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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30742691/rational-design-of-a-live-attenuated-eastern-equine-encephalitis-virus-vaccine-through-informed-mutation-of-virulence-determinants
#1
Derek W Trobaugh, Chengqun Sun, Matthew D Dunn, Douglas S Reed, William B Klimstra
Live attenuated vaccines (LAVs), if sufficiently safe, provide the most potent and durable anti-pathogen responses in vaccinees with single immunizations commonly yielding lifelong immunity. Historically, viral LAVs were derived by blind passage of virulent strains in cultured cells resulting in adaptation to culture and a loss of fitness and disease-causing potential in vivo. Mutations associated with these phenomena have been identified but rarely have specific attenuation mechanisms been ascribed, thereby limiting understanding of the attenuating characteristics of the LAV strain and applicability of the attenuation mechanism to other vaccines...
February 11, 2019: PLoS Pathogens
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30715781/subconjunctival-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-as-a-novel-treatment-alternative-for-equine-immune-mediated-keratitis-a-case-series
#2
Amanda B Davis, Lauren V Schnabel, Brian C Gilger
Equine immune-mediated keratitis (IMMK) leads to increased corneal opacity and inflammation secondary to an alteration of the local immune system. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) have been shown to modulate the immune system by downregulating inflammation. Four horses with unilateral IMMK poorly responsive to traditional medical treatments underwent novel, autologous subconjunctival BM-MSC therapy. Bone marrow was harvested and processed as previously described for equine orthopedic disease...
February 4, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30706617/equine-eosinophilic-keratoconjunctivitis-in-california-retrospective-study-of-47-eyes-from-29-cases-1993-2017
#3
Kelly E Knickelbein, Daniela Luethy, Sara M Thomasy, Christopher Reilly, Ann R Strom, Mary E Lassaline
OBJECTIVE: (a) To evaluate the epidemiology of equine eosinophilic keratoconjunctivitis (EK) in the western United States, (b) to ascertain the efficacy of keratectomy and diamond burr debridement vs medical management alone, (c) to determine the efficacy of various medical therapies, and (d) to further characterize the histopathologic findings of the disease in horses. ANIMALS STUDIED: Twenty-nine horses (47 eyes) diagnosed with EK from 1993 to 2017. PROCEDURE: Retrospective medical record review; owner questionnaire...
January 31, 2019: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30699196/equilin-in-conjugated-equine-estrogen-increases-monocyte-endothelial-adhesion-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#4
Fumitake Ito, Taisuke Mori, Yosuke Tarumi, Hiroyuki Okimura, Hisashi Kataoka, Yukiko Tanaka, Akemi Koshiba, Jo Kitawaki
The adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is mediated by adhesion molecules, plays a crucial role in the onset of atherosclerosis. Conjugated equine estrogen, which is widely used for estrogen-replacement therapy, contains both estrone sulfate and various nonhuman estrogens, including equilin. To investigate the association between various estrogen types and atherosclerosis risk, we examined their effect on adhesion-molecule expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In estrogen-treated HUVECs, the mRNA and protein expression levels of adhesion molecules were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30690446/effect-of-menopausal-hormone-therapy-on-bone-mineral-density-in-chinese-women-a-2-year-prospective-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Hongling Zuo, Aijun Sun, Lihong Gao, Wei Xue, Yan Deng, Yanfang Wang, Shiyang Zhu, Xiao Ma, Hong Xin
BACKGROUND This study was designed to explore the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese women. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a prospective, open-label, randomized-controlled clinical trial. We randomly assigned 123 postmenopausal women to 3 groups: group A received 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus 100 mg micronized progesterone (MP), group B received 0.3 mg CEE daily plus 100 mg MP, and group C received 0.625 mg CEE daily plus 10 mg dydrogesterone (DHG)...
January 28, 2019: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670899/use-of-standard-diagnostic-techniques-to-determine-eradication-of-infection-in-experimental-equine-septic-arthritis
#6
Roman V Koziy, Seiji Yoshimura, Ryan Dickinson, Joanna M Rybicka, Igor Moshynskyy, Musangu Ngeleka, Jose L Bracamonte, Elemir Simko
Septic arthritis is an important disease in horses, necessitating aggressive and prolonged therapy. In order to guide therapy, reliable methods of detecting the eradication of infection are needed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate detection of eradication of infection in an experimental model of equine septic arthritis using standard diagnostic techniques. For this purpose, 17 adult horses were assigned to 3 experimental groups. The middle carpal joint of each horse was injected with Escherichia coli (Septic group, n = 8), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (LPS group, n = 6), or sterile saline (Control group, n = 3) at day 0...
January 2019: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30670226/equine-assisted-activities-and-therapies-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-a-meta-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Tomasz Trzmiel, Barbara Purandare, Michał Michalak, Ewa Zasadzka, Mariola Pawlaczyk
INTRODUCTION: The multifactorial nature of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the reason why complementary and alternative methods of treatment are sought in order to support the classic approach. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies (EAAT) in ASD patients based on a review of the literature. METHODS: A review of the literature and a meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
February 2019: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30661405/cerebrovascular-reactivity-after-cessation-of-menopausal-hormone-treatment
#8
J N Barnes, R E Harvey, N A Eisenmann, K B Miller, M C Johnson, S M Kruse, B D Lahr, M J Joyner, V M Miller
OBJECTIVE: Women who are currently using menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) have higher cerebrovascular reactivity when compared with postmenopausal women who are not taking MHT; however, the effect of cessation of MHT on cerebrovascular reactivity is not known. Given that MHT can have structural and activational effects on vascular function, this study was performed to characterize cerebrovascular reactivity following cessation of MHT in women at low risk for cerebrovascular disease. METHODS: Cerebrovascular reactivity was measured in a subset of women from the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) 3 years after cessation of the study drug (oral conjugated equine estrogen, transdermal 17β-estradiol, or placebo [PLA])...
January 21, 2019: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30653368/clinical-studies-investigating-the-use-of-leuprorelin-in-asian-women-with-endometriosis-a-review
#9
Yutaka Osuga, Pao-Ling Torng, Cherng-Jye Jeng
We aimed to examine how leuprorelin has been studied for the treatment of women with endometriosis in Asia. We conducted a literature search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov. This review includes randomised trials of women with endometriosis treated with leuprorelin in Asia. Phase I-IV clinical trials published between January 1 2000 and December 31 2016 and written in English were included. Four studies were identified, showing that leuprorelin significantly improves pain and quality of life...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651370/equine-herpesvirus-1-bridles-t-lymphocytes-to-reach-its-target-organs
#10
Katrien C K Poelaert, Jolien Van Cleemput, Kathlyn Laval, Herman W Favoreel, Liesbeth Couck, Wim Van den Broeck, Walid Azab, Hans J Nauwynck
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV1) replicates in the respiratory epithelium and disseminates through the body via a cell-associated viremia in leukocytes, despite the presence of neutralizing antibodies. 'Hijacked' leukocytes, previously identified as monocytic cells and T-lymphocytes, transmit EHV1 to endothelial cells of the endometrium or central nervous system, causing reproductive (abortigenic variants) or neurological disorders (neurological variants). Here, we questioned the potential route of EHV1 infection of T-lymphocytes, and how EHV1 misuses T-lymphocytes as a vehicle to reach the endothelium of the target organs, in the absence or presence of the immune surveillance...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30651102/intravitreal-injection-of-low-dose-gentamicin-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-or-persistent-uveitis-in-horses-preliminary-results
#11
Britta M Fischer, Richard J McMullen, Sven Reese, Walter Brehm
BACKGROUND: Despite appropriate medical therapy, many horses with equine recurrent uveitis continue to suffer from recurrent bouts of inflammation. Surgical intervention via the pars plana vitrectomy or suprachoroidal cyclosporine implant placement may control and/or prevent recurrences, however, these procedures may be contraindicated, unavailable, or declined by an owner. Thus, an effective adjunctive treatment option may help to improve the clinical outcomes in those situations. There are several anecdotal reports on the use of intravitreal gentamicin injections, but to date, no data evaluating the complication rate and/or treatment effect following this treatment have been published...
January 16, 2019: BMC Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30633746/efficacy-of-equine-botulism-antitoxin-in-botulism-poisoning-in-a-guinea-pig-model
#12
Andrew Emanuel, Hongyu Qiu, Douglas Barker, Teresa Takla, Karen Gillum, Nancy Neimuth, Shantha Kodihalli
BACKGROUND: Botulism is a disease caused by neurogenic toxins that block acetylcholine release, resulting in potentially life threatening neuroparalysis. Seven distinct serotypes of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) have been described and are found in nature world-wide. This, combined with ease of production, make BoNTs a significant bioweapon threat. An essential countermeasure to this threat is an antitoxin to remove circulating toxin. An antitoxin, tradename BAT (Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G)-(Equine)), has been developed and its efficacy evaluated against all seven serotypes in guinea pigs...
2019: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30629756/leptospirosis-an-important-infectious-disease-in-north-american-horses
#13
REVIEW
T J Divers, Y-F Chang, N L Irby, J L Smith, C N Carter
North American horses are commonly exposed to Leptospira organisms. Leptospira Bratislava is the most common infecting serovar but this serovar has not been confirmed to cause clinical disease in North American horses. Leptospira Pomona type kennewicki is responsible for most of the clinical diseases (leptospirosis) in North American horses. Leptospirosis is most commonly associated with diseases of the placenta and fetus, the kidneys and the eyes in horses. In-utero infections in pregnant mares may result in abortion, neonatal illness or birth of an antibody positive healthy foal...
January 10, 2019: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30626577/use-of-hormone-replacement-therapy-and-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-nested-case-control-studies-using-the-qresearch-and-cprd-databases
#14
Yana Vinogradova, Carol Coupland, Julia Hippisley-Cox
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between risk of venous thromboembolism and use of different types of hormone replacement therapy. DESIGN: Two nested case-control studies. SETTING: UK general practices contributing to the QResearch or Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) databases, and linked to hospital, mortality, and social deprivation data. PARTICIPANTS: 80 396 women aged 40-79 with a primary diagnosis of venous thromboembolism between 1998 and 2017, matched by age, general practice, and index date to 391 494 female controls...
January 9, 2019: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30623764/-towards-an-optimization-of-the-modulation-of-the-estrogen-receptor-during-menopausal-hormonal-therapy
#15
Marie-Cécile Valéra, Coralie Fontaine, Emmanuelle Noirrit-Esclassan, Frédéric Boudou, Melissa Buscato, Marine Adlanmerini, Florence Trémollières, Pierre Gourdy, Françoise Lenfant, Jean-François Arnal
Women now live more than a third of their lives after the onset of menopause. The decline in endogenous estrogen production during this period is accompanied by functional disorders that affect quality of life. These symptoms may be relieved by menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) initially based on the administration of equine conjugated estrogens (mainly in the United States, oral route) or the natural estrogen, 17β-estradiol (in Europe, transdermal route). Estrogen receptor α (ERα), but not ERβ, mediates most of the physiological effects of estrogens...
December 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607136/a-pilot-study-of-regenerative-therapy-by-implanting-synovium-derived-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-equine-osteochondral-defect-models
#16
Atsushi Yamasaki, Takaya Omura, Daiki Murata, Minoru Kobayashi, Takafumi Sunaga, Kanichi Kusano, Yoshiharu Ueno, Tomohide Kuramoto, Seiji Hobo, Kazuhiro Misumi
Synovium-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (SM-MSCs) from seven Thoroughbreds with naturally occurring intra-articular fracture proliferated to over ten million cells by the second passage. Using three experimental Thoroughbreds, columnar osteochondral defects were made arthroscopically at the bilateral distal radius. Five million allogenic SM-MSCs were implanted into the right defect, and another five million were injected into the right radio-carpal joint (implantation site). No SM-MSCs were implanted into the left defect or the same joint (control site)...
December 2018: Journal of Equine Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30606891/measurement-of-plasma-endothelin-1-concentration-in-healthy-horses-and-horses-with-cardiac-disease-during-rest-and-after-exercise
#17
Heidrun Gehlen, Tarek Shety, Heba El-Zahar, Ina Hofheinz
Cardiac biomarkers are important tools for monitoring disease progress and can monitor progression of therapy. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been studied for its use as a cardiac biomarker in human and small animal medicine while in horses with cardiac disease it has not been evaluated yet. The objective of the present study was to determine the concentration of plasma ET-1 in healthy horses and compare it with ET-1 concentration in horses with cardiac disease during rest and after exercise. 54 horses admitted to the Equine Clinic of Free University of Berlin were used in the present study, of which 15 horses were clinically healthy with no evidence of cardiac disease (Group 1), 22 horses suffered from cardiac disease with normal heart dimensions (Group 2) and 17 horses with cardiac disease and enlarged heart diameters (Group 3)...
December 28, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541860/equine-origin-immunoglobulin-fragments-protects-nonhuman-primates-from-ebola-virus-disease
#18
Hualei Wang, Gary Wong, Wenjun Zhu, Shihua He, Yongkun Zhao, Feihu Yan, Md Niaz Rahim, Yuhai Bi, Zirui Zhang, Keding Cheng, Hongli Jin, Zengguo Cao, Xuexing Zheng, Weiwei Gai, Jieying Bai, Weijin Chen, Yong Zou, Yuwei Gao, George F Gao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia, Xiangguo Qiu
Ebola virus (EBOV) infections result in aggressive hemorrhagic fever in humans with fatality rates reaching 90%, with no licensed, specific therapeutics to treat ill patients. Advances over the past 5 years have firmly established monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based products as the most promising therapeutics for treating EBOV infections, but production is costly, quantities are limited, and thus mAbs are not the best candidates for mass use in the case of an epidemic. To address this need, we generated EBOV-specific polyclonal immunoglobulin fragments F(ab')2 from horses hyperimmunized with an EBOV vaccine...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30541547/whole-body-and-partial-body-cryotherapies-lessons-from-human-practice-and-possible-application-for-horses
#19
K Roszkowska, O Witkowska-Pilaszewicz, M Przewozny, A Cywinska
Whole body and partial body cryotherapies (WBC and PBC) have been successfully used in human medicine, and currently also are being proposed in veterinary practice.In horses, only the partial body cryotherapy provided in cryosauna is considered, due to the technical conditions. These therapies have been dedicated to human patients with rheumatic and inflammatory diseases as well as an assistance during training in athletes. The anti-inflammatory effects have been demonstrated clinically and indicated by the changes in several hematological and immunological parameters, however, various patterns have been described, depending on the protocols and the treating subjects...
December 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30513095/menopausal-hormone-therapy-and-the-incidence-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-in-postmenopausal-women-findings-from-the-women-s-health-initiative
#20
Tala Al-Rousan, Jeffrey A Sparks, Mary Pettinger, Rowan Chlebowski, JoAnn E Manson, Andrew M Kauntiz, Robert Wallace
IMPORTANCE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common and debilitating condition that commonly affects postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) in healthy postmenopausal women on CTS risk. DESIGN: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Women's Health Initiative's (WHI) HT trials linked to Medicare claims data. Separate intention-to-treat analyses were performed for the two trials; the conjugated equine estrogens alone (CEE alone) and the trial of CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) trial...
2018: PloS One
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