Chiara Pagliarani, Amedeo Moine, Walter Chitarra, Giovanna Roberta Meloni, Simona Abbà, Luca Nerva, Massimo Pugliese, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Giorgio Gambino
Molecular changes associated with response to powdery mildew (PM) caused by Erysiphe necator have been largely explored in Vitis vinifera cultivars, but little is known on transcriptional and metabolic modifications following application of resistance elicitors against this disease. In this study, the whole transcriptome sequencing, and hormone and metabolite analyses were combined to dissect long-term defense mechanisms induced by molecular reprogramming events in PM-infected 'Moscato' and 'Nebbiolo' leaves treated with three resistance inducers: acibenzolar-S-methyl, potassium phosphonate, and laminarin...
September 15, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ayola A Adegnika, Sophia G de Vries, Frejus J Zinsou, Yabo J Honkepehedji, Jean-Claude Dejon Agobé, Kafui G Vodonou, Rodrigue Bikangui, Aurore Bouyoukou Hounkpatin, Emmanuel B Bache, Marguerite Massinga Loembe, Remko van Leeuwen, Marjan Molemans, Peter G Kremsner, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Peter J Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Guangzhao Li, Jeffrey M Bethony, David J Diemert, Martin P Grobusch
BACKGROUND: Hookworms cause substantial morbidity in children and women of reproductive age. The control strategy of mass drug administration is suboptimal, hence the need for a vaccine. Necator americanus aspartic protease-1 (Na-APR-1) and N americanus glutathione S-transferase-1 (Na-GST-1) are involved in the digestion and detoxification of haemoglobin in the hookworm digestive tract. In animal models, vaccination against these antigens resulted in protection from challenge infection...
September 11, 2020: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Anett Csikós, Márk Z Németh, Omer Frenkel, Levente Kiss, Kálmán Zoltán Váczy
Erysiphe necator populations, causing powdery mildew of grapes, have a complex genetic structure. Two genotypes, A and B, were identified in most vineyards across the world on the basis of fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several DNA regions. It was hypothesized that A populations overwinter as mycelia in grapevine buds, giving rise to so-called flag shoots in spring, and are more sensitive to fungicides than B populations, which overwinter as ascospores and become widespread later in the season...
September 7, 2020: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Mengying Xu, Pier-Luc Tremblay, Ran Ding, Jianxun Xiao, Junting Wang, Yu Kang, Tian Zhang
Particulate photocatalysts developed for the solar energy-driven reduction of the greenhouse gas CO2 have a small product range and low specificity. Hybrid photosynthesis expands the number of products with photocatalysts harvesting sunlight and transferring charges to microbes harboring versatile metabolisms for bioproduction. Besides CO2 , abiotic photocatalysts have been employed to increase microbial production yields of reduced compounds from organic carbon substrates. Most single-reactor hybrid photosynthesis systems comprise CdS assembled in situ by microbial activity...
August 31, 2020: Science of the Total Environment
Ezekiel O Adekanmbi, Anthony T Giduthuri, Bennett A C Carv, Jonathan Counts, James G Moberly, Soumya K Srivastava
This work presents the dielectric characterization of rare earth elements (REEs) biosorption by Cupriavidus necator using dielectrophoretic crossover frequency measurements. Traditional means of characterizing biomass for biosorption is limited and time consuming. In this research we are presenting, for the first time, an electrokinetic method termed as dielectrophoresis (DEP) for the characterization of biosorption (uptake) of rare earth elements (REEs) by gram negative bacteria - Cupriavidus necator. To characterize, a 3mm-diameter point and planar microwell device platform is used to measure the DEP crossover frequency that yields the dielectric properties of the targeted biosorbents...
September 8, 2020: Analytica Chimica Acta
Kostas Koutsoumanis, Ana Allende, Avelino Alvarez-Ordóñez, Declan Bolton, Sara Bover-Cid, Marianne Chemaly, Robert Davies, Alessandra De Cesare, Friederike Hilbert, Roland Lindqvist, Maarten Nauta, Luisa Peixe, Giuseppe Ru, Marion Simmons, Panagiotis Skandamis, Elisabetta Suffredini, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Pablo Salvador Fernández Escámez, Miguel Prieto Maradona, Amparo Querol, Juan Evaristo Suarez, Ingvar Sundh, Just Vlak, Fulvio Barizzone, Sandra Correia, Lieve Herman
Qualified presumption of safety (QPS) was developed to provide a generic safety evaluation for biological agents to support EFSA's Scientific Panels. The taxonomic identity, body of knowledge, safety concerns and antimicrobial resistance are assessed. Safety concerns identified for a taxonomic unit (TU) are where possible to be confirmed at strain or product level, reflected by 'qualifications'. No new information was found that would change the previously recommended QPS TUs and their qualifications. The list of microorganisms notified to EFSA was updated with 54 biological agents, received between April and September 2019; 23 already had QPS status, 14 were excluded from the QPS exercise (7 filamentous fungi, 6 Escherichia coli , Sphingomonas paucimobilis which was already evaluated)...
February 2020: EFSA journal
Gemechu Tadesse Leta, Kalkidan Mekete, Yonas Wuletaw, Abeba Gebretsadik, Heven Sime, Sindew Mekasha, Adugna Woyessa, Oumer Shafi, Jozef Vercruysse, Jack E T Grimes, Iain Gardiner, Michael French, Bruno Levecke, Lesley Drake, Wendy Harrison, Alan Fenwick
BACKGROUND: An accurate understanding of the geographical distributions of both soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) and schistosomes (SCH; Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium) is pivotal to be able to effectively design and implement mass drug administration (MDA) programmes. The objective of this study was to provide up-to-date data on the distribution of both STH and SCH in Ethiopia to inform the design of the national control program and to be able to efficiently achieve the 75% MDA coverage target set by the WHO...
September 1, 2020: Parasites & Vectors
Peter A C Maple, Bruno Gran, Radu Tanasescu, David I Pritchard, Cris S Constantinescu
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is strongly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Helminth infection can downregulate antiviral immune responses, potentially protecting against MS, but with a theoretical risk for reactivating latent EBV infection. Objective: To investigate parameters of EBV infection and their relationship with disease activity in people with MS (PwMS) therapeutically vaccinated with Necator americanus (hookworm). Methods: Sequential serum samples from 51 PwMS; 26 therapeutically infected (25 larvae) with N...
August 28, 2020: Vaccines
Simone Kann, Daniela Bruennert, Jessica Hansen, Gustavo Andrés Concha Mendoza, José José Crespo Gonzalez, Cielo Leonor Armenta Quintero, Miriam Hanke, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Joy Backhaus, Hagen Frickmann
BACKGROUND: Intestinal infections remain a major public health burden in developing countries. Due to social, ecological, environmental, and cultural conditions, Indigenous peoples in Colombia are at particularly high risk. MATERIALS: 137 stool samples were analyzed by microscopy and real-time-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), targeting protozoan parasites ( Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and Cyclospora cayetanensis ), bacteria ( Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp...
August 28, 2020: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Nurdoğan Ata, Necat Alataş, Mustafa Güllüev, Esra Yılmaz
OBJECTIVE: Patients may be afraid when they receive knowledge that medications are injected into the middle ear through the tympanic membrane using a fine needle during intratympanic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of video-assisted information prior to intratympanic steroid injection on patient anxiety. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, Non-randomized, controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary academic medical center. METHODS: A total of 85 patients who had an indication for intratympanic treatment due to idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus were included in this prospective study...
August 19, 2020: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Haydn Rhys Ingram, James Benjamin Winterburn
Oil extracted from spent coffee grounds (SCG) [yield 16.8 % (w/w)] was discovered to be a highly suitable carbon substrate for the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3 HV)] copolymers by Cupriavidus necator DSM 545 in the absence of any traditional 3 HV precursors. Cells cultivated in a 3 L bioreactor (batch) reached a total biomass concentration of 8.9 g L-1 with a P(3HB-co-3 HV) (6.8 mol% 3 HV) content of 89.6 % (w/w). In contrast, cells grown on sunflower oil reached a total biomass concentration of 9...
August 23, 2020: New Biotechnology
Dong-Yan Wan, Ye Guo, Yuan Cheng, Yang Hu, Shunyuan Xiao, Yuejin Wang, Ying-Qiang Wen
Grapevine ( Vitis vinifera ), one of the most economically important fruit crops in the world, suffers significant yield losses from powdery mildew, a major fungal disease caused by Erysiphe necator . In addition to suppressing host immunity, phytopathogens modulate host proteins termed susceptibility (S) factors to promote their proliferation in plants. In this study, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9) technology was used to enable the targeted mutagenesis of MLO (mildew resistance Locus O) family genes that are thought to serve as S factors for powdery mildew fungi...
2020: Horticulture Research
Nico J Claassens, Giovanni Scarinci, Axel Fischer, Avi I Flamholz, William Newell, Stefan Frielingsdorf, Oliver Lenz, Arren Bar-Even
Carbon fixation via the Calvin cycle is constrained by the side activity of Rubisco with dioxygen, generating 2-phosphoglycolate. The metabolic recycling of phosphoglycolate was extensively studied in photoautotrophic organisms, including plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, where it is referred to as photorespiration. While receiving little attention so far, aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacteria that operate the Calvin cycle independent of light must also recycle phosphoglycolate. As the term photorespiration is inappropriate for describing phosphoglycolate recycling in these nonphotosynthetic autotrophs, we suggest the more general term "phosphoglycolate salvage...
August 20, 2020: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nico J Claassens, Guillermo Bordanaba-Florit, Charles A R Cotton, Alberto De Maria, Max Finger-Bou, Lukas Friedeheim, Natalia Giner-Laguarda, Martí Munar-Palmer, William Newell, Giovanni Scarinci, Jari Verbunt, Stijn T de Vries, Suzan Yilmaz, Arren Bar-Even
Formate can be directly produced from CO2 and renewable electricity, making it a promising microbial feedstock for sustainable bioproduction. Cupriavidus necator is one of the few biotechnologically-relevant hosts that can grow on formate, but it uses the Calvin cycle, the high ATP cost of which limits biomass and product yields. Here, we redesign C. necator metabolism for formate assimilation via the synthetic, highly ATP-efficient reductive glycine pathway. First, we demonstrate that the upper pathway segment supports glycine biosynthesis from formate...
August 14, 2020: Metabolic Engineering
Poom Adisakwattana, Tippayarat Yoonuan, Orawan Phuphisut, Akkarin Poodeepiyasawat, Nirundorn Homsuwan, Catherine A Gordon, Donald P McManus, Louise E Atkinson, Angela Mousley, Geoffrey N Gobert
BACKGROUND: Under-regulated national borders in Southeast Asia represent potential regions for enhanced parasitic helminth transmission and present barriers to helminthiasis disease control. METHODS: Three Thailand border regions close to Myanmar, Laos and Cambodia were surveyed for clinical parasitic helminth disease. In-field microscopy was performed on stools from 567 individuals. Sub-samples were transported to Bangkok for molecular analysis comprising three multiplex qPCR assays...
August 12, 2020: Parasites & Vectors
Flores-Sánchez Araceli, Rathinasabapathy Arthi, López-Cuellar Ma Del Rocio, Vergara-Porras Berenice, Pérez-Guevara Fermín
The acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (FadE) and (R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratase (PhaJ) are functionally related to the degradation of fatty acids and the synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). To verify this, a recombinant Cupriavidus necator H16 harboring the plasmid -pMPJAS03- with fadE from Escherichia coli strain K12 and phaJ1 from Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 under the arabinose promoter (araC-PBAD ) was constructed. The impact of co-expressing fadE and phaJ genes on C. necator H16/pMPJAS03 maintaining the wild-type synthase on short-chain-length/medium-chain-length PHA formation from canola or avocado oil at different arabinose concentrations was investigated...
August 5, 2020: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohit P Dalwadi, Diego Orol, Frederik Walter, Nigel P Minton, John R King, Katalin Kovács
We investigate how to characterize the kinetic parameters of an aminotransaminase using a non-standard coupled (or auxiliary) enzyme assay, where the peculiarity arises for two reasons. First, one of the products of the auxiliary enzyme is a substrate for the primary enzyme and, second, we explicitly account for the reversibility of the auxiliary enzyme reaction. Using singular perturbation theory, we characterize the two distinguished asymptotic limits in terms of the strength of the reverse reaction, which allows us to determine how to deduce the kinetic parameters of the primary enzyme for a characterized auxiliary enzyme...
August 6, 2020: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Vijay Rayasam, Pooja Chavan, Tarika Kumar
Many bacteria produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) when exposed to stressful conditions. It is a known fact that PHAs have the potential to replace petrochemical-based plastics as they are biodegradable, biocompatible, and thermoprocessible materials. The study focusses on producing PHA from microbes isolated from polluted environments and pomegranate peels were utilized as a unique carbon source. This was done to ensure reduction in the cost of the substrate that has not yet been reported as a substrate for PHA production...
August 3, 2020: Archives of Microbiology
Richard Breia, Artur Conde, Carlos Conde, Ana Margarida Fortes, Antonio Granell, Hernâni Gerós
The Early-Response to Dehydration six-like (ERD6l) is one of the largest families of sugar transporters in plants, however, is also one of the less studied with very few members characterized. In this work, we identified 18 members of the grapevine ERD6l family, analyzed their promoters and putative topology and additionally functionally characterized the member VvERD6l13. VvERD6l13 was strongly up-regulated in grape berries infected with Botrytis cinerea and Erysiphe necator in cv. Trincadeira and Carignan, respectively, suggesting an important role in grape berry-pathogen interaction, as we had hypothesized...
July 12, 2020: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jessica Eggers, Carl Simon Strittmatter, Kira Küsters, Emre Biller, Alexander Steinbüchel
The biotin metabolism of the Gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Ralstonia eutropha (syn. Cupriavidus necator ), that is used for production in industry, was investigated. A biotin auxotroph mutant lacking bioF was generated, and biotin depletion in the cells as well as the minimal biotin demand of a biotin auxotroph R. eutropha strain were determined. Three consecutive cultivations in biotin free medium were necessary to prevent growth of the auxotroph mutant, and 40 ng/ml biotin were sufficient to promote cell growth...
July 17, 2020: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
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