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2013: Kidney International Supplements
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2013: Kidney International Supplements
Mathieu Renaud, Pedro Martins da Silva, Tiago Natal-da-Luz, Steven Douglas Siciliano, José Paulo Sousa
The goal of this study was to incorporate community data into the effect assessment of environmental and regulatory relevant metal mixtures. In this experiment three fixed mixture ratios (Canadian soil quality guideline ratio - CSQG; Agricultural, residential and Loamy ratio - ARL; and Sudbury ratio - SUD) were tested in a natural community microcosm with 11 doses for each mixture ratio. The effect of metal mixtures on the community was measured using the community effect concentration (EC) concept which assumes that as contamination increases, the community similarity between test and control treatments decreases producing a dose response curve allowing the calculation of community effect concentrations...
January 8, 2021: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Takashi Ohba, Koichi Tanigawa, Liudmila Liutsko
Standards and guidelines for preparedness and response in the case of a nuclear accident cover radiation protection, health management and communication with affected populations. Decision makers use these recommendations to decide on measures that protect people residing around a nuclear power plant that suffers an accident from radiation exposure; for example, sheltering, evacuation and relocation. While technological and radiological criteria exist for these protective measures, studies on past radiological and nuclear emergencies have shown that evacuation and relocation result in serious health effects; this needs to be considered in accident preparedness and responses in the future...
January 13, 2021: Environment International
S Cabon, F Porée, G Cuffel, O Rosec, F Geslin, P Pladys, A Simon, G Carrault
BACKGROUND: In the European Union, 300,000 newborn babies are born prematurely every year. Their care is ensured in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) where vital signs are constantly monitored. In addition, other descriptors such as motion, facial and vocal activities have been shown to be essential to assess neurobehavioral development. AIM: In the scope of the European project Digi-NewB, we aimed to develop and evaluate a new audio-video device designed to non-invasively acquire multi-modal data (audio, video and thermal images), while fitting the wide variety of bedding environment in NICU...
January 5, 2021: Early Human Development
Saori Nakahara, Miyuki Takasaki, Sayaka Abe, Chisa Kakitani, Shinta Nishioka, Hidetaka Wakabayashi, Keisuke Maeda
Aggressive nutrition therapy is essential to improve nutrition and function in patients with malnutrition and sarcopenia. Malnutrition and sarcopenia negatively affect functional recovery and activities of daily living. Nutrition improvement is associated with better functional recovery. Target energy intake in aggressive nutrition therapy is defined as total energy expenditure (TEE) plus the amount of energy accumulated. The amount of energy accumulation per 1 kg of body weight is generally 7500 kcal. If the goal is to gain 1 kg of weight over 30 d, TEE + 250 kcal is the target daily energy intake...
December 10, 2020: Nutrition
C Hamilton, R Burgul, G Kourkounis, A Howieson, A Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Osteochondral defects of the talus (OCD) are a well-established pathology within the ankle. They are most commonly associated with ankle trauma and whilst many are asymptomatic, they can have a significant negative impact on the patient, most notably with regards pain and mobility. Treatment of these lesions remains variable across the diverse cohort of these patients. AIMS: Evaluating the incidence of talus OCDs. Evaluating anatomic and morphologic data of the lesions against previous studies...
December 9, 2020: Foot
Minhao Zhou, Benjamin Werbner, Grace D O'Connell
A comprehensive understanding of biological tissue mechanics is crucial for designing engineered tissues that aim to recapitulate native tissue behavior. Tensile mechanics of many fiber-reinforced tissues have been shown to depend on specimen geometry, which makes it challenging to compare data between studies. In this study, a validated multiscale, structure-based finite element model was used to evaluate the effect of specimen geometry on multiscale annulus fibrosus tensile mechanics through a fiber engagement analysis...
December 31, 2020: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Audrey Hang Hai, Sehun Oh, Abdulaziz Alsolami, Michael G Vaughn
PURPOSE: The present study aims to examine trends in cannabis views and use among US adults who are alcohol abstainers, non-binge drinkers, and binge drinkers. METHODS: We used data from the 2002-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (US adults ages 18 and older, n = 664,152). Consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, we conducted survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to examine the significance of survey year in relation to cannabis views/use while controlling for demographic factors...
January 7, 2021: Addictive Behaviors
Ziwei Wu, Ling Wang, Li Tan, Jiali Wu, Zhiyang Chen, Min Hu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of galactomannan (GM) detection in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) in non-neutropenic patients. METHODS: A total of 291 non-neutropenic patients in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University were included. According to the 2019 EORTC/MSG guidelines, all cases were divided into an IPA group (n = 24) and a non-IPA group (n = 267). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn to compare the diagnostic efficiency of GM detection in BALF and serum...
November 20, 2020: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Huaicheng Zhang, Shudi Zhao, Aimin Li, Kaiqin Bian, Shanqi Shen, Meng Tao, Peng Shi
The demand for powerful and multifunctional water-treatment materials and reagents is increasing, because we are facing worse raw water quality, various tolerant bacteria, and risky disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. Quaternary ammonium resins (QARs) are promising candidates for water disinfection and purification, but their limited bactericidal capacities are difficult to improve because of the lack of guidelines for enhancing antibacterial efficiency. Therefore, we first systematically studied the structure-dependent antimicrobial mechanism of QARs and found that the best resin skeleton is acrylic-type, the optimal bactericidal alkyl is hexyl or octyl, the most applicable sizes are 80-100 meshes, the best counter anion is iodide ion, and the optimum quaternization reagent is iodoalkane...
January 6, 2021: Science of the Total Environment
Kimberley W J van der Sloot, Johan L Tiems, Marijn C Visschedijk, Eleonora A M Festen, Hendrik M van Dullemen, Rinse K Weersma, Gursah Kats-Ugurlu, Gerard Dijkstra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) due to mucosal inflammation. As current surveillance guidelines form a burden on patients and healthcare costs, stratification of high-risk patients is crucial. Cigarette smoke reduces inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) but not Crohn's disease (CD) and forms a known risk factor for CRN in the general population. Due to this divergent association, the effect of smoking on CRN in IBD is unclear and subject of this study...
January 13, 2021: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Leslie Po, Jacqueline Thomas, Kelsey Mills, Andrew Zakhari, Togas Tulandi, Mira Shuman, Andrea Page
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based algorithm to guide the diagnosis and management of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal and nontubal ectopic pregnancy. TARGET POPULATION: All patients of reproductive age. BENEFITS, HARMS, AND COSTS: The implementation of this guideline aims to benefit patients with positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin results and provide physicians with a standard algorithm for expectant, medical, and surgical treatment of pregnancy of unknown location and tubal pregnancy and nontubal ectopic pregnancies...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC
Kunal Das, Manish Raturi, Nitika Agrawal, Mansi Kala, Anuradha Kusum
The National Blood Transfusion Services under the aegis of the ministry of health and family welfare, India has recently issued guidelines regarding the blood donor selection criteria and the processing of blood. Care has been taken to make the blood transfusions safer. However, COVID-19 has disrupted the organization of the voluntary blood donation drives, whole blood donations [WBD] and restricted the donors' movement to the blood transfusion centres all across the world. While sickness and the need for transfusions are very much in place, the gap of demand against blood collection has widened...
January 13, 2021: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique: Journal de la Société Française de Transfusion Sanguine
Robert Jh Miller, Jonathan G Howlett, Nowell M Fine
The advent of newly available medical therapies for HFrEF has resulted in many potential therapeutic combinations, increasing treatment complexity. Publication of expert consensus guidelines and initiative aimed to improve treatment implementation have emphasized sequential, stepwise initiation and titration of medical therapy, which is labour intensive. Data taken from heart failure registries shows suboptimal use of medications, prolonged titration time and consequently little change in dose intensity, all of which, indicate therapeutic inertia...
January 13, 2021: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Ivan Bautmans, Lene Salimans, Rose Njemini, Ingo Beyer, Siddhartha Lieten, Keliane Liberman
INTRODUCTION: Inflammageing - characterized by age-related chronic low-grade inflammation is considered to be positively influenced by physical exercises. The aim of this systematic review is to provide an update of the most recent literature regarding exercise effects on the inflammatory profile in older adults. METHODS: This review is an update of an earlier published literature review and was performed according to the NICE guidelines. Databases PubMed and Web-of-Science were systematically searched by two independent authors screening for papers published since 2016...
January 13, 2021: Experimental Gerontology
Ronald C Chen, Sabrina G Prime, Ramsankar Basak, Dominic Himchan Moon, Claire Liang, Deborah S Usinger, Aaron J Katz
Prospective clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer, but also suggested that inadequate surveillance may risk missing an opportunity for cure. We used data from a population-based cohort of active surveillance patients to examine the rigor of surveillance monitoring in the general population. Among 1,419 patients enrolled from 2011-2013 throughout the State of XXXXX in collaboration with the state cancer registry and followed prospectively, 346 pursued active surveillance...
January 13, 2021: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Chueh-Lung Hwang, Szu-Hua Chen, Chih-Hsuan Chou, Georgios Grigoriadis, Tzu-Chieh Liao, Ibra S Fancher, Ross Arena, Shane A Phillips
Sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) are important risk factors of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. In addition to increasing the amount of moderate-to-vigorous PA; MVPA, the current PA guidelines recommend that adults should reduce SB, or any waking activity performed while sitting, reclining, or lying, with low energy expenditure. While mounting evidence has emphasized the benefits of increasing MVPA, little is focused on the effect of SB on health. Therefore, this review discusses the pathophysiological effects of SB and the potential physiological benefits of reducing/breaking up SB at the levels below the current guidelines for PA...
January 13, 2021: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Megan Dibble, Jin Zhe Ang, Liam Mariga, Eleanor J Molloy, Arun L W Bokde
OBJECTIVE: To examine white matter abnormalities, measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), in very preterm (<32 weeks) and moderate-late preterm neonates (32-37 weeks) at term-equivalent age, compared with healthy full-term controls (≥37 weeks). STUDY DESIGN: A search of Medline (Pubmed) was conducted to identify studies with diffusion data collected on very preterm, moderate-late preterm and full-term neonates, using the guidelines from the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statements...
January 13, 2021: Journal of Pediatrics
Diane L Damiano, Egmar Longo, Ana Carolina deCampos, Hans Forssberg, Alexandra Rauch
OBJECTIVE: World Health Organization's (WHO) Rehabilitation 2030 initiative is developing a set of evidence-based interventions selected from clinical practice guidelines for Universal Health Coverage. As an initial step, WHO Rehabilitation Programme and Cochrane Rehabilitation convened global content experts to conduct systematic reviews of clinical practice guidelines for 20 chronic health conditions, including cerebral palsy. DATA SOURCES: Six scientific databases (Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro, CINAHL), Google Scholar, guideline databases and professional society websites were searched...
January 13, 2021: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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