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Victor Keniti Gomes Nishiyama, Silvia Maria Albertini, Carla Maria Zordan Geraldo de Moraes, Moacir Fernandes de Godoy, João Gomes Netinho
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a frequent condition among hospitalized patients and a factor of increased risk of postoperative complication. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on phase angle (PA), body water distribution and clinical outcomes in surgical patients with colorectal disease. METHODS: This retrospective study was performed in a tertiary hospital with 40 patients admitted electively. In the preoperative evaluation, global subjective assessment and bioelectrical impedance analysis were performed to determine nutritional status, PA, extracellular water (ECW), intracellular water (ICW) and total body water (TBW)...
October 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Deise Cristina Oliva Caramico-Favero, Zelita Caldeira Ferreira Guedes, Mauro Batista de Morais
BACKGROUND: Cerebral palsy may be associated with comorbidities such as undernutrition, impaired growth and gastrointestinal symptoms. Children with cerebral palsy exhibit eating problems due to the effect on the anatomical and functional structures involved in the eating function resulting in malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between food intake, nutritional status and gastrointestinal symptoms in children with cerebral palsy...
October 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Rosalind Fallaize, Rodrigo Zenun Franco, Jennifer Pasang, Faustina Hwang, Julie A Lovegrove
BACKGROUND: Nutrition-related apps are commonly used to provide information about the user's dietary intake, but limited research has been performed to assess how well their outputs agree with those from standard methods. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to evaluate the level of agreement of popular nutrition-related apps for the assessment of energy and available macronutrients and micronutrients against a UK reference method. METHODS: We compared dietary analysis of 24-hour weighed food records (n=20) between 5 nutrition-related apps (Samsung Health, MyFitnessPal, FatSecret, Noom Coach, and Lose It!) and Dietplan6 (reference method), using app versions available in the United Kingdom...
February 20, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Danuta Jaworska, Hanna Mojska, Iwona Gielecińska, Katarzyna Najman, Ewa Gondek, Wiesław Przybylski, Patrycja Krzyczkowska
The aim of the work was to assess the impact of vegetable and spice addition on the acrylamide content and antioxidant activity of extruded cereal crisps. The foods were based on grain ingredients, such as brown rice, whole grain flour, wheat bran, with different vegetables. Products from one group contained green vegetables, such as broccoli and zucchini; garlic was included as a flavour additive (0.75-1.50%). The second group of crisps consisted of similar cereal ingredients with pumpkin and cinnamon; additionally ginger was included as a flavour additive (0...
February 20, 2019: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Kentaro Murakami, Nana Shinozaki, Aya Fujiwara, Xiaoyi Yuan, Ayumi Hashimoto, Hitomi Fujihashi, Han-Chieh Wang, M Barbara E Livingstone, Satoshi Sasaki
Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used in nutritional epidemiology to derive dietary patterns. However, although PCA-derived dietary patterns are population-dependent, their reproducibility in different populations is largely unexplored. We aimed to investigate whether major dietary patterns are consistently identified among different populations within a country and, if so, how similar these dietary patterns are. We conducted a systematic review of PCA-derived dietary patterns in Japanese adults using PubMed and Web of Science for English articles and Ichushi-Web and CiNii databases for Japanese articles...
February 20, 2019: Advances in Nutrition
Hsin-Jen Tsai, Fu-Kuei Chang
This study aimed to explore the long-term effects of exercise, smoking, and nutritional status on cognitive reserve and changes in cognitive function among Taiwanese adults aged ≥65 years. Data were obtained from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study of Aging, a national representative population-based cohort study. Results showed that the average baseline scores on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) and Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were 9.07 and 26.01, respectively. The proportions of smoking and exercising at baseline were 24...
February 6, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Jena D Hamadani, Syeda F Mehrin, Fahmida Tofail, Mohammad I Hasan, Syed N Huda, Helen Baker-Henningham, Deborah Ridout, Sally Grantham-McGregor
BACKGROUND: Poor development in young children in developing countries is a major problem. Child development experts are calling for interventions that aim to improve child development to be integrated into health services, but there are few robust evaluations of such programmes. Previous small Bangladeshi trials that used individual play sessions with mothers and their children (at home or in clinics), which were predominantly run by employed women, found moderate improvements on child development...
March 2019: Lancet Global Health
Davendra Kumar, Kalyan De, Indu Shekhawat, Saumya Bahadur, Krishnappa Balaganur, S M K Naqvi
Sheep reared in hot semi-arid environments are generally exposed to heat and nutritional stress in some seasons of the year, which affects both production and reproduction. To assess the effect of high ambient temperature and feed scarcity on superovulation, 16 adult Malpura ewes were randomly divided into two groups of 8 animals each. G1 (control) was kept under a shed and offered a maintenance diet, and G2 (combined stress) was subjected to both nutritional (30% less of maintenance diet) and heat (38-44 °C for 6 h/day) stress...
February 2019: Journal of Thermal Biology
Susan L Ziolkowski, Jin Long, Joshua F Baker, Glenn M Chertow, Mary B Leonard
BACKGROUND: Conventional definitions of sarcopenia based on lean mass may fail to capture low lean mass relative to higher fat mass, that is, relative sarcopenia. The objective of this study is to determine the associations of sarcopenia and relative sarcopenia with mortality independent of co-morbidities, and whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) and adiposity alter these associations. METHODS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived appendicular lean mass index (ALMI, kg/m2 ) and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m2 ) were assessed in 14 850 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants from 1999 to 2006 and were linked to death certificate data in the National Death Index with follow-up through 2011...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Tricia Aung, Debora Niyeha, Shagihilu Shagihilu, Rose Mpembeni, Joyceline Kaganda, Ashley Sheffel, Rebecca Heidkamp
Background: Reproductive, maternal, newborn, child health, and nutrition (RMNCH&N) data is an indispensable tool for program and policy decisions in low- and middle-income countries. However, being equipped with evidence doesn't necessarily translate to program and policy changes. This study aimed to characterize data visualization interpretation capacity and preferences among RMNCH&N Tanzanian program implementers and policymakers ("decision-makers") to design more effective approaches towards promoting evidence-based RMNCH&N decisions in Tanzania...
2019: Global Health Research and Policy
Julie Kennel
Most Americans have an eating pattern inconsistent with the Dietary Guidelines, putting them at risk for obesity and chronic disease. Health and wellness coaching (HWC) for lifestyle behavior change is emerging as a potentially effective tool to prevent and treat chronic disease. A systematic literature review identified 11 randomized controlled trials studying the use of HWC for improving nutrition-related biomarkers and eating behaviors. These trials demonstrate efficacy of HWC across diverse populations and treatment modalities...
November 2018: American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine
Jian-Ping Miao, Xiao-Qing Quan, Cun-Tai Zhang, Hong Zhu, Mei Ye, Li-Ya Shen, Qiu-Hui Guo, Gang-Yan Zhu, Qi-Jian Mei, Yan-Xia Wu, Shu-Guo Li, Hong-Lian Zhou
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess malnutrition risk in Chinese geriatric inpatients using Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS2002) and Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and to identify the most appropriate nutritional screening tool for these patients. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Eight medical centres in Hubei Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 425 inpatients aged ≥70 years were consecutively recruited between December 2014 and May 2016...
February 19, 2019: BMJ Open
Yi Wan, Fenglei Wang, Jihong Yuan, Jie Li, Dandan Jiang, Jingjing Zhang, Hao Li, Ruoyi Wang, Jun Tang, Tao Huang, Jusheng Zheng, Andrew J Sinclair, Jim Mann, Duo Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether diets differing in fat content alter the gut microbiota and faecal metabolomic profiles, and to determine their relationship with cardiometabolic risk factors in healthy adults whose diet is in a transition from a traditional low-fat diet to a diet high in fat and reduced in carbohydrate. METHODS: In a 6-month randomised controlled-feeding trial, 217 healthy young adults (aged 18-35 years; body mass index <28 kg/m2 ; 52% women) who completed the whole trial were included...
February 19, 2019: Gut
H J Chen, S Y Chuang, H Y Chang, W H Pan
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examined the association between macronutrient intake at different times of the day and blood lipid levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was based on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan, a cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized and non-pregnant healthy adults (≥19-years-old). A one-day (24 h) dietary recall assessed participants' food intake. Fasting plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were determined...
January 14, 2019: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Christopher H Hsu, Kathleen A Wannemuehler, Sajid Soofi, Mohd Mashal, Imtiaz Hussain, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Larin McDuffie, William Weldon, Noha H Farag
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan remains among the three countries with endemic wild poliovirus transmission, and high population immunity levels are required to interrupt transmission and prevent outbreaks. Surveillance and vaccination of children in Afghanistan have been challenging due to security issues limiting accessibility in certain areas. METHODS: A serosurvey was conducted in 2013 within accessible enumeration areas (EAs) among children aged <5 years using samples collected for a national micronutrient assessment survey to assess poliovirus immunity in Afghanistan...
February 16, 2019: Vaccine
T Tannou, S Koeberle, P Manckoundia, R Aubry
Immunodeficiency in the elderly is multifactorial. The analysis of etiological factors demonstrates the major role of immunosenescence and protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) with high prevalence deficiencies in micronutrients such as vitamin D, zinc, or vitamin E in people aged above 75 years. PEM contributes to the numerous consequences of frailty syndrome, and mainly to susceptibility to infections including fungal infections, which are usually observed in immunodeficient patients. Particular attention should thus be paid to these patients...
February 16, 2019: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
Inga Petersohn, Arli G Zarate-Ortiz, Ana C Cepeda-Lopez, Alida Melse-Boonstra
Developed countries have shown a time trend towards a younger age at menarche (AAM), which is associated with increased risk of later obesity and non-communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess whether a time trend in AAM is associated with disease risk in Mexican women ( n = 30,826), using data from the Mexican National Health Survey (2000). Linear and log binomial regression was used for nutritional and disease outcomes, while Welch⁻ANOVA was used to test for a time trend. AAM (in years) decreased over time ( p < 0...
February 13, 2019: Nutrients
Katarzyna Zadka, Ewelina Pałkowska-Goździk, Danuta Rosołowska-Huszcz
Childhood diet has a significant influence on diet-related diseases in adulthood, so an understanding of environmental influences on nutrition, is important. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to indicate family factors associated with some aspects of children's nutrition in Central Poland. A questionnaire was used to investigate 892 mothers' approach to breastfeeding, frequency of eating with children at fast food restaurants, and serving them snacks, sugary drinks, and fried food. Prevalence of dental caries among children, based on the mothers' self-assessment, was also assessed...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alice Monzani, Roberta Ricotti, Marina Caputo, Arianna Solito, Francesca Archero, Simonetta Bellone, Flavia Prodam
The incidence of skipping breakfast in pediatric subjects is rising, and a relationship with overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) has been shown. Associations with cardiovascular outcomes and skipping breakfast in adults have been reported. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the association of skipping breakfast with body weight and metabolic outcomes in the pediatric population. We searched relevant databases (2008⁻2018) and identified 56 articles, of which 39 were suitable to be included, basing on inclusion criteria (observational; defined breakfast skipping; weight and/or metabolic outcomes)...
February 13, 2019: Nutrients
Trevor Tapiwa Nyakudya, Simon Isaiah, Ademola Ayeleso, Ashwell Rungano Ndhlala, Emmanuel Mukwevho, Kennedy Honey Erlwanger
Nutritional manipulations in the neonatal period are associated with the development of negative or positive health outcomes later in life. Excessive fructose consumption has been attributed to the increase in the global prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the development of oxidative stress. Oleanolic acid (OA) has anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. We investigated the protective potential of orally administering OA in the neonatal period, to prevent fructose-induced oxidative stress, adverse health outcomes and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in suckling rats...
February 13, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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