Masatoshi Hanada, Yuji Ishimatsu, Noriho Sakamoto, Hiroki Nagura, Masato Oikawa, Yosuke Morimoto, Shuntaro Sato, Hiroshi Mukae, Ryo Kozu
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) patients receiving steroid treatment tend to be immobilized by dyspnea and muscle weakness as the disease progresses. We therefore expected that steroid treatment for ILDs would have a greater effect on muscle function under severe dyspnea. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether the effect of corticosteroid treatment on peripheral muscle force and exercise capacity varied according to patients' dyspnea severity. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study of 87 ILD patients enrolled between 2008 and 2017, quadriceps force (QF), handgrip force (HF), and 6-min walk distance (6 MWD) were compared between a low (grades 0-2) and a high (grades 3-4) modified-Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea scale score group...
October 6, 2020: Respiratory Medicine
Kylie A Alexander, Hsu-Wen Tseng, Marjorie Salga, François Genêt, Jean-Pierre Levesque
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is the abnormal formation of extra-skeletal bones in periarticular muscles after damage to the central nervous system (CNS) such as spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, or cerebral anoxia. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent developments in the understanding of NHO pathophysiology and pathogenesis. Recent animal models of NHO and recent findings investigating the communication between CNS injury, tissue inflammation, and upcoming NHO therapeutics are discussed...
October 21, 2020: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Jordan C Roberts, Christian Carnevale, A Kurt Gamperl, Douglas A Syme
The trout ventricle has an outer compact layer supplied with well-oxygenated arterial blood from the coronary circulation, and an inner spongy myocardium supplied with oxygen poor venous blood. It was hypothesized that: (1) the spongy myocardium of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), given its routine exposure to low partial pressures of oxygen (PO2 ), would be better able to maintain contractile performance (work) when exposed to acute hypoxia (100 to 10% air saturation) relative to the compact myocardium, and would show little benefit from hypoxic acclimation; and (2) the compact myocardium from hypoxia-acclimated (40% air saturation) fish would be better able to maintain work during acute exposure to hypoxia relative to normoxia-acclimated individuals...
October 21, 2020: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Richard Morgan, Iain Elliot, Vibhu Banala, Christopher Dy, Briana Harris, Elizabeth Anne Ouellette
Background  Brachial plexopathy causes pain and loss of function in the affected extremity. Entrapment of the brachial plexus terminal branches within the surrounding connective tissue, or medial brachial fascial compartment, may manifest in debilitating symptoms. Open fasciotomy and external neurolysis of the neurovascular bundle in the medial brachial fascial compartment were performed as a surgical treatment for pain and functional decline in the upper extremity. The aim of this study was to evaluate pain outcomes after surgery in patients diagnosed with brachial plexopathy...
January 2020: Journal of Brachial Plexus and Peripheral Nerve Injury
Ching Serena Kao, Rebekah van Bruggen, Jihye Rachel Kim, Xiao Xiao Lily Chen, Cadia Chan, Jooyun Lee, Woo In Cho, Melody Zhao, Claudia Arndt, Katarina Maksimovic, Mashiat Khan, Qiumin Tan, Michael D Wilson, Jeehye Park
A missense mutation, S85C, in the MATR3 gene is a genetic cause for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It is unclear how the S85C mutation affects MATR3 function and contributes to disease. Here, we develop a mouse model that harbors the S85C mutation in the endogenous Matr3 locus using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. MATR3 S85C knock-in mice recapitulate behavioral and neuropathological features of early-stage ALS including motor impairment, muscle atrophy, neuromuscular junction defects, Purkinje cell degeneration and neuroinflammation in the cerebellum and spinal cord...
October 20, 2020: Nature Communications
Alberto Botter, Giacinto Luigi Cerone, Raoul Saggini, Giuseppe Massazza, Marco Alessandro Minetto
Different devices for mechano-acoustic muscle vibration became available on the market in the last ten years. Although the use of these vibrators is increasing in research and clinical settings, the features of their stimulation output were never described in literature. In this study we aimed to quantify and compare the stimulation output of the four most widespread pneumatic devices for focal muscle vibration available on the market. A piezoelectric pressure sensor was used to measure the pressure profile generated by the four selected devices in the following experimental conditions: i) measurement of the output changes associated with variations of the stimulation amplitude for three stimulation frequencies (100 Hz, 200 Hz, and 300 Hz); ii) measurement of the output changes during a 20-min long stimulation at constant frequency (300 Hz) and amplitude; iii) measurement of the output changes associated with the progressive activation of all stimulation channels at constant frequency (200 Hz) for different amplitudes...
November 2020: Medical Engineering & Physics
Yuchen Wu, Biantong Jiang, Guoqiang Wang, Huaping Wei, Bin Li, Xiping Shen, Caiyun Zhang, Zhigang Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current status of intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICU-AW) assessment, analyze the assessment barriers, and to provide reference to improve ICU-AW assessment. METHODS: A convenient sampling cross-sectional survey was conducted. First, an interview outline which based on related domestic and international literatures and combining with the research purpose of this study were designed. Thirteen medical personnel (8 ICU nurses, 3 ICU doctors, 1 respiratory therapist and 1 physiotherapist) who worked in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the First Hospital of Lanzhou University were enrolled with convenience sampling method to interview...
September 2020: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
J W Fleming, A J Capel, R P Rimington, P Wheeler, A N Leonard, N C Bishop, O G Davies, M P Lewis
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle (SkM) regenerates following injury, replacing damaged tissue with high fidelity. However, in serious injuries, non-regenerative defects leave patients with loss of function, increased re-injury risk and often chronic pain. Progress in treating these non-regenerative defects has been slow, with advances only occurring where a comprehensive understanding of regeneration has been gained. Tissue engineering has allowed the development of bioengineered models of SkM which regenerate following injury to support research in regenerative physiology...
October 20, 2020: BMC Biology
Xueting Li, Fengqiang Xu, Longgang Hu, Hao Fang, Yi An
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia is an age-related clinical syndrome characterized by loss of muscle mass and reduced muscle function. Diseases that contribute to sarcopenia include type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and cancer and others. Fung FY et al. (BMC Geriatrics. 2019;19(1):122) conducted a single-center study aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia among older patients with T2DM and to identify factors which mitigate sarcopenia...
October 20, 2020: BMC Geriatrics
Rodrigo Urbina-Varela, Nataly Castillo, Luis A Videla, Andrea Del Campo
Mitochondria are the first-line defense of the cell in the presence of stressing processes that can induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Under these conditions, the activation of two axes is accomplished, namely, (i) the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt ) to promote cell recovery and survival of the mitochondrial network; (ii) the mitophagy process to eliminate altered or dysfunctional mitochondria. For these purposes, the former response induces the expression of chaperones, proteases, antioxidant components and protein import and assembly factors, whereas the latter is signaled through the activation of the PINK1/Parkin and BNIP3/NIX pathways...
October 18, 2020: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria Facadio Antero, Ayse Ayhan, James Segars, Ie-Ming Shih
Adenomyosis represents a unique pathophysiological condition in which normal-appearing endometrial mucosa resides within myometrium and is thus protected from menstrual shedding. The resulting ectopic presence of endometrial tissue composed of glands and stroma is thought to affect normal contractile function and peristalsis of uterine smooth muscle, causing menometrorrhagia, infertility, and adverse obstetric outcomes. Since the first description of adenomyosis more than 150 years ago, pathologists have studied this lesion by examining tissue specimens, and have proposed multiple explanations to account for its pathogenesis...
October 20, 2020: Seminars in Reproductive Medicine
Masami Iwamoto, Daichi Kato
This letter proposes a new idea to improve learning efficiency in reinforcement learning (RL) with the actor-critic method used as a muscle controller for posture stabilization of the human arm. Actor-critic RL (ACRL) is used for simulations to realize posture controls in humans or robots using muscle tension control. However, it requires very high computational costs to acquire a better muscle control policy for desirable postures. For efficient ACRL, we focused on embodiment that is supposed to potentially achieve efficient controls in research fields of artificial intelligence or robotics...
October 20, 2020: Neural Computation
Yuan-Jun Xia, Wei Wang, Hong Xia, Xian-Hua Huang, Feng-Piao Deng, Qing-Shui Ying, Xiang Yu, Li-Hua Li, Jian-Hua Wang, Ying Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Spinal fusion is one of the most common surgical interventions for spine reconstruction. Despite the efforts to promote osteogenesis after spinal fusion, osteogenesis after spinal fusion remains a clinical challenge and new methods are still needed. The bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a widely reported factor that can facilitate the osteogenesis in spinal fusion. In previous research, we found that the delivery of chitosan nanospheres could promote the effects of BMP-2 on osteogenic activity...
October 20, 2020: Orthopaedic Surgery
Katrina L Hinde, Thomas J O'Leary, Julie P Greeves, Sophie L Wardle
Protein turnover reflects the continual synthesis and breakdown of body proteins, and can be measured at a whole-body (i.e. aggregated across all body proteins) or tissue (e.g. skeletal muscle only) level using stable isotope methods. Evaluating protein turnover in free-living environments, such as military training, can help inform protein requirements. We undertook a narrative review of published literature with the aim of reviewing the suitability of, and advancements in, stable isotope methods for measuring protein turnover in field research...
October 20, 2020: Advances in Nutrition
Sourav Chandra, Jinghua Li, Babak Afsharipour, Andres F Cardona, Nina L Suresh, Limei Tian, Yujun Deng, Yishan Zhong, Zhaoqian Xie, Haixu Shen, Yonggang Huang, John A Rogers, William Zev Rymer
OBJECTIVE: High-density surface electromyography (HD-sEMG) has been utilized extensively in neuromuscular research. Despite its potential advantages, limitations in electrode design have largely prevented widespread acceptance of the technology. Commercial electrodes have limited spatial fidelity, because of a lack of sharpness of the signal, and variable signal stability. We demonstrate here a novel tattoo electrode that addresses these issues. Our dry HD electrode grid exhibits remarkable deformability which ensures superior conformity with the skin surface, while faithfully recording signals during different levels of muscle contraction...
October 20, 2020: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Indri Seta Septadina, Erial Bahar
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of Zhu acupuncture in motoric ability improvement of stroke patients. This research is a preliminary study in an effort to test the efficacy of Zhu's acupuncture technique in motor improvement in stroke patients. METHODS: This quasi-experimental study, with the pretest and posttest approach without control group design was conducted from June to December 2019 at Holistica Medical Centre Complementary Clinic Palembang, Indonesia. Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) was used before and after the intervention...
February 1, 2021: Medicinski Glasnik
Sion Jo, Jae Baek Lee, Youngho Jin, Taeoh Jeong, Jae Chol Yoon, Boyoung Park
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether jaw occlusive power decreases with the injection of neuromuscular blocking agents in masseter muscle - a method we named Sion's masseter muscle paralysis (SMP). METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled animal study was conducted in which researchers were blinded to group allocation. We used 12 male mongrel dogs aged 10-12 months and weighing 30-35 kg. Four groups were formed: a conventional dose (CD) group (0.004 mg/kg succinylcholine in 4 ml normal saline [NS]); a high dose (HD) group (0...
July 2020: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Katarzyna Rosicka, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Włodzimierz Mrówczyński
BACKGROUND: Stiffness of skin is widely used parameter in many research areas, for example cosmetic industry, dermatology or rheumatology for assessing of skin condition as well as changes occurring in skin. In this pioneering study, we conducted measurements of skin stiffness using MyotonPRO -novel tool, which was mainly used to evaluate biomechanical properties of muscles, ligaments and tendons. We expected that MyotonPRO , which shows great reproducibility in previous studies, will also be able to measure skin stiffness...
October 20, 2020: Skin Research and Technology
Peter C Emary, Mark Oremus, Taco A W Houweling, Martin Wangler, Noori Akhtar-Danesh
BACKGROUND: Swiss chiropractors have been licensed since 1995 to prescribe from a limited formulary of medications for treating musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. In January 2018, this formulary was expanded to include additional muscle relaxant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory medications. Internationally, controversy remains over whether or not medication prescribing should be pursued within the chiropractic profession. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess Swiss chiropractors' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding their existing medication prescription privileges...
October 20, 2020: Chiropractic & Manual Therapies
D I Givens
The ongoing increase in life expectancy is not always accompanied by an increase in healthy life span. There is increasing evidence that dietary exposure in early life can substantially affect chronic disease risk in later life. Milk and dairy foods are important suppliers of a range of key nutrients, with some being particularly important at certain life stages. It is now recognized that milk protein can stimulate insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), essential for longitudinal bone growth and bone mass acquisition in young children, thus reducing the risk of stunting...
November 2020: Journal of Dairy Science
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