Sajjad Ali, Omar Sufyan Khan, Amira M Youssef, Iram Saba, Leena Alqahtani, Renad Abdulaziz Alduhaim, Renad Almesned
BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have demonstrated a correlation between a high body mass index and discriminatory COVID-19 outcomes. Studies appear to indicate that there is a correlation between obesity-related comorbidities and less favorable outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the current investigation is to conduct a thorough assessment of the correlation between BMI and comorbidities associated with obesity, and their potential impact on the severity and consequences of COVID-19 infection among patients receiving care in a tertiary healthcare setting...
2024: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Abdulmajed Almutairi, Farhan Alenezi, Hani Tamim, Musharaf Sadat, Felwa Bin Humaid, Amal AlMatrood, Yadullah Syed, Yaseen Arabi
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and sepsis. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and mortality and healthcare costs. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of AKI in patients with CAP requiring mechanical ventilation and evaluate its association with inhospital mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort...
2024: Annals of Saudi Medicine
Andrea L Huseth-Zosel, Heather Fuller, Paul J Carson
Despite increased risk of morbidity and mortality among older adults due to preventable infectious diseases such as influenza, shingles, pneumonia, and COVID-19, many forego receiving some, if not all, of these vaccinations. This study examines vaccination motivators and deterrents for undervaccinated older adults in North Dakota (ND). Adults aged 65+ in ND were mailed a survey (n = 901) with questions gauging vaccination behaviors and perceptions, with 132 of these indicating not receiving certain vaccinations...
April 13, 2024: Journal of Community Health
Yan Yu-E, Liu Zhi-Qin, Lei Hui, Di Zheng-Li, Zhang Fang, Yong Fang
A 63-year-old man developed reduced consciousness and dysphagia progressively. Examination and parameters were normal, except for a Glasgow Coma Scale score of seven, and his grading on the swallow water test increased from grade 1 to grade 5. Brain imaging and blood tests were unexplainable except by high plasma ammonia. His past medical history included cerebral infarction, hypertension and epilepsy induced by cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. He was rceiving antiepileptic treatment of continuously intravenously pumped sodium valproate of 64 mg/h for 4 days, which overlapped for 12 hours with taking 500 mg sustained release tablets...
May 2023: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Ting Zhang, Xiao-Ling Duan, Yu-Xia Chen, Ying Feng, Qin-Rong Huang, Xiang Tang, Li Lin, Nong Xiao
BACKGROUND: Most children with neurocritical illness are at risk of physical, neurocognitive, and psychosocial sequelae and need centralized early rehabilitation care. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effectiveness and safety of centralized early rehabilitation care for children with severe acquired brain injury. METHODS: This is a mixed methods study-an implementation study and single-center retrospective cohort study with historical control. All children with severe acquired brain injury hospitalized in a specialized rehabilitation center in a comprehensive tertiary pediatric hospital between September 2016 and August 2020 were included...
2024: Science Progress
Atsushi Koike, Kaoruko Hayashi, Ko Fujimori
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the severe form of interstitial pneumonias. Acute exacerbation (AE) of IPF is characterized by progressive lung fibrosis with the irreversible lung function decline and inflammation, and is often fatal with poor prognosis. However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms in AE of IPF are still not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanism underlying AE of IPF, using bleomycin (BLM) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (BLM+LPS)-treated mice. The mice were treated with a single dose of 1...
April 11, 2024: European Journal of Pharmacology
E Giuliani Meredith, Edith Filion, Sergio Faria, Vijayananda Kundapur, Toni Vu Thi Trinh Thuc, Benjamin H Lok, Srinivas Raman, Houda Bahig, Joanna M Laba, Pencilla Lang, Alexander V Louie, Andrew Hope, George B Rodrigues, Andrea Bezjak, Marie-Pierre Campeau, Marie Duclos, Scott Bratman, Anand Swaminath, Rohan Salunkhe, Andrew Warner, David A Palma
INTRODUCTION: The use of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumors in close proximity to the central mediastinal structures has been associated with a high risk of toxicity. This study (BLINDED FOR REVIEW) aimed to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) of SBRT for ultra-central (UC) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), using a time-to-event continual reassessment methodology (TITE-CRM). METHODS: Patients with T1-3N0M0 (≤ 6 cm) NSCLC were eligible...
April 11, 2024: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ling Ai, Beizhong Liu, Liang Fang, Chanjuan Zhou, Fang Gong
PURPOSE: The COVID-19 pandemic has notably altered the infection dynamics of various pathogens. This study aimed to evaluate the pandemic's impact on the infection spectrum of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) among children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: We enrolled pediatric CAP patients admitted to a tertiary hospital in southwest China to compare the prevalence and characteristics of M. pneumoniae infections before (2018-2019) and during (2020-2022) the COVID-19 pandemic...
April 13, 2024: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Yanlan Yang, Ying Zhong
PURPOSE: The ideal method for identifying frailty remains unclear, but the condition is associated with poor prognoses in many illnesses. Despite the availability of studies, the prognostic implications of frailty on older patients with pneumonia remains unexplored. To determine the burden and effect of frailty on selected clinical outcomes among older patients with pneumonia. METHODS: We searched Medline, Google Scholar, and Science Direct databases for articles published in English following the PRISMA framework to guide our review...
April 13, 2024: European Geriatric Medicine
Shuichi Shiraishi, Maya Watanabe, Ai Sugimoto, Masanori Tsuchida
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for acute events after systemic-to-pulmonary shunt (SPS) and to investigate the effectiveness of pulmonary blood flow regulation with a metal clip. METHODS: The case histories of 116 patients (78 biventricular [BV] and 38 single ventricle [SV] physiology) who underwent SPS between 2010 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Our strategy was to delay SPS until 1 month of age; pulmonary blood flow (PBF) regulation by partial clipping of the graft, if needed...
April 13, 2024: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Yinghui Lu, Qingling Jiang, Xueli Zhang, Xiaojun Lin, Jay Pan
BACKGROUND: Many countries has introduced pro-competition policies in the delivery of healthcare to improve medical quality, including China. With the increasing intensity of competition in China's healthcare market, there are rising concerns among policymakers about the impact of hospital competition on quality. This study investigated heterogeneous effects of hospital competition on inpatient quality. METHODS: We analyzed the inpatient discharge dataset and selected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), ischemic stroke, pneumonia, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as representative diseases...
April 13, 2024: Health Economics Review
Hélène Verdoux, Clélia Quiles, Jose de Leon
INTRODUCTION: Antiseizure medication (ASM) add-on to clozapine may be efficient to target clozapine-resistant mood or psychotic symptoms or clozapine-related adverse drug reactions (ADR) such as seizures. We aimed to synthesize the information relevant for clinical practice on the risks and benefits of clozapine-ASM co-prescription. AREAS COVERED: Articles were identified with MEDLINE, Web of Sciences and PsycINFO search from inception through October 2023. The review was restricted to ASM with mood-stabilizing properties or with potential efficacy for resistant psychotic symptoms (valproate (VPA), lamotrigine, topiramate, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine)...
April 13, 2024: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Feifei Li, Yuqing Liu, Jie Zhu, Zhining Li, Lixian Zhang, Yanni Ma, Liqin Yu
Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an oilseed plant common in Europe and Asia. This study used the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the differences in the aroma on the basis of extraction method such as water distillation extraction (CSPW), Solid-phase microextraction (CSPM) and subcritical extraction (CSPS). Antibacterial test was evaluated by the microdilution method against Salmonella typhimurium , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , Strepococcus pyogenens , Staphylococcus aureus , and antioxidant activity was determined through DPPH free radical, hydroxyl free radical, and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity activity...
April 13, 2024: Natural Product Research
Amyna Ismail Rehmani, Alesia Au, Carmel Montgomery, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant concern in low-middle-income countries (LMICs), where the burden of hospital-acquired infections is high, and resources are low. Evidence-based guidelines exist for preventing VAP; however, these guidelines may not be adequately utilized in intensive care units of LMICs. AIM: This scoping review examined the literature regarding the use of nursing care bundles for VAP prevention in LMICs, to understand the knowledge, practice and compliance of nurses to these guidelines, as well as the barriers preventing the implementation of these guidelines...
April 13, 2024: Nursing in Critical Care
Ning Liu, Qiang Shan, Xuan Wu, Le Xu, Yanan Li, Jiufeng Wang, Xue Wang, Yaohong Zhu
Trueperella pyogenes can cause various infections in the organs and tissues of different livestock (including pigs, cows, goats, and sheep), including mastitis, endometritis, pneumonia, or abscesses. Moreover, diseases induced by T. pyogenes cause significant economic losses in animal husbandry. In recent large-scale investigations, T. pyogenes has been identified as one of the main pathogens causing endometritis in lactating cows. However, the main treatment for the above-mentioned diseases is still currently antibiotic therapy...
April 3, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stefano Lucà, Francesca Pagliuca, Fabio Perrotta, Andrea Ronchi, Domenica Francesca Mariniello, Giovanni Natale, Andrea Bianco, Alfonso Fiorelli, Marina Accardo, Renato Franco
Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIPs) are a heterogeneous group of the broader category of Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILDs), pathologically characterized by the distortion of lung parenchyma by interstitial inflammation and/or fibrosis. The American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) international multidisciplinary consensus classification of the IIPs was published in 2002 and then updated in 2013, with the authors emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis of IIPs...
March 23, 2024: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dewi Santosaningsih, Yuanita Mulyastuti, Soeyati Poejiani, Rilia F Putri, Liliana Dewi, Hisanifa Arifani, Yatim L Ni'mah, Afaf Baktir
Biofilm-related infections play a significant role in the development and persistence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa ) frequently causes biofilm-related infections associated with ventilator tubing. Glucosamine gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) may exhibit antibiofilm properties; however, more studies, including combinatorial therapy with antibiotics, are needed to explore their potential applications in clinical settings. This study aims to investigate the biofilm inhibition properties of glucosamine AuNPs in combination with meropenem against P...
March 31, 2024: Materials
Oladapo F Fagbohun, Wasitha P D W Thilakarathna, Juan Zhou, Christian Lehmann, Guangling Jiao, H P Vasantha Rupasinghe
Acute lung injury (ALI) represents a life-threatening condition with high morbidity and mortality despite modern mechanical ventilators and multiple pharmacological strategies. Therefore, there is a need to develop efficacious interventions with minimal side effects. The anti-inflammatory activities of sea cucumber ( Cucumaria frondosa ) and wild blueberry ( Vaccinium angustifolium ) extracts have been reported recently. However, their anti-inflammatory activities and the mechanism of action against ALI are not fully elucidated...
March 28, 2024: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Đorđe Todorovic, Bojan Stojanovic, Milutinovic Filip, Đorđe Đorđevic, Milos Stankovic, Ivan Jovanovic, Marko Spasic, Bojan Milosevic, Aleksandar Cvetkovic, Dragce Radovanovic, Marina Jovanovic, Bojana S Stojanovic, Damnjan Pantic, Danijela Cvetkovic, Dalibor Jovanovic, Vladan Markovic, Milica Dimitrijevic Stojanovic
This case report presents a unique instance of small bowel perforation caused by solitary metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC), a rare and complex clinical scenario. The patient, a 59-year-old male with a history of RCC treated with nephrectomy four years prior, presented with acute abdomen symptoms. Emergency diagnostic procedures identified a significant lesion in the small intestine. Surgical intervention revealed a perforated jejunal segment due to metastatic RCC. Postoperatively, the patient developed complications, including pneumonia and multi-organ failure, leading to death 10 days after surgery...
April 3, 2024: Diagnostics
Alyssa M Walker, Tristan T Timbrook, Benjamin Hommel, Andrea M Prinzi
The advent of rapid molecular microbiology testing has revolutionized infectious disease diagnostics and is now impacting pneumonia diagnosis and management. Molecular platforms offer highly multiplexed assays for diverse viral and bacterial detection, alongside antimicrobial resistance markers, providing the potential to significantly shape patient care. Despite the superiority in sensitivity and speed, debates continue regarding the clinical role of multiplex molecular testing, notably in comparison to standard methods and distinguishing colonization from infection...
April 2, 2024: Diagnostics
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