Prashant Joshi, Rahul Shrivastava, Sachin Bhagwat, Mahesh Patel
Cefepime/zidebactam is a β-lactam/β-lactam-enhancer based novel antibiotic which is in clinical development for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, in vitro activity of cefepime/zidebactam was determined against multicentre Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates co-expressing serine and/or metallo-carbapenemases and defective OmpK35 and OmpK36 porins. The MICs were determined using the reference broth microdilution method. Outer membrane protein expression was assessed using SDS-PAGE and mutations in the genes encoding OmpK35 and OmpK36 were identified by DNA sequencing...
July 9, 2021: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Fabian Leo, Marwin Bannehr, Swantje Valenta, Madlen Lippeck, Sebastian Pachl, Michaela Steib-Bauert, Hannes Semper, Christian Grohé
BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients, the duration of antibiotic therapy for uncomplicated pneumonia is often longer than recommended in clinical guidelines. Consequences include increased risk of Clostridioides difficile infection and the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Reducing the duration of antibiotic therapy is an important goal of antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programs. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a computerized physician order entry (CPOE)-based ABS intervention on treatment duration in respiratory infections and on antibiotic use...
July 24, 2021: Respiratory Medicine
Philipp Foessleitner, Konrad Hoetzenecker, Alberto Benazzo, Katrin Klebermass-Schrehof, Anke Scharrer, Herbert Kiss, Alex Farr
Pregnant women with influenza-A have an increased risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as salvage therapy, with lung transplantation as a therapeutic option. However, successful bilateral lung transplantation during pregnancy has never been reported before. We herein report the case of a 34-year-old primipara, who was diagnosed with acute ARDS caused by influenza-A-induced pneumonia at early gestation. After considering all possible therapeutic options and being fully dependent on VV-ECMO support, she underwent bilateral lung transplantation...
July 31, 2021: American Journal of Transplantation
Victor Hugo Brunaldi Marutani, Flávia Miyabe, Alice Fernandes Alfieri, Camila Domit, Andressa Maria Rorato Nascimento de Matos, Mário Roberto Castro Meira Filho, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense
Cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was identified as the etiologic agent of several epizootic episodes worldwide. Most of these studies are based on unusual mortality events or identification of new viral strains. We investigated the occurrence of CeMV under non-epizootic circumstances at a world heritage in Southern Brazil by a combination of pathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular assays. From 325 stranded cetaceans, 40 were included. Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) was the species most frequent. Interstitial pneumonia and non-suppurative encephalitis were the main pathologic findings associated to CeMV infection...
July 30, 2021: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
S Bobbadi, Ch B Kiranmayi, P N Reddy, S Kandhan
In this study, 504 urine samples collected from patients suffering from UTIs were screened for presence of K. pneumoniae. The overall occurrence of Klebsiella spp. and K. pneumoniae was found to be 23.2% (117/504) and 16.8% (85/504) respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 85 K. pneumoniae isolates was carried out by disc diffusion which revealed alarming levels of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance was prominently observed against cefpodoxime (76.47%) followed by ampicillin (70.59%), ceftriaxone (52...
July 31, 2021: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Jinfeng Bao, Yating Ma, Mengshan Ding, Chi Wang, Gaofei Du, Yuan Zhou, Ling Guo, Haiquan Kang, Chengbin Wang, Bing Gu
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKP) bloodstream infections (BSI) must be rapidly identified to improve patient survival rates. This study investigated a new mass spectrometry-based method for improving the identification of CRKP BSI and explored potential biomarkers that could differentiate CRKP BSI from sensitive. METHODS: Mouse models of BSI were first established. MALDI-TOF MS was then used to profile serum peptides in CRKP BSI versus normal samples before applying BioExplorer software to establish a diagnostic model to distinguish CRKP from normal...
July 31, 2021: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Benjamin Swinson, Peadar S Waters, Laurence Webber, Les Nathanson, David J Cavallucci, Nicholas O'Rourke, Richard D Bryant
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive splenectomy is now well established for a wide range of pathologies. Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly being recognised as a complication of splenectomy. The aim was to determine the incidence and risk factors for PVT after laparoscopic splenectomy. METHODS: All cases of elective laparoscopic splenectomy performed from 1993 to 2020 were reviewed. Parameters recorded included demographics, diagnostic criterion and post-operative outcomes...
July 30, 2021: Surgical Endoscopy
Nicholas G Housden, Melissa N Webby, Edward D Lowe, Tarick J El-Baba, Renata Kaminska, Christina Redfield, Carol V Robinson, Colin Kleanthous
Bacteria often secrete diffusible protein toxins (bacteriocins) to kill bystander cells during interbacterial competition. Here, we use biochemical, biophysical and structural analyses to show how a bacteriocin exploits TolC, a major outer-membrane antibiotic efflux channel in Gram-negative bacteria, to transport itself across the outer membrane of target cells. Klebicin C (KlebC), a rRNase toxin produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae, binds TolC of a related species (K. quasipneumoniae) with high affinity through an N-terminal, elongated helical hairpin domain common amongst bacteriocins...
July 30, 2021: Nature Communications
Alícia Sales Carneiro, Thiago Thomaz Mafort, Agnaldo José Lopes
BACKGROUND There is growing concern about the clinical course of certain diseases in patients who are simultaneously infected by SARS-CoV-2. This report is of a 34-year-old woman from Brazil with a recent diagnosis of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) diagnosed by raised serum VEGF-D levels and the finding of lung cysts on computed tomography (CT) imaging, who presented with COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE REPORT Five months after the diagnosis of pulmonary LAM, which was based on the presence of diffuse and bilateral cystic lesions on CT scan associated with high serum VEGF-D levels, the patient presented with worsening dyspnea, drop in peripheral oxygen oxygenation, fever, and diffuse myalgia...
July 31, 2021: American Journal of Case Reports
Yu-Chin Chen, Wei-Yu Chen, Wei-Yun Hsu, Hung-Jen Tang, Yun Chou, Yi-Hsin Chang, Chi-Chung Chen, Yin-Ching Chuang, Tu-Hsuan Chang
PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to assess the geographic distribution and molecular characteristics of β-lactamases among Enterobacterales isolates causing intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) from 2015 to 2018 in the Asia-Pacific region. METHOD: Isolates were investigated for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC β-lactamases, and carbapenemases using multiplex PCR assays and full-gene DNA sequencing. RESULT: A total of 832 Enterobacterales isolates from 8 different countries with β-lactamase genes were analysed...
July 21, 2021: Journal of Microbiology Immunology and Infection
Zohra Ahmad, Sneha Goswami, Ambikapathi Paneerselvam, Kaviraj Kabilan, Himanshu Chowdhury, Ambuj Roy, Randeep Guleria, Kapil Dev Soni, Udismita Baruah, Chandan J Das
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease has rapidly spread around the world after initial identification in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Most common presentation is mild or asymptomatic disease, followed by pneumonia, and rarely- multiorgan failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). Knowledge about the pathophysiology, imaging and treatment of this novel virus is rapidly evolving due to ongoing worldwide research. Most common imaging modalities utilized during this pandemic are chest radiography and HRCT with findings of bilateral peripheral, mid and lower zone GGO and/or consolidation, vascular enlargement and crazy paving...
July 5, 2021: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
M Granell-Gil, M Murcia-Anaya, S Sevilla, R Martínez-Plumed, E Biosca-Pérez, F Cózar-Bernal, I Garutti, L Gallart, B Ubierna-Ferreras, I Sukia-Zilbeti, C Gálvez-Muñoz, M Delgado-Roel, L Mínguez, S Bermejo, O Valencia, M Real, C Unzueta, C Ferrando, F Sánchez, S González, C Ruiz-Villén, A Lluch, A Hernández, J Hernández-Beslmeisl, M Vives, R Vicente
The introduction of video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) techniques has led to a new approach in thoracic surgery. VATS is performed by inserting a thoracoscope through a small incisions in the chest wall, thus maximizing the preservation of muscle and tissue. Because of its low rate of morbidity and mortality, VATS is currently the technique of choice in most thoracic procedures. Lung resection by VATS reduces prolonged air leaks, arrhythmia, pneumonia, postoperative pain and inflammatory markers. This reduction in postoperative complications shortens hospital length of stay, and is particularly beneficial in high-risk patients with low tolerance to thoracotomy...
July 27, 2021: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
Meher Rizvi, Hiba Sami, Mohammad Azam, Dhoha Ben Khalid, Zaaima Al Jabri, Fatima Khan, Asfia Sultan, Anuradha Singh, Nusrat Perween, Munawer Al Quraini, Zakariya Al Muharrmi, Syed G Rizvi
PURPOSE: Carbapenem inactivation method (CIM) and modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM) were recently developed for rapid detection of carbapenemase producing Gram negative bacilli (CP-GNB). In this study we compared the ability of modified Hodge test (MHT), CIM and mCIM to identify CP-GNB in Oman and India. METHODS: Fifty fully characterized and genotyped CP-GNB (26 OXA-48-like, 2 NDM-1 from Oman and 22 NDM-1 from India) and 8 AmpC as controls in India were subjected to MHT, CIM, mCIM and mCIM with in-house modifications...
July 27, 2021: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
M Elena Carrillo Alcalá, Jesús Minaya Saiz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spain has been one of the countries most affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The objective of this study is to describe the characteristics of the patients treated for COVID-19 at Guadarrama Hospital and to identify the associated mortality factors in those admitted in an acute situation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective observational study of COVID-19 patients admitted from 3/15 to 5/15/2020. Sociodemographic, mental, functional, analytical, clinical, radiological and therapeutic variables were collected...
May 21, 2021: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Hideki Ikeda
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Amino acids play an important role in immune responses and as neurotransmitters. During the course of a bacterial pneumonia episode, from the onset to the recovery phase, immune responses dramatically change, as does the metabolism of amino acids, a concept referred to as immuno-nutrition. We investigated the differences in plasma amino acid levels (PAA) between the acute and recovery phases in individuals with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and healthy controls...
August 2021: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Kinshuk Sengupta, Praveen Ranjan Srivastava
BACKGROUND: In medical diagnosis and clinical practice, diagnosing a disease early is crucial for accurate treatment, lessening the stress on the healthcare system. In medical imaging research, image processing techniques tend to be vital in analyzing and resolving diseases with a high degree of accuracy. This paper establishes a new image classification and segmentation method through simulation techniques, conducted over images of COVID-19 patients in India, introducing the use of Quantum Machine Learning (QML) in medical practice...
July 30, 2021: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Sami K Kishawi, Vanessa P Ho, Katelynn C Bachman, Christine E Alvarado, Stephanie G Worrell, Luis M Argote-Greene, Philip A Linden, Christopher W Towe
PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that patients with multiple rib fractures have poor outcomes, but it is unknown how isolated single rib fractures (SRF) are associated with morbidity or mortality. We hypothesized that patients with poor outcomes after SRF can be identified by demographics and comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to model adverse outcome after single rib fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the 2016 National Inpatient Sample to identify patients with SRF associated with blunt trauma using ICD-10 coding...
July 27, 2021: Journal of Surgical Research
Vanya Gant, Abid Hussain, Malcolm Bain, Christopher Longshaw, Anne Santerre Henriksen
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of Gram-negative bacteria demonstrating extensive, multiple antimicrobial resistance is increasing in England, leaving few treatment choices. Cefiderocol is a novel siderophore cephalosporin approved in Europe for the treatment of aerobic Gram-negative infections in adults with limited treatment options. We report pooled data for a clinical isolate set collected in England between 2014-2018. METHODS: Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by broth microdilution according to International Organization for Standardization guidelines...
July 27, 2021: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Stephen Hawser, Nimmi Kothari, Noëlle Jemmely, Nowel Redder
BACKGROUND: Ceftobiprole is approved for use in treatment of hospital-associated and community-acquired pneumonia in 17 different European countries and is currently undergoing clinical trials in the USA. METHODS: Isolates were collected from hospital laboratories from 15 European countries during 2018 as part of an ongoing post-marketing surveillance study. MICs were determined using EUCAST broth microdilution methodology and interpreted using 2019 EUCAST breakpoints...
July 27, 2021: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Oyunchimeg Zandraa, Fahanwi Asabuwa Ngwabebhoh, Rahul Patwa, Hau Trung Nguyen, Marjan Motiei, Nabanita Saha, Tomas Saha, Petr Saha
In this study, an antimicrobial mumio-based hydrogel dressing was developed for wound healing application. The mechanism of gel formation was achieved via a double crosslink network formation between gelatin (GT) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using polyethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) and borax as crosslinking agents. To enhance the mechanical integrity of the hydrogel matrix, bacterial cellulose (BC) was integrated into the GT-PVA hydrogel to produce a composite gel dressing. The obtained hydrogel was characterized by FTIR, SEM, TGA, and XRD...
July 27, 2021: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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