Stephanie L Santoro, Brian Chicoine, Joan M Jasien, Judy Lu Kim, Mary Stephens, Peter Bulova, George Capone
Pneumonia and respiratory infections impact infants and children with Down syndrome; pneumonia is a leading cause of mortality in adults with Down syndrome. We aimed to review the literature to evaluate gaps and address key questions. A series of key questions were formulated a priori to inform the search strategy and review process; addressed prevalence, severity, etiology, risk factors, preventive methods, screening, and financial costs, potential benefits or harms of screening. Using the National Library of Medicine database, PubMed, detailed literature searches on pneumonia and respiratory infections in Down syndrome were performed...
October 19, 2020: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
N K Abd El-Aziz, A A Gharib, E A A Mohamed, A H Hussein
AIMS: This study was applied to evaluate the usefulness of a high-throughput sample preparation protocol prior to the application of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for the early diagnosis of bloodstream and pyogenic infections in humans and animals compared to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and classical culture. METHODS AND RESULTS: Saponin-mediated selective host cell lysis combined with DNase-1 was applied for processing of whole blood and pus clinical samples collected from suspected cases of septicaemia and pyogenic infections in humans and animals...
October 18, 2020: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Charles W Stratton, Yi-Wei Tang, Hongzhou Lu
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) now is considered a global public health emergency. One of the unprecedented challenges is defining optimal therapy for those patients with severe pneumonia and systemic manifestations of COVID-19. Optimal therapy should be largely based on the pathogenesis of infections caused by this novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since the onset of COVID-19, there have been many prepublications and publications reviewing the therapy of COVID-19 as well as many prepublications and publications reviewing the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2...
October 19, 2020: Journal of Medical Virology
Sonali Sachdeva, Rupak Desai, Udita Gupta, Anupam Prakash, Abhinav Jain, Ankita Aggarwal
In the latter part of 2019, a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases were reported in Wuhan, China. In less than a year, SARS-CoV-2 has infected over 27 million people and claimed more than 800,000 deaths worldwide. Diabetes is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease, and recent reports have suggested a possible existence of COVID-19 related new-onset diabetes. Hyperglycemia induces an inflammatory state in the body, which coupled with coronavirus associated immune response is a possible explanation for clinical worsening of patients...
October 12, 2020: SN comprehensive clinical medicine
Rasha A Azzam, Rasha E Elsayed, Galal H Elgemeie
A new strategy for designing and assembling a novel class of functionalized pyridine-based benzothiazole and benzimidazole incorporating sulfonamide moieties was developed. The synthesis was carried out by reacting N -cyanoacetoarylsulfonylhydrazide with various electrophiles such as 2-(benzo[ d ]thiazol-2-yl)-3,3-bis(alkylthio)acrylonitriles and 2-(benzo[ d ]imidazol-2-yl)-3,3-bis(methylthio)-acrylonitriles, as well as 2-ethoxyl acrylonitrile derivatives. The synthesized compounds were tested for their antiviral and antimicrobial potency...
October 13, 2020: ACS Omega
Timothé Ménard, Rich Bowling, Pooja Mehta, Björn Koneswarakantha, Eileen Magruder
The world has seen a shift in the ways of working during the Covid-19 pandemic. Routine activities performed at the clinical investigator sites (e.g. on-site audits) that are a part of Quality Assurance (QA) have not been feasible at this time. Analytics has played a huge role in contributing to our continued efforts of ensuring quality during the conduct of a clinical trial. Decisions driven through data, now more than ever, heavily contribute to the efficiency of QA activities. In this report, we share the approach we took to conduct QA activities for the COVACTA study (to treat Covid-19 pneumonia) by leveraging analytics...
December 2020: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Francesco Salton, Paola Confalonieri, G Umberto Meduri, Pierachille Santus, Sergio Harari, Raffaele Scala, Simone Lanini, Valentina Vertui, Tiberio Oggionni, Antonella Caminati, Vincenzo Patruno, Mario Tamburrini, Alessandro Scartabellati, Mara Parati, Massimiliano Villani, Dejan Radovanovic, Sara Tomassetti, Claudia Ravaglia, Venerino Poletti, Andrea Vianello, Anna Talia Gaccione, Luca Guidelli, Rita Raccanelli, Paolo Lucernoni, Donato Lacedonia, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro, Stefano Centanni, Michele Mondoni, Matteo Davì, Alberto Fantin, Xueyuan Cao, Lucio Torelli, Antonella Zucchetto, Marcella Montico, Annalisa Casarin, Micaela Romagnoli, Stefano Gasparini, Martina Bonifazi, Pierlanfranco D'Agaro, Alessandro Marcello, Danilo Licastro, Barbara Ruaro, Maria Concetta Volpe, Reba Umberger, Marco Confalonieri
Background: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. Methods: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units...
October 2020: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Sachin Chaudhary, Bhupinder Natt, Christian Bime, Kenneth S Knox, Marilyn K Glassberg
After decades of research, two therapies for chronic fibrotic lung disease are now approved by the FDA, with dozens more anti-fibrotic therapies in the pipeline. A great deal of enthusiasm has been generated for the use of these drugs, which are by no means curative but clearly have a favorable impact on lung function decline over time. Amidst a flurry of newly developed and repurposed drugs to treat the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its accompanying acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), few have emerged as effective...
2020: Frontiers in Medicine
Chao Jin, Cong Tian, Yan Wang, Carol C Wu, Huifang Zhao, Ting Liang, Zhe Liu, Zhijie Jian, Runqing Li, Zekun Wang, Fen Li, Jie Zhou, Shubo Cai, Yang Liu, Hao Li, Zhongyi Li, Yukun Liang, Heping Zhou, Xibin Wang, Zhuanqin Ren, Jian Yang
Background: As global healthcare system is overwhelmed by novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), early identification of risks of adverse outcomes becomes the key to optimize management and improve survival. This study aimed to provide a CT-based pattern categorization to predict outcome of COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: One hundred and sixty-five patients with COVID-19 (91 men, 4-89 years) underwent chest CT were retrospectively enrolled. CT findings were categorized as Pattern 0 (negative), Pattern 1 (bronchopneumonia pattern), Pattern 2 (organizing pneumonia pattern), Pattern 3 (progressive organizing pneumonia pattern), and Pattern 4 (diffuse alveolar damage pattern)...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Rendani I Manenzhe, Felix S Dube, Meredith Wright, Katie Lennard, Stephanie Mounaud, Stephanie W Lo, Heather J Zar, William C Nierman, Mark P Nicol, Clinton Moodley
Background: There remains a significant proportion of deaths due to pneumococcal pneumonia in infants from low- and middle-income countries despite the marginal global declines recorded in the past decade. Monitoring changes in pneumococcal carriage is key to understanding vaccination-induced shifts in the ecology of carriage, patterns of antimicrobial resistance, and impact on health. We longitudinally investigated pneumococcal carriage dynamics in PCV-13 vaccinated infants by collecting nasopharyngeal (NP) samples at 2-weekly intervals from birth through the first year of life from 137 infants...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Mark Christopher Arokiaraj
Aims and objectives: The pandemic of COVID-19 is evolving worldwide, and it is associated with high mortality and morbidity. There is a growing need to discuss the elements of a coordinated strategy to control the spread and mitigate the severity of COVID-19. H1N1 and Streptococcus pneumonia vaccines are available. The current analysis was performed to analyze the severity of COVID-19 and influenza (H1N1) vaccination in adults ≥ 65. Also, to correlate the lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), and influenza attributable to the lower respiratory tract infections' incidence with Covid-19 mortality...
2020: Frontiers in Public Health
Hasti Hossein, Kosar Mohamed Ali, Mostafa Hosseini, Arash Sarveazad, Saeed Safari, Mahmoud Yousefifard
Purpose: Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computed tomography (CT) scan are main diagnostic modalities of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is still no consensus on which of these methods is superior to the other. Therefore, the present meta-analysis was designed to answer to the question whether CT scan can be used in diagnosis of COVID-19 or not. Methods: Searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until the end of April 2020...
October 12, 2020: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Juan Carlos Alvarez Moreno, Michael Pagacz, Odille Mejia, Kei-Shing Oh, Ana Maria Medina
Collecting duct carcinoma is a rare neoplasm of the kidney, accounting for only 1-2% of renal tumors. These tumors arise from the principal cells of the renal collecting ducts of Bellini. The majority of patients have lymph node involvement and metastases to lungs, liver, bone, adrenal glands, and brain. We present a case of a 48 year old woman who came to the hospital with a clinical presentation suspicious for pneumonia. One week later her symptoms aggravated. A CT chest and abdominal imaging showed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, and left hydroureteronephrosis...
2020: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Xiaofei Chen, Yunlong Wu, Chun Chen, Yanqiu Gu, Chunyan Zhu, Suping Wang, Jiayun Chen, Lei Zhang, Lei Lv, Guoqing Zhang, Yongfang Yuan, Yifeng Chai, Mingshe Zhu, Caisheng Wu
Lianhuaqingwen (LHQW) capsule, a herb medicine product, has been clinically proved to be effective in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia treatment. However, human exposure to LHQW components and their pharmacological effects remain largely unknown. Hence, this study aimed to determine human exposure to LHQW components and their anti-COVID-19 pharmacological activities. Analysis of LHQW component profiles in human plasma and urine after repeated therapeutic dosing was conducted using a combination of HRMS and an untargeted data-mining approach, leading to detection of 132 LHQW prototype and metabolite components, which were absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and formed via biotransformation in human, respectively...
October 10, 2020: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
Murat Yassa, Memiş Ali Mutlu, Erkan Kalafat, Pınar Birol, Cihangir Yirmibeş, Arzu Bilge Tekin, Kemal Sandal, Esra Ayanoğlu, Mahmut Yassa, Ceyhun Kılınç, Niyazi Tug
Objective: Evidence for the use of lung ultrasound scan (LUS) examinations in coronavirus 2019 pneumonia is rapidly growing. The safe and non-ionizing nature of LUS drew attention, particularly for pregnant women. This study aimed to contribute to the interpretation of LUS findings in pregnant women for the obstetricians. Materials and Methods: LUS was performed to pregnant women suspected of or diagnosed as having Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the first 24 hours of admission...
September 2020: Turkish Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Souheil Zayet, Timothee Klopfenstein, Chaouki Mezher, Vincent Gendrin, Thierry Conrozier, Yousri Ben Abdallah
•Complications such as pneumomediastinum and/or pneumothorax during the course of COVID-19 remain rare and their mechanism is poorly described.•We present a case of COVID-19 pneumonia associated with spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in an immunocompetent patient with no past history of smoking or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).•This is the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema due to COVID-19 in France.•The only risk factor of this patient was prolonged cough...
October 14, 2020: New Microbes and New Infections
Ahilanandan Dushianthan, Martin Knight, Peter Russell, Michael Pw Grocott
Background: Perioperative goal-directed haemodynamic therapy (GDHT), defined as the administration of fluids with or without inotropes or vasoactive agents against explicit measured goals to augment blood flow, has been evaluated in many randomised controlled trials (RCTs) over the past four decades. Reported post-operative pulmonary complications commonly include chest infection or pneumonia, atelectasis, acute respiratory distress syndrome or acute lung injury, aspiration pneumonitis, pulmonary embolism, and pulmonary oedema...
2020: Perioperative Medicine
Donya Shahedi Damavandi, Mina Javan, Hamidreza Moshashaei, Mojgan Forootan, Mohammad Darvishi
Surgery site infection is one of the most common postoperative complications which is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and admission costs. It is considered a priority to determine the level of nosocomial infection and its control in reflecting the quality of care. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the microbial contamination after cardiac surgery at a hospital cardiac surgery ward of Besat Hospital, Tehran. In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study (2013-2017), 610 patients underwent surgery at the Department of Cardiac Surgery of Besat Hospital...
July 2020: Journal of Medicine and Life
Zhengang Tao, Lei Zhang, Thomas Friedemann, Guangshan Yang, Jinhu Li, Yaocai Wen, Jinghui Wang, Aizong Shen
The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-caused pneumonia (Coronavirus disease -19, COVID-19), has resulted in a global health emergency. However, there is no vaccine or effective antiviral treatment against the newly emerged coronavirus and identifying the available therapeutics as soon as possible is critical for the response to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC), a well-known prescription of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China, has been widely used in treating upper respiratory tract infections and acute lung injury, owing to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects...
October 12, 2020: Journal of Functional Foods
Narasimha M Beeraka, Surya P Sadhu, SubbaRao V Madhunapantula, Rajeswara Rao Pragada, Andrey A Svistunov, Vladimir N Nikolenko, Liudmila M Mikhaleva, Gjumrakch Aliev
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) induced Coronavirus Disease - 19 (COVID-19) cases have been increasing at an alarming rate (7.4 million positive cases as on June 11 2020), causing high mortality (4,17,956 deaths as on June 11 2020) and economic loss (a 3.2% shrink in global economy in 2020) across 212 countries globally. The clinical manifestations of this disease are pneumonia, lung injury, inflammation, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Currently, there is no vaccine or effective pharmacological agents available for the prevention/treatment of SARS-CoV2 infections...
2020: Frontiers in Immunology
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