Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Kelly Aparecida Kanunfre, Lucy Santos Vilas-Boas, Evelyn Patricia Sanchez Espinoza, Heuder Gustavo Oliveira Paião, Mussya Cisotto Rocha, Anderson Vicente de Paula, Maura Salaroli de Oliveira, Daniella Bosco Zampelli, José Mauro Vieira, Lewis Buss, Silvia Figueiredo Costa, Ester Cerdeira Sabino, Steven S Witkin, Thelma Suely Okay, Maria Cassia Mendes-Correa
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the performance of a nucleoprotein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The ELISA was based on serum IgG reactivity to a 46-kDa protein derived from the recombinant SARS-CoV2 nucleoprotein. Assay sensitivity was assessed using serum samples from 134 COVID-19 confirmed cases obtained > 15 days after symptom onset. Specificity was determined by testing sera from 94 healthy controls...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Virological Methods
Jennifer Dunnick, Maia Taft, Robert T Tisherman, Andrew J Nowalk, Robert W Hickey, Paria M Wilson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between bacteremia and vaccination status in children aged 2-36 months presenting to a pediatric emergency department. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of children aged 2-36 months with blood cultures obtained in the pediatric emergency department between January 2013 and December 2017. The exposure of interest was immunization status, defined as number of H. influenzae type B (Hib) and S. pneumoniae vaccinations, and the main outcome positive blood culture...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Pediatrics
Harshini K Ashar, Sivasami Pulavendran, Jennifer M Rudd, Prasanthi Maram, Mallika Achanta, Vincent Tk Chow, Jerry R Malayer, Timothy A Snider, Narasaraju Teluguakula
Excessive neutrophil influx, their released neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and extracellular histones are associated with disease severity in influenza-infected patients. Neutrophil chemokine receptor CXCR2 is a critical target for suppressing neutrophilic inflammation. Here, we investigated temporal dynamics of neutrophil activity and NETosis to determine the optimal timing of treatment with the CXCR2 antagonist, SCH527123 and we tested its efficacy together with antiviral agent, oseltamivir in murine and piglet influenza-pneumonia models...
January 13, 2021: American Journal of Pathology
Apollo Stacy, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, John A McCulloch, Benedikt Hild, Ji Hoon Oh, P Juliana Perez-Chaparro, Choon K Sim, Ai Ing Lim, Verena M Link, Michel Enamorado, Giorgio Trinchieri, Julia A Segre, Barbara Rehermann, Yasmine Belkaid
The microbiota shields the host against infections in a process known as colonization resistance. How infections themselves shape this fundamental process remains largely unknown. Here, we show that gut microbiota from previously infected hosts display enhanced resistance to infection. This long-term functional remodeling is associated with altered bile acid metabolism leading to the expansion of taxa that utilize the sulfonic acid taurine. Notably, supplying exogenous taurine alone is sufficient to induce this alteration in microbiota function and enhance resistance...
January 14, 2021: Cell
Rizky Andhika, Afiatin Makmun, Yovita Hartantri, Indra Wijaya, Ian Huang
Diagnosis of COVID-19 in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients on hemodialysis is challenging,  as the symptoms are often atypical. Herein, we reported a confimed case of COVID-19 in a patient on maintenance hemodialysis. A 38-year-old man with ESKD on regular hemodialysis initially presented with progressive shortness of breath and dry cough, without fever. He had lymphopenia, and chest X-ray suggested pulmonary edema with cardiomegaly and suspected bilateral bronchopneumonia. The patient clinically improved after 7 days of hospitalization, and was subsequently discharged from hospital...
January 16, 2021: CEN Case Reports
Stacy Aric Johnson, Austin Bernard Rupp, Kirsten Leigh Rupp, Santosh Reddy
Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) due to bacterial pneumonia are common among hospitalized patients and are frequently treated with antibiotics. Viral illnesses and exacerbations of heart failure or COPD may present with symptoms mimicking a LRTI, resulting in unnecessary antibiotic utilization. Procalcitonin testing may be useful in these clinical scenarios. We attempted to assess the utility of procalcitonin testing versus not testing, and positive versus negative results among hospitalized patients with suspected LRTI...
January 16, 2021: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Montserrat Barceló, Olga Herminia Torres, Jordi Mascaró, Jordi Casademont
The leading causes of mortality in our study were pneumonia, diseases of the circulatory system, and dementias. In patients with hip fractures, the emphasis should be placed not only on measures to prevent falls and osteoporosis, but also on preventing functional decline and pneumonia. PURPOSE: To describe the specific causes of death in patients who died up to 2 years after sustaining a hip fracture, how many of those deaths were directly related to the hip fracture, and the risk factors for mortality...
January 16, 2021: Archives of Osteoporosis
Maxens Decavèle, Aliénor Dreyfus, Nicolas Gatulle, Nicolas Weiss, Caroline Houillier, Sophie Demeret, Julien Mayaux, Isabelle Rivals, Martin Dres, Julie Delemazure, Elise Morawiec, Charles-Edouard Luyt, Khe Hoang-Xuan, Sylvain Choquet, Thomas Similowski, Alexandre Demoule
INTRODUCTION: To describe the reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and to evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors of patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) admitted to the ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study of 101 PCNSL patients admitted to 3 ICUs over a two-decade period. RESULTS: Acute respiratory failure, mainly secondary to aspiration pneumonia and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, was the leading reason for ICU admission (33%)...
January 16, 2021: Journal of Neurology
Amanda Malvessi Cattani, Camila Vieira Pinheiro, Irene Silveira Schrank, Franciele Maboni Siqueira
In bacteria, the biosynthesis of the cofactor flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), important in many physiological responses, is catalyzed by the bifunctional enzyme FAD synthase (FADSyn) which converts riboflavin into FAD by both kinase and adenylylation activity. The in silico 3D structure of a putative FADSyn from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MhpFADSyn), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia was already reported, nevertheless, the in vitro functional characterization was not yet demonstrated. Our phylogenetic analysis revealed that MhpFADSyn is close related to the bifunctional FADSyn from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes...
January 16, 2021: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Lucie Pothen, Halil Yildiz, Mathilde Mbouck Samnick, Jean Cyr Yombi
In the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, Belgian health authorities endorsed the interim guidelines for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia: hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) recommended for treatment of hospitalized patients with moderate to severe disease. As a growing number of patients were admitted, inevitably, our internal medicine team questioned the efficacy and safety of HCQ, especially with regard to cardiac side effects. In parallel with our concerns, data regarding the safety and efficacy of HCQ were published, with discordant results and debate in the medical community...
January 15, 2021: Clinical Rheumatology
Valerio Brunetti, Aldobrando Broccolini, Pietro Caliandro, Riccardo Di Iorio, Mauro Monforte, Roberta Morosetti, Carla Piano, Fabio Pilato, Simone Bellavia, Jessica Marotta, Irene Scala, Alessandro Pedicelli, Mariano Alberto Pennisi, Anselmo Caricato, Cinzia Roberti, Maria Concetta Altavista, Alessandro Valenza, Marisa Distefano, Emanuela Cecconi, Martina Fanella, Sabina Roncacci, Miriam Tasillo, Paolo Calabresi, Giovanni Frisullo, Giacomo Della Marca
INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak highly impacted the acute ischemic stroke care management. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and the following lockdown measures on our hub-and-spoke network; the secondary end point was to evaluate if the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak was different in hub-and-spoke centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter observational study conducted at the Stroke Units of Policlinico Gemelli, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Ospedale di Belcolle, and Ospedale San Camillo de Lellis...
January 15, 2021: Neurological Sciences
Sujata Devi, Sudipta Mohakud, Nilanjan Kar, Divya Muthuvel
A 53-year-old man with diabetes came to the emergency department with fever and dry cough for 5 days, swelling of the left leg for 2 days, shortness of breath and chest pain for 1 hour. He had raised temperature, tachycardia, tachypnoea, reduced oxygen saturation and swollen tender left leg on examination. The frontal chest radiograph showed bilateral ground-glass opacities; he tested positive for COVID-19 with elevated D-dimer. The colour Doppler examination of the left leg revealed acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the common femoral and the popliteal veins...
January 15, 2021: BMJ Case Reports
Christopher C Stahl, Luke M Funk, Jessica R Schumacher, Ben L Zarzaur, John E Scarborough
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures affect a vulnerable population and are associated with high rates of morbidity, mortality, and resource utilization. Although postoperative complications are a known driver of mortality and resource utilization, the comparative impacts of specific complications on outcomes is unknown. This study assessed which complications are associated with the highest effects on mortality and resource utilization for older patients who undergo hip fracture repair. METHODS: Patients ≥ 65 years of age who underwent hip fracture repair during 2016-2017 included in the Hip Fracture Targeted ACS NSQIP (American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program) database populated the data set...
December 14, 2020: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
Sabri Tekin, Hatice Özdoğan, Mustafa Kemal Demir, Hagar Soultan, Sadia Zafar
Immunocompromised populations are at great risk of the current 2020 global emergency of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and treatment of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 is currently not declared. Hence, the purpose of the study is to set a clear treatment regimen. We report here a therapeutic course of 2 patients who underwent transplant surgery in March 2020 and got infected soon after. Since the transplant, these 2 patients have received triple maintenance immunosuppressive therapy with oral tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and prednisone, and they have been regularly followed up at our hospital...
December 17, 2020: Transplantation Proceedings
Roger Karlsson, Annika Thorsell, Margarita Gomila, Francisco Salvà-Serra, Hedvig E Jakobsson, Lucia Gonzales-Siles, Daniel Jaén-Luchoro, Susann Skovbjerg, Johannes Fuchs, Anders Karlsson, Fredrik Boulund, Anna Johnning, Erik Kristiansson, Edward R B Moore
Mass spectrometry (MS) and proteomics offer comprehensive characterization and identification of microorganisms and discovery of protein biomarkers that are applicable for diagnostics of infectious diseases. The use of biomarkers for diagnostics is widely applied in the clinic and the use of peptide biomarkers is increasingly being investigated for applications in the clinical laboratory. Respiratory-tract infections are a predominant cause for medical treatment, although, clinical assessments and standard clinical laboratory protocols are time-consuming and often inadequate for reliable diagnoses...
March 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Khyatiben V Pathak, Marissa I McGilvrey, Charles K Hu, Krystine Garcia-Mansfield, Karen Lewandoski, Zahra Eftekhari, Yate-Ching Yuan, Frederic Zenhausern, Emmanuel Menashi, Patrick Pirrotte
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common hospital-acquired infection, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Currently, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is used in hospitals for VAP diagnosis and guiding treatment options. Although BAL collection procedures are invasive, alternatives such as endotracheal aspirates (ETA) may be of diagnostic value, however, their use has not been thoroughly explored. Longitudinal ETA and BAL were collected from 16 intubated patients up to 15 days, of which 11 developed VAP...
October 2020: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Wei Li, Qun Zhang, Yanling Xu, Xiyue Zhang, Qian Huang, Zhenzhong Su
BACKGROUND: Whipple's disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Tropheryma whipplei (TW), which not only affects the gastrointestinal tract and causes malabsorption of nutrients, but several other systems, such as the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, the joints, and the vascular system, can also be simultaneously involved. The aim of this report was to be able to alert the clinician to severe pneumonia caused by TW combined with Candida sp...
January 15, 2021: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
M D'ascanio, M Innammorato, L Pasquariello, D Pizzirusso, G Guerrieri, S Castelli, A Pezzuto, C De Vitis, P Anibaldi, A Marcolongo, R Mancini, A Ricci, S Sciacchitano
BACKGROUND: The actual SARS-CoV-2 outbreak caused a highly transmissible disease with a tremendous impact on elderly people. So far, few studies focused on very elderly patients (over 80 years old). In this study we examined the clinical presentation and the outcome of the disease in this group of patients, admitted to our Hospital in Rome. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective study performed in the Sant'Andrea University Hospital of Rome. We included patients older than 65 years of age with a diagnosis of COVID-19, from March 2020 to May 2020, divided in two groups according to their age (Elderly: 65-80 years old; Very Elderly > 80 years old)...
January 15, 2021: BMC Geriatrics
Jeong Woo Han, Hwan Song, Soo Hyun Kim
INTRODUCTION: Low muscle mass is associated with an increased mortality risk due to medical comorbidities such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Computed tomography (CT) has been identified as the gold standard for measuring body composition. We evaluated the relationship between the L1 SMI measured from CT and in-hospital mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: From January 2015 to June 2015, 311 patients who were diagnosed with CAP and underwent CT in the ED were retrospectively analyzed...
December 26, 2020: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Masaru Takeshita, Naoshi Nishina, Saya Moriyama, Yoshimasa Takahashi, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Mika Nagata, Wataru Aoki, Katsunori Masaki, Makoto Ishii, Hideyuki Saya, Yasushi Kondo, Yuko Kaneko, Katsuya Suzuki, Koichi Fukunaga, Tsutomu Takeuchi
The pandemic of COVID-19 is still ongoing, and many studies on serum antibodies have been reported, however, there are few studies about asymptomatic and mild patients. In this study, we enrolled 44 COVID-19 patients with relatively mild disease and 48 pre-pandemic controls. We measured serum antibodies against extracellular domain, S1 domain, and receptor-binding domain of Spike and N protein, examined neutralization titers by authentic virus neutralization assay and newly-developed bead/cell-based Spike-ACE2 inhibition assay, and compared them with clinical features...
January 6, 2021: Virology
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