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Frederick S Buckner, Ranae M Ranade, J Robert Gillespie, Sayaka Shibata, Matthew A Hulverson, Zhongsheng Zhang, Wenlin Huang, Ryan Choi, Christophe L M J Verlinde, Wim G J Hol, Atsuko Ochida, Yuichiro Akao, Robert K M Choy, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Sam L M Arnold, Rajiv S Jumani, Christopher D Huston, Erkang Fan
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of moderate to severe diarrhea in children in low-resource settings. The therapeutic options for cryptosporidiosis are limited to one drug, nitazoxanide, which unfortunately has poor activity in the most needy populations of malnourished children and HIV infected persons. This paper describes the discovery and early optimization of a class of imidazopyridine-containing compounds with potential for treating Cryptosporidium infections. The compounds target the Cryptosporidium methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS), an enzyme that is essential for protein synthesis...
February 11, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
M Hässig, D Depka, G Boo, S I Fabrikant, P R Torgerson
In the present study, the incidence of diseases in cattle in the area of a veterinary practice was analyzed spatially. Furthermore, the relationship between the incidence of diseases and the distance to geographical elements was investigated. For this study, all cattle farms that were customers of the ambulatory clinic of the animal hospital in Zurich (Tierspital Zürich) were exactly localized on a map. From clinical and treatment data program (Oblon Data®) all services and drugs between January 1st 2013 and December 31st 2013 were evaluated and added as attributes to the according farm...
February 2019: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Chenrong Wang, Limin Liu, Huili Zhu, Lu Zhang, Rongjun Wang, Zhenjie Zhang, Jianying Huang, Sumei Zhang, Fuchun Jian, Changshen Ning, Longxian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium parvum is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide, but the molecular mechanisms of the host-parasite interaction are not fully understood. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are considered key regulators of parasitic diseases. Therefore, we used microarray, qPCR, and bioinformatic analyses to investigate the intestinal epithelial miRNA expression profile after Cryptosporidium parvum infection. RESULTS: Twenty miRNAs were differentially expressed after infection (four upregulated and 16 downregulated)...
January 14, 2019: BMC Genomics
Philippa King, Kevin M Tyler, Paul R Hunter
BACKGROUND: Globally cryptosporidiosis is one of the commonest causes of mortality in children under 24 months old and may be associated with important longterm health effects. Whilst most strains of Cryptosporidium parvum are zoonotic, C. parvum IIc is almost certainly anthroponotic. The global distribution of this potentially important emerging infection is not clear. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of papers identifying the subtype distribution of C...
January 8, 2019: Parasites & Vectors
Anne E Rivas, Donal M Boyer, Kevin Torregrosa, William J Orrico, Jean A Paré
Feces collected from a wild-caught, young adult king cobra ( Ophiophagus hannah) were repeatedly positive for Cryptosporidium on both direct immunofluorescent antibody (DFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and sequencing identified the organism as Cryptosporidium serpentis. Infection was subclinical, as the snake was in good body condition and active, and readily consumed dead rats that were scented with snake skin. A course of paromomycin, inserted in feeder rats, was initiated at 360 mg/kg, orally, twice weekly for 6 wk...
December 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Deving Arias Ramos, John Alexander Alzate, Jhon Alejandro Rico Gallego, Natalia Acevedo Escalante
BACKGROUND: Those infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The risk is related to the level of immunosuppression. We report a case of a young male with the unusual scenario of three opportunistic infections occurring simultaneously: Cryptococcosis, Histoplasmosis and Cryptosporidiosis. Histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis are major causes of morbimortality in immunocompromised patients due to HIV infection. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a patient with HIV infection with a CD4 T lymphocyte cell (CD4) count of 2 cells/mm3, who presented with 6 months of diarrhea, non-productive dry cough, nocturnal diaphoresis, fever, weight loss, and a maculopapular rash...
December 27, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Francisco J Merino, Pamela C Köster, Isabel Fuentes, David Carmena
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Aparna Lal, Paul Konings
There is little evidence on how the health impacts of drought vary spatially and temporally. With a focus on waterborne cryptosporidiosis, we identify spatio-temporal hotspots and by using interrupted time series analysis, examine the impact of Australia's Big Dry (2001-2009) in these disease clusters in the Murray Darling Drainage Basin. Analyses revealed a statistically significant hotspot in the north of the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and a hotspot in the north-eastern end of the basin in Queensland...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Asmaa M El-Kady, Yaser Fahmi, Mohammed Tolba, Abdel-Kader A Hashim, Amal A Hassan
Patients with chronic renal failure are more susceptible to infections due to acquired immunodeficiency caused by uremia. Parasitic infections are one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in those patients, So we aimed to assess the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other protozoan infections in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Qena Governorate, Upper Egypt. The present study took place in Qena University Hospitals, Egypt. Participants were 150 Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) patients undergoing hemodialysis, and 50 healthy individuals...
December 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
John H E Nash, James Robertson, Kristin Elwin, Rachel A Chalmers, Andrew M Kropinski, Rebecca A Guy
Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that causes food and waterborne gastrointestinal disease and whose major animal reservoirs are cattle and small ruminants. We report here on a draft whole-genome sequence of a zoonotic isolate of C. parvum isolated from a person with cryptosporidiosis.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Yuanfei Wang, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Lin Wang, Rui Wang, Yaoyu Feng, Lihua Xiao
Few data are available on the transmission dynamics of intestinal protozoa in children in welfare institutes. In this study, fecal specimens were collected from 396 children in a welfare institute in Shanghai, China during December 2011 (207 specimens), June 2012 (78 specimens), and September 2013 (111 specimens), and examined for Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia duodenalis , and Enterocytozoon bieneusi by PCR analysis of the small subunit rRNA, triosephosphate isomerase, and internal transcribed spacer genes, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alexander J Bones, Lyne Jossé, Charlotte More, Christopher N Miller, Martin Michaelis, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Cryptosporidium is a genus of single celled parasites capable of infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Cryptosporidium species are members of the phylum apicomplexa, which includes well-known genera such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma. Cryptosporidium parasites cause a severe gastro-intestinal disease known as cryptosporidiosis. They are one of the most common causes of childhood diarrhoea worldwide, and infection can have prolonged detrimental effects on the development of children, but also can be life threatening to HIV/AIDS patients and transplant recipients...
January 2019: Experimental Parasitology
M L Tomazic, A E Rodriguez, J Lombardelli, T Poklepovich, C Garro, R Galarza, K Tiranti, M Florin-Christensen, L Schnittger
The apicomplexan protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum is an important causative agent of diarrhea of neonatal bovines. Vaccination has been proposed as an advantageous strategy against cryptosporidiosis of calves since besides protection against disease it has also the potential to prevent dissemination of infective oocysts into the environment. Antigens anchored to the parasite surface via glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) are implicated in host cell attachment and invasion and represent promising vaccine candidates...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Camilla Björkman, Claudia von Brömssen, Karin Troell, Catarina Svensson
Diarrhea is common in young calves and is often caused by Cryptosporidium parvum infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if disinfection of calf pens with hydrated lime would reduce contamination of C. parvum oocysts and improve calf health in herds with C. parvum associated diarrhea problems. Four dairy herds with ongoing C. parvum associated calf diarrhea problems each participated in the study over six to seven months. During the study period, all pens/huts for young calves were cleaned according to the usual farm routine before a new calf entered...
December 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
J Plutzer, K Kelen, E Varga, I Kucsera, G Reusz, A J Szabó, Á Fehér, R M Chalmers
In June 2015, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis with 35 cases (23 probable and 12 laboratory-confirmed) occurred among 191 attendees of a residential rehabilitation holiday for paediatric organ transplant patients (n = 49) and their families at a hotel in Somogy county, Hungary. The overall attack rate was 18%. Most of the cases were transplanted children who experienced severe acute disease and required adjustment to their tacrolimus immunosuppression. A retrospective case-control study suggested an association between recreational water exposures and illness: cases were seven times more likely than controls to have swum in the children's pool (odds ratio 7...
December 3, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Shuwei Zheng, Kwan Ki Karrie Ko, Kian Sing Chan, Indumathi Venkatachalam
Cryptosporidiosis is commonly described as a cause of gastroenteritis syndrome in the organ transplant population, mainly in high-prevalence settings, with stool microscopy as the predominant diagnostic modality. Therapeutic options in this group of patients are limited, making their management exceptionally challenging. We describe a case of a renal transplant recipient with cryptosporidiosis confirmed by the stool FilmArray gastrointestinal panel (GIP) nucleic acid-based assay and stool microscopy, describe our institutional experience in diagnosing cryptosporidiosis in a low-prevalence setting, and review the available literature on management of this condition in the organ transplant population...
November 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Albertus Eka Yudistira Sarwono, Shinya Mitsuhashi, Mohammad Hazzaz Bin Kabir, Kengo Shigetomi, Tadashi Okada, Fumina Ohsaka, Satoko Otsuguro, Katsumi Maenaka, Makoto Igarashi, Kentaro Kato, Makoto Ubukata
Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) is an essential enzyme for the production of guanine nucleotides. Disruption of IMPDH activity has been explored as a therapeutic strategy for numerous purposes, such as for anticancer, immunosuppression, antiviral, and antimicrobial therapy. In the present study, we established a luciferase-based high-throughput screening system to identify IMPDH inhibitors from our chemical library of known bioactive small molecules. The screening of 1400 compounds resulted in the discovery of three irreversible inhibitors: disulfiram, bronopol, and ebselen...
December 2019: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
N F Reeve, P J Diggle, K Lamden, T Keegan
Giardia and Cryptosporidium are both waterborne parasites and leading causes of gastroenteritis. Although specimens from diarrhoeic patients are routinely examined for Cryptosporidium, they are often not examined for Giardia so many cases go undiagnosed. Since 2002, all faecal specimens in Central Lancashire have been tested for infection with Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The aim of this paper is to gain insight into the factors contributing to giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis, including evidence of transmission via drinking water...
November 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Mohammad Asadpour, Fatemeh Namazi, Seyed Mostafa Razavi, Saeed Nazifi
Members of the genus Cryptosporidium are frequent protozoan pathogens in humans and a wide range of animals. There is no consistently effective treatment against cryptosporidiosis, especially in immunodeficient patients. The present study was carried out to study the therapeutic effects of curcumin against cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed BALB/c mice. Mice were divided into five groups and immunosuppressed by dexamethasone. Three groups were inoculated with C. parvum oocysts, administered with curcumin, paromomycin, and without treatment...
December 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Yeboah K Opoku, Johnson N Boampong, Irene Ayi, Godwin Kwakye-Nuako, Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah, Harriet Koranteng, George Ghartey-Kwansah, Kwame K Asare
Objective: To identify the socio-behavioral risk factors associated with cryptosporidiosis among HIV/AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea symptoms visiting the HIV referral clinic at Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 50 HIV/AIDS patients with recurrent diarrhea. Questionnaires were administered to collect social and behavioral risk factors associated with Cryptosporidium and other opportunistic protozoan parasitic infections in HIV patients...
2018: Open AIDS Journal
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