Alex S Cohen, Christopher R Cox, Thanh P Le, Tovah Cowan, Michael D Masucci, Gregory P Strauss, Brian Kirkpatrick
Negative symptoms are a transdiagnostic feature of serious mental illness (SMI) that can be potentially "digitally phenotyped" using objective vocal analysis. In prior studies, vocal measures show low convergence with clinical ratings, potentially because analysis has used small, constrained acoustic feature sets. We sought to evaluate (1) whether clinically rated blunted vocal affect (BvA)/alogia could be accurately modelled using machine learning (ML) with a large feature set from two separate tasks (i...
September 25, 2020: NPJ Schizophrenia
Mimosa Luigi, Laura Dellazizzo, Charles-Édouard Giguère, Marie-Hélène Goulet, Alexandre Dumais
Objectives: To systematically review and meta-analyze the psychological effects and mortality rate in inmates having been exposed to solitary confinement in correctional settings. Methods: PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using keywords describing solitary confinement in combination with keywords for psychological or mortality outcomes. Eligible case-control studies for the systematic review met an operational definition for solitary confinement and evaluated outcomes after exposure to such confinement...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Colleen Mills-Finnerty, Catherine Hanson, Mohannad Khadr, Stephen Jose Hanson
BACKGROUND: Mentally simulating counterfactuals (scenarios that have not actually occurred) is a sophisticated human cognitive function underlying creativity, planning, and daydreaming. One example is the "would you rather" game, in which forced choices are made between outlandish negative counterfactuals. METHODS: We measured behavioral and neural correlates while participants made "would you rather" choices framed as approaching or avoiding aversive counterfactual scenarios (e...
August 25, 2020: Brain Connectivity
Yann Auxéméry, Cyril Tarquinio
Background: The situation we are currently experiencing is unprecedented. Declaring a state of health emergency in order to curb a frightening epidemic, the authorities have decreed the home confinement of the majority of the population of our country for several weeks. In a few days, innumerable questions arise for very diverse spaces: epidemiological, immunological, sociological, information scientists, medical, administrative, political, etc. Objective: We propose a reflection intended to describe the psychological risks, to clarify the disorders found, and to discuss the means to take care of them in the duration...
June 5, 2020: Annales Médico-psychologiques
Alfred P Kaye, John H Krystal
Predictive coding emerged as an explanation for how the brain can efficiently encode sensory stimuli. The hierarchical organization of neural circuits for perception thus passes prediction errors between computational layers. Extensions of this theory have provided a unifying understanding of Bayesian inference within neural circuits and psychiatric disorders. In particular, disorders of perception and belief have been explained as a Bayesian process of weighing prior beliefs (predictions) against new sensory data (prediction errors)...
August 2020: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Haleh Heizomi, Kamiar Kouzekanani, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Hamid Allahverdipour
Background: Due to the lack of an instrument to measure mental health literacy among Persian/Farsi speaking people, this study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Mental Health Literacy Scale (P-MHLS). Participants and Methods: The 2019 cross-sectional study with 992 participants was conducted in Tabriz, Iran. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to establish the construct validity of the P-MHLS...
2020: International Journal of Women's Health
Amélie Felx, Mary Kane, Marc Corbière, Alain Lesage
Background: Most existing conceptual models of residential environments and housing programs were developed over a decade ago or lack comprehensiveness. The attributes to be used to describe housing programs with adequate specification remain unclear including the attributes that mediate service user outcomes. In this study, group concept mapping was used to develop a conceptual model of housing and community-based residential settings for adults with severe mental illness based on stakeholder perceptions and values...
2020: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jiancheng Ye
The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly throughout the world and has generated a long-term impact. The pandemic has caused great harm to society and also caused serious psychological trauma to many people. Pediatrics are a vulnerable group in this global public health emergency, as their nervous systems, endocrine systems and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes are not well developed. Psychological crises often cause pediatrics to produce feelings of abandonment, despair, incapacity and exhaustion, and even raising the risk of suicide...
July 7, 2020: JMIR Pediatrics and Parenting
Mor Nahum, Hyunkyu Lee, Melissa Fisher, Michael F Green, Christine I Hooker, Joseph Ventura, Joshua T Jordan, Annika Rose, Sarah-Jane Kim, Kristen M Haut, Michael M Merzenich, Sophia Vinogradov
Social cognition (SC), the mental operations underlying social functioning, are impaired in schizophrenia. Their direct link to functional outcome and illness status have made them an important therapeutic target. However, no effective treatment for these deficits is currently applied as a standard of care. To address this need, we have developed SocialVille-an online, plasticity-based training program that targets SC deficits in schizophrenia. Here we report the outcomes of a double-blind, controlled, randomized, multi-site clinical trial of SocialVille...
July 2, 2020: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Tina Gupta, Claudia M Haase, Gregory P Strauss, Alex S Cohen, Jordyn R Ricard, Vijay A Mittal
Alterations in facial expressions of emotion are a hallmark of psychopathology and may be present before the onset of mental illness. Technological advances have spurred interest in examining alterations based on "thin slices" of behavior using automated approaches. However, questions remain. First, can alterations be detected in ultrathin slices of behavior? Second, how do automated approaches converge with human coding techniques? The present study examined ultrathin (i.e., 1-min) slices of video-recorded clinical interviews of 42 individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis and 42 matched controls...
June 25, 2020: Emotion
Erin J Reed, Stefan Uddenberg, Praveen Suthaharan, Christoph D Mathys, Jane R Taylor, Stephanie Mary Groman, Philip R Corlett
Paranoia is the belief that harm is intended by others. It may arise from selective pressures to infer and avoid social threats, particularly in ambiguous or changing circumstances. We propose that uncertainty may be sufficient to elicit learning differences in paranoid individuals, without social threat. We used reversal learning behavior and computational modeling to estimate belief updating across individuals with and without mental illness, online participants, and rats chronically exposed to methamphetamine, an elicitor of paranoia in humans...
May 26, 2020: ELife
Jeff Luck, Anne E Larson, Van T Tong, Jangho Yoon, Lisa P Oakley, S Marie Harvey
In Oregon, more than 4 in 5 pregnant women who smoke are covered by Medicaid. Although birth certificate data for smoking during pregnancy are not accessible in a timely manner, Medicaid claims data are available monthly and provide person-level data. This study utilized an individually linked database of Medicaid claims and birth certificate data to compare the prevalence of tobacco use diagnosis codes in Medicaid claims data to self-reported smoking during pregnancy reported on birth certificates. We computed the sensitivity and specificity of Medicaid claims data to ascertain tobacco use during pregnancy compared to self-report on linked birth certificates...
September 2020: Preventive Medicine Reports
Mengstu Melkamu Asaye, Haymanot Alem Muche, Eyerusalem Desta Zelalem
Background: Postpartum depression is an umbrella, which encompasses several mood disorders that follow childbirth within 6 weeks. Screening for postpartum depression would improve the ability to recognize these disorders and enhance care that ensures improved clinical outcomes. Early identification of postpartum depression is important in order to plan for implementation strategies that allow for timely treatment and support of women with postpartum depression. Objective: To determine the prevalence and associated factors of postpartum depression among women who gave birth in the last six weeks in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia, 2018...
2020: Psychiatry Journal
Ellen E Lee, Katherine J Bangen, Julie A Avanzino, BaiChun Hou, Marina Ramsey, Graham Eglit, Jinyuan Liu, Xin M Tu, Martin Paulus, Dilip V Jeste
Importance: Wisdom is a neurobiological personality trait made up of specific components, including prosocial behaviors, emotional regulation, and spirituality. It is associated with greater well-being and happiness. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to enhance individual components of wisdom. Data Sources: MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for articles published through December 31, 2018. Study Eligibility Criteria: Randomized clinical trials that sought to enhance a component of wisdom, used published measures to assess that component, were published in English, had a minimum sample size of 40 participants, and presented data that enabled computation of effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis...
May 13, 2020: JAMA Psychiatry
Derek Howard, Marta M Maslej, Justin Lee, Jacob Ritchie, Geoffrey Woollard, Leon French
BACKGROUND: Mental illness affects a significant portion of the worldwide population. Online mental health forums can provide a supportive environment for those afflicted and also generate a large amount of data that can be mined to predict mental health states using machine learning methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to benchmark multiple methods of text feature representation for social media posts and compare their downstream use with automated machine learning (AutoML) tools...
May 13, 2020: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Johanna Breilmann, Reinhold Kilian, Steffi G Riedel-Heller, Uta Gühne, Alkomiet Hasan, Peter Falkai, Andreas Allgöwer, Rainer Muche, Thomas Becker, Klemens Ajayi, Peter Brieger, Karel Frasch, Stephan Heres, Markus Jäger, Andreas Küthmann, Albert Putzhammer, Max Schmauß, Bertram Schneeweiß, Michael Schwarz, Markus Kösters
BACKGROUND: The German guideline on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental disorders recommends a broad spectrum of evidence-based treatments. Structured implementation of the associated patient version of the guideline is missing to date. The study aims to assess whether structured implementation of a patient guideline improves the empowerment of patients with severe mental disorders, as well as knowledge, attitudes and experiences regarding psychosocial interventions, service use, treatment satisfaction, treatment needs, quality of life and burden of care...
March 18, 2020: Trials
Chen Qu, Yang Hu, Zixuan Tang, Edmund Derrington, Jean-Claude Dreher
Immoral behavior often consists of weighing transgression of a moral norm against maximizing personal profits. One important question is to understand why immoral behaviors vary based on who receives specific benefits and what are the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying such moral flexibility. Here, we used model-based fMRI to investigate how immoral behaviors change when benefiting oneself or someone else. Participants were presented with offers requiring a tradeoff between a moral cost (i.e. profiting a morally bad cause) and a benefit for either oneself or a charity...
March 12, 2020: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Leonard Emuren, Seth Welles, Grace Macalino, Alison A Evans, Marcia Polansky, Anuradha Ganesan, Rhonda E Colombo, Brian K Agan
OBJECTIVES: To determine long-term predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and evaluate the treatment effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HRQOL in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) cohort. METHODS: Participants were a nested cohort of the NHS who responded to the Rand Short Form 36 questionnaire administered from 2006 to 2010. Physical component summary scores (PCS) and mental component summary scores (MCS) were computed using standard algorithms...
February 20, 2020: Quality of Life Research
Angkana Khampanthip, Rotsalai Kanlayanaphotporn, Mark P Jensen, Prawit Janwantanakul
Introduction: One psychosocial factor in the biopsychosocial model is pain-related self-efficacy, which has been shown to be a strong predictor of response to pain treatment. Objectives: To cross-culturally adapt the University of Washington Pain-Related Self-Efficacy Scale (UW-PRSE6) into Thai and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods: The study was approved by the Chulalongkorn University Human Ethics Committee (COA No. 156/2018)...
November 2019: Pain Reports
Caroline Rometsch, Jana Katharina Denkinger, Martha Engelhardt, Petra Windthorst, Johanna Graf, Niamh Gibbons, Phuong Pham, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
BACKGROUND: Refugees with a history of war or sexual violence often experience somatic symptoms along with mental disorders. After being held in captivity by the so-called "Islamic State" (IS), 1100 especially vulnerable Yazidi women and children (around 400 women) received special medical and psychological support. We report on their (psycho-) somatic complaints and concepts of illness. METHODS: Female refugees (N = 116) were surveyed regarding their somatic complaints and concepts of illness...
January 16, 2020: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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