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High Resolution

Carlos Silva, Neil McNaughton
Many see the periaqueductal grey (PAG) as a region responsible for the downstream control of defensive reactions. Here we provide a detailed review of anatomical and functional data on the different parts of the PAG together with the dorsal raphe, which completes the circle of periaqueductal nuclei. Based on anatomical features, we propose a new subdivision of the periaqueductal grey that accounts for the distinct characteristics of the area. We provide a comprehensive functional view of the periaqueductal grey, going beyond simple panic and escape to integrate data on fear, anxiety, and depression...
February 17, 2019: Progress in Neurobiology
Örjan Åkerborg, Rapolas Spalinskas, Sailendra Pradhananga, Anandashankar Anil, Pontus Höjer, Flore-Anne Poujade, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Pelin Sahlén
BACKGROUND: Genetic variant landscape of coronary artery disease (CAD) is dominated by non-coding variants among which many occur within putative enhancers regulating the expression levels of relevant genes. It is crucial to assign the genetic variants to their correct genes both to gain insights into perturbed functions and better assess the risk of disease. METHODS: In this study, we generated high-resolution genomic interaction maps (~750 bases) in aortic endothelial, smooth muscle cells and THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide using Hi-C coupled with sequence capture targeting 25,429 features including variants associated with CAD...
February 20, 2019: Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine
Robert M Glaeser
Impressive though the achievements of single-particle cryo-electron microscopy are today, a substantial gap still remains between what is currently accomplished and what is theoretically possible. As is reviewed here, twofold or more improvements are possible as regards ( a) the detective quantum efficiency of cameras at high resolution, ( b) converting phase modulations to intensity modulations in the image, and ( c) recovering the full amount of high-resolution signal in the presence of beam-induced motion of the specimen...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Biophysics
Luke Hanley, Raveendra Wickramasinghe, Yeni P Yung
Lasers with pulse lengths from nanoseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from the mid-infrared to extreme ultraviolet (UV) have been used for desorption or ablation in mass spectrometry. Such laser sampling can often benefit from the addition of a second laser for postionization of neutrals. The advantages offered by laser postionization include the ability to forego matrix application, high lateral resolution, decoupling of ionization from desorption, improved analysis of electrically insulating samples, and potential for high sensitivity and depth profiling while minimizing differential detection...
February 20, 2019: Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry
Qingjing Yang, Yanbo Wang, Shihui Luo, Jun Wang
A highly efficient kinetic resolution and dynamic kinetic resolution of chromene is reported for the first time via a Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydroarylation pathway. This newly developed approach offers a versatile access of various chiral 2,3-diaryl-chromenes containing two vicinal stereogenic centers as well as the recovered chiral flavenes in high yields with excellent ee (s factor is up to 532). Particularly noteworthy is that this strategy can be further extended to the establishment of a dynamic version of kinetic resolution of chromene acetals, in which it allows complete access of chiral isoflavanes and α-aryl hydrocoumarin successfully...
February 20, 2019: Angewandte Chemie
Mümin Mehmet Koç, Naim Aslan, Alexander P Kao, Asa H Barber
X-ray computed tomography is a strong tool that finds many applications both in medical applications and in the investigation of biological and nonbiological samples. In the clinics, X-ray tomography is widely used for diagnostic purposes whose three-dimensional imaging in high resolution helps physicians to obtain detailed image of investigated regions. Researchers in biological sciences and engineering use X-ray tomography because it is a nondestructive method to assess the structure of their samples. In both medical and biological applications, visualization of soft tissues and structures requires special treatment, in which special contrast agents are used...
February 20, 2019: Microscopy Research and Technique
Kyoung Ju Lee, Miyoung Kim
AIM: To investigate how nurses who succeeded their mothers in the occupation are affected by their mothers and to explore how such nurses value their occupation. BACKGROUND: Although children who succeed their parents in an occupation have shown high job satisfaction and persistence, no study has presented this phenomenon in nursing perspectives. DESIGN: A qualitative study using interpretative phenomenological analysis. METHODS: Data were collected from July 2016 - September 2017 through in-depth interviews with seven mother-daughter nurse dyads...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Benedikt Sagl, Martina Schmid-Schwap, Eva Piehslinger, Claudia Kronnerwetter, Michael Kundi, Siegfried Trattnig, Ian Stavness
Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are common dysfunctions of the masticatory region and are often linked to dislocation or changes of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard for TMJ imaging but standard clinical sequences do not deliver a sufficient resolution and contrast for the creation of detailed meshes of the TMJ disc. Additionally, bony structures cannot be captured appropriately using standard MRI sequences due to their low signal intensity...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Anatomy
Elyce Cardonick, Robert Broadrup, Peining Xu, Mary T Doan, Helen Jiang, Nathaniel W Snyder
OBJECTIVE: Cancer diagnosis during pregnancy occurs in 1 out of 1000 pregnancies with common malignancies including breast and hematological cancers. Fetal exposure to currently utilized agents is poorly described. We directly assessed fetal exposure by screening meconium from 23 newborns whose mothers had undergone treatment for cancer during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Meconium was collected from newborns whose mothers were diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and underwent chemotherapy in the second or third trimester as part of the Cancer and Pregnancy Registry...
2019: PloS One
Sam Ghazal, Michael Sauthier, David Brossier, Wassim Bouachir, Philippe A Jouvet, Rita Noumeir
BACKGROUND: In an intensive care units, experts in mechanical ventilation are not continuously at patient's bedside to adjust ventilation settings and to analyze the impact of these adjustments on gas exchange. The development of clinical decision support systems analyzing patients' data in real time offers an opportunity to fill this gap. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether a machine learning predictive model could be trained on a set of clinical data and used to predict transcutaneous hemoglobin oxygen saturation 5 min (5min SpO2) after a ventilator setting change...
2019: PloS One
Rodrigo M Braga, Koene R A Van Dijk, Jonathon R Polimeni, Mark C Eldaief, Randy L Buckner
Examination of large-scale distributed networks within the individual reveals details of cortical network organization that are absent in group-averaged studies. One recent discovery is that a distributed transmodal network, often referred to as the 'default network', is comprised of two closely interdigitated networks, only one of which is coupled to posterior parahippocampal cortex. Not all studies of individuals have identified the same networks and questions remain about the degree to which the two networks are separate, particularly within regions hypothesized to be interconnected hubs...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Ollin Celeste Martínez-Ramírez, Rebeca Pérez-Morales, Clementina Castro-Hernández, Maria Eugenia Gonsebatt, Leonora Casas-Ávila, Margarita Valdés-Flores, Pavel Petrosyan, Valeria Ponce de León-Suárez, Julieta Rubio
O6 -Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an enzyme that repairs the DNA damage caused by the tobacco habit, and low activity of this enzyme has been associated with a risk of lung cancer (LC). Our objective was to determine the association of the promoter methylation and the rs12917 polymorphism of MGMT with formation of DNA bulky adducts and the risk of LC in the Mexican Mestizo population. In this study are included 431 subjects. High-resolution melting analysis was used to determine the polymorphism MGMT rs12917 and methylation levels...
February 20, 2019: DNA and Cell Biology
Kirtee Raparia, Rishi Raj
CONTEXT.—: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) imaging has an increasingly important role in clinical decision-making in patients with interstitial lung diseases. The recent Fleischner Society white paper on the diagnostic criteria for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis highlights the advances in our understanding of HRCT imaging in interstitial lung diseases. OBJECTIVE.—: To discuss the evidence and recommendations outlined in the white paper as it pertains to the radiologic diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, specifically highlighting the current limitations of HRCT in confidently predicting histopathologic findings...
January 2019: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Faraz Shaikh, Yuguang Zhao, Luis Alvarez, Maria Iliopoulou, Christopher Thomas Lohans, Christopher J Schofield, Sergi Padilla-Parra, Shirley W I Siu, Elizabeth Fry, Jingshan Ren, David I Stuart
Potent Ebolavirus (EBOV) inhibitors will help to curtail outbreaks such as that which occurred in 2014-16 in West Africa. EBOV has on its surface a single glycoprotein (GP) critical for viral entry and membrane fusion. Recent high resolution complexes of EBOV GP with a variety of approved drugs revealed that binding to a common cavity prevented fusion of the virus and endosomal membranes, inhibiting virus infection. We performed docking experiments, screening a database of natural compounds to identify those likely to bind at this site...
February 20, 2019: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Biao Zhang, Wang Zhang, Zhiqian Zhang, Yuanfang Zhang, Hardik Hingorani, Zhuangjian Liu, Jun Liu, Qi Ge
Four-Dimensional (4D) printing that enables 3D printed structures to change configurations over time has gained great attention due to its exciting potential in various applications. Among all the 4D printing materials, shape memory polymers (SMPs) possess higher stiffness, faster response rate, and therefore are considered as one of most promising materials for 4D printing. However, most of the SMP based 4D printing materials are (meth)acrylate thermosets which have permanently crosslinked covalent networks and cannot be repaired if any damage occurs...
February 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Catarina R Pedrosa, Didier Arl, Patrick Grysan, Irfan Khan, Stéphanie Durrieu, Sivashankar Krishnamoorthy, Marie-Christine Durrieu
Nanotopography with length scales of the order of extracellular matrix elements offers the possibility of regulating cell behavior. Investigation of the impact of nanotopography on cell response has been limited by the inability to precisely control geometries, especially at high spatial resolutions and across practically large areas. In this paper, we demonstrate well-controlled and periodic nanopillar arrays of silicon and investigate their impact on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs)...
February 20, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yan-Fang Sun, Eva Kmonickova, Rui-Lian Han, Wei Zhou, Kai-Bao Yang, Hong-Fei Lu, Zhang-Qi Wang, Hongxin Zhao, Huigang Wang
Cordyceps cicadae is an entomogenous fungus that has been used as a valuable traditional Chinese herbal tonic, however, it can be difficult to discern the false from the genuine. In this study, the macroscopic IR fingerprint methods containing Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) were used to elucidate wild C. cicadae. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method was used to comprehensively evaluate C. cicadae from different geographical origins based on the macroscopic infrared spectroscopy (IR) fingerprint...
February 13, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Lipi Midya, Abhay Shankar Patra, Chranjib Banerjee, Asit Baran Panda, Sagar Pal
A novel nanocomposite (cl-Ch-pMAc@ZnO/CdSQDs) has been developed under microwave irradiation via fabrication of ZnO/CdS quantum dots on anionically functionalized chitosan [i.e. poly (methacrylic acid) crosslinked chitosan (cl-Ch-pMAc) in the presence of diethylene glycol dimethacrylate (DEGDMA) crosslinker]. The structural, morphological and chemical/physical properties of crosslinked chitosan and the nanocomposites have been investigated using 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13 C NMR spectroscopy), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Aline Picolotto, Dafiner Pergher, Guilherme Pacheco Pereira, Keilla Gomes Machado, Hernane da Silva Barud, Mariana Roesch-Ely, Mário Henrique Gonzalez, Leandro Tasso, Jozi Godoy Figueiredo, Sidnei Moura
Since early times, propolis has been used in folk medicine. The red propolis, collected in the northeast region of Brazil has been highlighted due to its popular use as an antimicrobial, with anti-inflammatory and healing properties, which are associated with its chemical composition. Here, we combine a bacterial membrane with red propolis to treat wounds of diabetic mice. This work aims to evaluate a biocurative from bacterial cellulose associated with red propolis in diabetic mice as wound healing model. Biocuratives from bacterial cellulose membrane and different extracts of red propolis were produced...
February 19, 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Quan Chen, Jingan Chen, Jingfu Wang, Jianyang Guo, Zuxue Jin, Pingping Yu, Zhenzhen Ma
Reservoirs in southwestern China are encountering the challenge of eutrophication, in which internal phosphorus (P) release from sediments plays an important role. Studies on the high-resolution profile variations and release mechanisms of P at the sediment-water interface (SWI) are rare in these reservoirs until now. In this study, monthly monitoring (Nov 2017 to Oct 2018) using a composite diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique was taken to determine the temporal and vertical profile variations of the DGT-labile P (Fe) at the SWI in Hongfeng Reservoir...
February 13, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
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