneous model for up to 8 weeks...
January 31, 2019: Scientific Reports
Alina Schulz, Jana Brendler, Orest Blaschuk, Kathrin Landgraf, Martin Krueger, Albert M Ricken
In the heart, unidirectional blood flow depends on proper heart valve function. As, in mammals, regulatory mechanisms of early heart valve and bone development are shown to contribute to adult heart valve pathologies, we used the animal model zebrafish (ZF, Danio rerio) to investigate the microarchitecture and differentiation of cardiac valve interstitial cells in the transition from juvenile (35 days) to end of adult breeding (2.5 years) stages. Of note, light microscopy and immunohistochemistry revealed major differences in ZF heart valve microarchitecture when compared with adult mice...
January 8, 2019: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Edme Roxana Mustafa, Diana Rodica Tudoraşcu, Alina Giucă, Despina Manuela Toader, Maria Camelia Foarfă, Ileana Puiu, Anca Maria Istrate-Ofiţeru
A 46-year-old female diagnosed several years ago with arterial hypertension and an ischemic stroke with significant recovery was admitted for dyspnea on usual physical activity and fatigue. Physical examination revealed signs of heart failure with crackles on both lung bases, distented jugular veins, accentuated pulmonic valve closure (P2) and tricuspid regurgitation murmur. Echocardiography identified a large tumor in the left atrium, suggestive of atrial myxoma, which caused a severe functional mitral stenosis and produced severe pulmonary hypertension...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Joshua C Peterson, Mary Chughtai, Lambertus J Wisse, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Qingping Feng, Marie-José T H Goumans, J Conny VanMunsteren, Monique R M Jongbloed, Marco C DeRuiter
The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), a valve with two instead of three aortic leaflets, belongs to the most prevalent congenital heart diseases in the world, occurring in 0.5-2% of the general population. We aimed to understand how changes in early cellular contributions result in BAV formation and impact cardiovascular outflow tract development. Detailed 3D reconstructions, immunohistochemistry and morphometrics determined that, during valvulogenesis, the non-coronary leaflet separates from the parietal outflow tract cushion instead of originating from an intercalated cushion...
October 19, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Ewa Kaniewska-Bednarczuk, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Padmini Sarathchandra, Iwona Pelikant-Malecka, Alicja Sielicka, Izabela Piotrowska, Ewa M Slominska, Adrian H Chester, Magdi H Yacoub, Ryszard T Smolenski
BACKGROUND: The calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a common heart pathology that involves inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification of aortic valve leaflets. All these processes could be affected by changes in the extracellular purinergic signaling that depend on the activity of ectonucleotidases, mainly ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (CD39, eNTPD1) and ecto-5'nucleotidase (CD73, e5NT). OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: We investigated the localization of CD39 and CD73 proteins in human noncalcified and calcified aortic valves using immunohistochemistry together with analysis of NTPDases and e5NT activities in aortic valve homogenates by analysis of substrate into product conversion by high-performance liquid chromatography...
September 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Piotr Wilczek, Gach Paulina, Jendryczko Karolina, Marcisz Martyna, Wilczek Grazyna, Major Roman, Mzyk Aldona, Sypien Anna, Samotus Aneta
Currently available bioprosthetic heart valves have been successfully used clinically; however, they have several limitations. Alternatively, tissue-engineering techniques can be used. However, there are limited data concerning the impact of storage conditions of scaffolds on their biomechanics and morphology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different storage conditions on the biomechanics and morphology of pulmonary valve dedicated for the acellular scaffold preparation to achieve optimal conditions to obtain stable heart valve prostheses...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
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