Hypoglossal Nerve

Zhaoyao Chen, Jun Yuan, Hui Li, Cuiping Yuan, Kailin Yin, Sen Liang, Pengfei Li, Minghua Wu
BACKGROUND: Internal carotid artery dissection has been well recognized as a major cause of ischaemic stroke in young and middle-aged adults. However, internal carotid artery dissection induced hypoglossal nerve palsy has been seldom reported and may be difficult to diagnose in time for treatment; even angiography sometimes misses potential dissection, especially when obvious lumen geometry changing is absent. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 42-year-old man who presented with isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy...
November 8, 2019: BMC Neurology
Jason L Yu, Erica R Thaler
Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a novel strategy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Its anatomy allows for easy surgical access, and its function as a motor nerve allows for tolerable neurostimulation. It has shown success as a therapy for the treatment of OSA with a greater than 80% success rate. Patients who use the device not only show improvement in symptoms but also tolerate the device well with high rates of adherence to therapy as well as a high majority preferring it over continuous positive airway pressure therapy...
November 4, 2019: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Karolyne S Magalhães, Alan A de Britto, Julian F R Paton, Davi J A Moraes
• WHAT IS THE CENTRAL QUESTION OF THIS STUDY? Hypercapnia/acidosis induces active expiration and reductions in upper airway resistance in rats. Locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons (A6) are sensitive to hypercapnia/acidosis. We hypothesised that A6 neurons modulate active expiratory and airway responses evoked by hypercapnia/acidosis. • WHAT IS THE MAIN FINDING AND ITS IMPORTANCE? Acute inhibition of A6 neurons reduced active expiratory, inspiratory, as well as the associated oropharyngeal and laryngeal motor responses to hypercapnia/acidosis...
November 1, 2019: Experimental Physiology
Masanori Sawamura, Seiji Kaji, Ryosuke Takahashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 31, 2019: Internal Medicine
Olga Mediano, Sofia Romero-Peralta, Pilar Resano, Irene Cano-Pumarega, Manuel Sánchez-de-la-Torre, María Castillo-García, Ana Belén Martínez-Sánchez, Ana Ortigado, Francisco García-Río
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction caused by a loss of upper airway dilator muscle tone during sleep and an inadequate compensatory response by these muscles in the context of an anatomically compromised airway. The genioglossus (GG) is the main upper airway dilator muscle. Currently, continuous positive airway pressure is the first-line treatment for OSA. Nevertheless, problems related to poor adherence have been described in some groups of patients...
October 22, 2019: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Tonglei Han, Shiying Wang, Xiaolong Wei, Yongfu Xie, Yudong Sun, Huiying Sun, Jiang Zhu, Yani Wu, Jian Zhou, Zhiqing Zhao, Zaiping Jing
BACKGROUND: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is the most common head and neck paragangliomas. Surgical resection is the golden standard management for CBT. While preoperative embolization is still controversial, long-term outcomes and perioperative results are still deficient. We here presented the outcomes of surgical treatment for CBT without preoperative embolization in our institution. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we collected data of 101 patients who received surgical treatment for carotid body tumors without preoperative embolization from 2011 to 2016...
October 15, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
P E Vonk, P J Rotteveel, M J L Ravesloot, C den Haan, N de Vries
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of position-dependency on surgical success of upper airway (UA) surgery in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. METHODS: Systematic review. RESULTS: Two prospective cohort studies and seven retrospective cohort studies were included in this review. Despite the importance of the subject, it remains unclear whether position-dependency is a predictor for surgical success. No differences were found in surgical success rate between non-positional (NPP) and positional (PP) OSA patients undergoing uvulopalatopharyngoplasty/Z-palatoplasty with or without radiofrequent thermotherapy of the tongue, isolated tongue base or multilevel surgery and hypoglossal nerve stimulation...
October 17, 2019: Sleep & Breathing
Ahmed Gaber Hassanein, Kamal A-A M Hassanein, Khalid Nasser Fadle, Ahmed Seif Al-Eslam, Fahd Nasser Al Qahtani
Background: Carotid body tumor (CBT) is a rare paraganglionic hyper-vascular tumor of the carotid body. The standard treatment for CBTs is surgery, but it involves risk. The study is aimed to assess the CBTs and evaluate the outcome of multidisciplinary management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study included patients with CBTs who were managed by surgical excision between May 2006 and April 2018. A multidisciplinary team was established to excise the tumor completely with minimal neurovascular compromise...
December 2019: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Peter R Eastwood, Maree Barnes, Stuart G MacKay, John R Wheatley, David R Hillman, Xuân-Lan Nguyên, Richard Lewis, Matthew C Campbell, Boris Pételle, Jennifer H Walsh, Andrew C Jones, Carsten E Palme, Alain Bizon, Nicole Meslier, Chloé Bertolus, Kathleen J Maddison, Laurent Laccourreye, Guillaume Raux, Katleen Denoncin, Valérie Attali, Frédéric Gagnadoux, Sandrine H Launois
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Hypoglossal Nerve Stimulation (HNS) decreases Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) severity via genioglossus muscle activation and decreased upper airway collapsibility. This study assessed the safety and effectiveness at 6 months post-implantation of a novel device delivering bilateral HNS via a small implanted electrode activated by a unit worn externally, to treat OSA: the Genio™ system. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, non-randomised, single arm treatment study was conducted at eight centres in three countries (Australia, France, UK)...
October 10, 2019: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Michael G Z Ghali
Preinspiratory discharge manifests in the neuronal recordings of the pre-Bötzinger complex, parafacial respiratory group, retrotrapezoid nucleus, and Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, as well as the efferent neural discharge of respiratory-related nerves innervating upper airway musculature. This neural component of triphasic eupnea contemporaneously contributes to the genesis of native and originate respiratory rhythmic activity, as well as the preinspiratory component of efferent neural respiratory discharges. In the course of our investigations evaluating hypoglossal discharge in response to asphyxia, we noted a curious pattern of neural respiratory recovery following postasphyxia resuscitation in hypoglossal, vagal, and phrenic neurograms in unanesthetized decerebrate rats...
September 30, 2019: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Yann Litzistorf, Sébastien Geering, Raphael Heinzer, Karma Lambercy
Neurostimulation of the hypoglossal nerve is a new alternative treatment to CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) for patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS (Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome) with anteroposterior pharyngeal obstruction visualized during a Drug Induced Sleep Endoscopy (DISE). Implantation and follow-up are performed at the CHUV with the collaboration between the SAOS-ronchopathie unit, the maxillofacial and dental surgery division and the center for investigation and research on sleep (CIRS)...
October 2, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Masahiro Shin, Hirotaka Hasegawa, Satoru Miyawaki, Akinobu Kakigi, Tsuguto Takizawa, Kenji Kondo, Taketo Shiode, Taichi Kin, Nobuhito Saito
OBJECTIVE: The posterior petrosal approach is an established surgical method offering wide access to skull base lesions through mastoid air cells. The authors describe their experience with the endoscopic transmastoid "posterior petrosal" approach (EPPAP) for skull base tumors involving the internal auditory canal (IAC), jugular foramen, and hypoglossal canal. METHODS: The EPPAP was performed for 7 tumors (3 chordomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, 1 schwannoma, and 1 solitary fibrous tumor)...
September 27, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
David T Kent, Kelly A Carden, Li Wang, Christopher J Lindsell, Stacey L Ishman
Importance: Hypoglossal nerve stimulation is a treatment option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea unable to tolerate continuous positive airway pressure. This study evaluates demographic factors that may be associated with greater improvements in postoperative outcomes of interest. Objective: To examine the association of hypoglossal nerve stimulation with obstructive sleep apnea severity, daytime sleepiness, and sleep-related quality of life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Patient-level data were pooled from 3 prospective cohorts and 1 retrospective observational cohort comprising 584 adults with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea unable to tolerate or benefit from continuous positive airway pressure...
September 26, 2019: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
María Sánchez-Ocando, Javier Gavilán, Julio Penarrocha, Teresa González-Otero, Susana Moraleda, José María Roda, Luis Lassaletta
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the outcome of facial nerve (FN) reconstruction, the impact of technical variations in different conditions and locations, and the importance of additional techniques in case of suboptimal results. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University-based tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Between 2001 and 2017, reconstruction of the FN was performed on 36 patients with varying underlying diseases...
September 19, 2019: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Shintaro Arai, Katsuyoshi Shimizu, Tohru Mizutani
Background: Intracranial chondromas are rare tumors arising from the skull base. They are usually accompanied by functional impairments of some cranial nerves. However, hypoglossal nerve dysfunction is rare. Case Description: We report on a 57-year-old woman presenting with chondroma of the right hypoglossal canal leading to right hypoglossal nerve palsy. Conclusions: This report suggests that chondroma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of hypoglossal lesions...
2019: Surgical Neurology International
Amber M Wood, Maarten H Lequin, Marielle M Philippens, Enrica Seravalli, Sabine L Plasschaert, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Geert O Janssens
Background: The SIOPE-Brain Tumor Group recently published a guideline on craniospinal target volume delineation for highly conformal radiotherapy. In order to spare critical structures like e.g., the lens or cochlea, highly conformal techniques can underdose the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the dural reflections around cranial and sacral nerves. The purpose of this study is to generate evidence for CSF extension within the dural sheaths of the cranial and sacral nerves in order to improve accuracy in target volume delineation...
September 17, 2019: Acta Oncologica
Özgür Öztop-Çakmak, Ebru Vanli-Yavuz, Serhat Aygün, Birgül Bastan, Emrah Egemen, Ihsan Solaroğlu, Yasemin Gursoy-Ozdemir
Introduction - Although the involvement of the hypoglossal nerve together with other cranial nerves is common in several pathological conditions of the brain, particularly the brainstem, isolated hypoglossal nerve palsy is a rare condition and a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation - The presented patient arrived to the hospital with a history of slurred speech and an uncomfortable sensation on his tongue. Neurological examination showed left-sided hemiatrophy of the tongue with fasciculations and deviation towards the left side during protrusion...
July 30, 2019: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Alexander Zhu, Suresh Mohan, Jeremy D Richmon, Nate Jowett
BACKGROUND: The ansa cervicalis is useful for cranial nerve repair, and may be harvested without apparent morbidity. Herein we report an unusual and surgically relevant anatomic variant of the ansa cervicalis. METHODS: An adult male with left parotid adenoid cystic carcinoma underwent parotidectomy with upper-division facial nerve resection and planned interposition repair using the ansa cervicalis. The ipsilateral hypoglossal nerve was identified, together with a descending branch producing strap muscle contraction when stimulated...
September 11, 2019: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Tina Waters
Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the gold standard treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and has been shown to positively impact quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes. However, not all patients with OSA can use or tolerate PAP therapy. Alternative interventions to PAP include lifestyle measures, surgical interventions, hypoglossal nerve stimulation, oral appliance therapy, and expiratory PAP devices for OSA. While these alternative interventions may benefit patients and have demonstrated improvements in OSA and quality-of-life measures, the cardiovascular impact of these interventions is uncertain as data are limited...
September 2019: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
Shinya Fuse, Yoichiro Sugiyama, Keiko Hashimoto, Toshiro Umezaki, Yoshitaka Oku, Mathias Dutschmann, Shigeru Hirano
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of laryngeal afferent inputs on brainstem circuits that mediate and transmit swallowing activity to the orofacial musculature. METHODS: Experiments were performed on 19 arterially perfused juvenile rats. The activities of swallowing interneurons in relation to their respective motor outputs in the hypoglossal and vagus nerves were assessed during fictive swallowing with or without concurrent laryngeal sensory stimulation at intensities of 20, 40, and 60 μA...
September 9, 2019: Laryngoscope
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