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journal of immunology

G Guaraldi, S Marcotullio, R Maserati, M Gargiulo, J Milic, I Franconi, A Chirianni, M Andreoni, M Galli, A Lazzarin, A D'Arminio Monforte, G Di Perri, C-F Perno, M Puoti, S Vella, A Di Biagio, L Maia, C Mussi, M Cesari, A Antinori
OBJECTIVE: This article deals with the attempt to join HIV and geriatric care management in the 2017 edition of the Italian guidelines for the use of antiretrovirals and the diagnostic-clinical management of HIV-1 infected persons. METHODS: The outlined recommendations are based on evidence from randomized clinical trials and observational studies published in peer-reviewed journals and/or presented at international scientific conferences in recent years. The principles of starting antiretroviral therapy in elderly patients and the viro-immunological goals are the same as in the general HIV population...
2019: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Elopy Sibanda, Mohamed-Ridha Barbouche
The 10th Federation of African Immunological Societies (FAIS) Congress, held in Tunisia in November 2017, marked a significant scientific milestone. It enabled scientists from across the continent to promote immunology research and to showcase major achievements made by immunologists throughout Africa. This issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology (JLB) features manuscripts from the FAIS Congress. As noted in these papers, research in infectious diseases remains the focus of the African immunology community; however, increasingly noncommunicable diseases-such as autoimmunity, allergy, primary immunodeficiency, cancer and transplantation immunology-are also an emerging priority...
February 2019: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Philip Bradley, Paul G Thomas
Adaptive immune recognition is mediated by antigen receptors on B and T cells generated by somatic recombination during lineage development. The high level of diversity resulting from this process posed technical limitations that previously limited the comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune recognition. Advances over the last ten years have produced data and approaches allowing insights into how T cells develop, evolutionary signatures of recombination and selection, and the features of T cell receptors that mediate epitope-specific binding and T cell activation...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Dimitre R Simeonov, Alexander Marson
CRISPR technology has opened a new era of genome interrogation and genome engineering. Discovered in bacteria, where it protects against bacteriophage by cleaving foreign nucleic acid sequences, the CRISPR system has been repurposed as an adaptable tool for genome editing and multiple other applications. CRISPR's ease of use, precision, and versatility have led to its widespread adoption, accelerating biomedical research and discovery in human cells and model organisms. Here we review CRISPR-based tools and discuss how they are being applied to decode the genetic circuits that control immune function in health and disease...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Laura M McLane, Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem, E John Wherry
Exhausted CD8 T (Tex) cells are a distinct cell lineage that arise during chronic infections and cancers in animal models and humans. Tex cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions, high and sustained inhibitory receptor expression, metabolic dysregulation, poor memory recall and homeostatic self-renewal, and distinct transcriptional and epigenetic programs. The ability to reinvigorate Tex cells through inhibitory receptor blockade, such as αPD-1, highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting this population...
January 24, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Joel Linden, Friedrich Koch-Nolte, Gerhard Dahl
ATP, NAD+ , and nucleic acids are abundant purines that, in addition to having critical intracellular functions, have evolved extracellular roles as danger signals released in response to cell lysis, apoptosis, degranulation, or membrane pore formation. In general ATP and NAD+ have excitatory and adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of purine release mechanisms, ectoenzymes that metabolize purines (CD38, CD39, CD73, ENPP1, and ENPP2/autotaxin), and signaling by key P2 purinergic receptors (P2X7, P2Y2, and P2Y12)...
January 24, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Sun Hur
Detection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) is a central mechanism of innate immune defense in many organisms. We here discuss several families of dsRNA-binding proteins involved in mammalian antiviral innate immunity. These include RIG-I-like receptors, protein kinase R, oligoadenylate synthases, adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA interference systems, and other proteins containing dsRNA-binding domains and helicase domains. Studies suggest that their functions are highly interdependent and that their interdependence could offer keys to understanding the complex regulatory mechanisms for cellular dsRNA homeostasis and antiviral immunity...
January 23, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Rui Martins, Ana Rita Carlos, Faouzi Braza, Jessica A Thompson, Patricia Bastos-Amador, Susana Ramos, Miguel P Soares
Pathogenic organisms exert a negative impact on host health, revealed by the clinical signs of infectious diseases. Immunity limits the severity of infectious diseases through resistance mechanisms that sense and target pathogens for containment, killing, or expulsion. These resistance mechanisms are viewed as the prevailing function of immunity. Under pathophysiologic conditions, however, immunity arises in response to infections that carry health and fitness costs to the host. Therefore, additional defense mechanisms are required to limit these costs, before immunity becomes operational as well as thereafter to avoid immunopathology...
January 23, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Jian-Xin Lin, Warren J Leonard
Cytokines are secreted or otherwise released polypeptide factors that exert autocrine and/or paracrine actions, with most cytokines acting in the immune and/or hematopoietic system. They are typically pleiotropic, controlling development, cell growth, survival, and/or differentiation. Correspondingly, cytokines are clinically important, and augmenting or attenuating cytokine signals can have deleterious or therapeutic effects. Besides physiological fine-tuning of cytokine signals, altering the nature or potency of the signal can be important in pathophysiological responses and can also provide novel therapeutic approaches...
January 16, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
Kevin Bassler, Jonas Schulte-Schrepping, Stefanie Warnat-Herresthal, Anna C Aschenbrenner, Joachim L Schultze
Myeloid cells are a major cellular compartment of the immune system comprising monocytes, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and granulocytes. Models of cellular ontogeny, activation, differentiation, and tissue-specific functions of myeloid cells have been revisited during the last years with surprising results; for example, most tissue macrophages are yolk sac derived, monocytes and macrophages follow a multidimensional model of activation, and tissue signals have a significant impact on the functionality of all these cells...
January 16, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203438.].
2019: PloS One
Carolina Uggenti, Alice Lepelley, Yanick J Crow
Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is the primary mechanism by which a type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is triggered. Given that human cells are replete with DNA and RNA, this evolutionary strategy poses an inherent biological challenge, i.e., the fundamental requirement to reliably differentiate self-nucleic acids from nonself nucleic acids. We suggest that the group of Mendelian inborn errors of immunity referred to as the type I interferonopathies relate to a breakdown of self/nonself discrimination, with the associated mutant genotypes involving molecules playing direct or indirect roles in nucleic acid signaling...
January 11, 2019: Annual Review of Immunology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2, 2019: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Martine J Jager, Anneke Brand, Frans H J Claas
A single observation in a patient with an unusual transfusion reaction led to a life-long fascination with immunogenetics, and a strong wish to improve the care for patients needing a transplantation. In 2017, Jon van Rood, one of the pioneers in the field of HLA and immunogenetics of transplantation, passed away. Several obituaries have appeared describing some of the highlights of his career. However, the details of the early developments leading among others to the routine use of HLA as an important parameter for donor selection in organ- and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are largely unknown to the community...
January 4, 2019: Transplant Immunology
Jennifer Wild, Shama El-Salahi, Gabriella Tyson, Hjördis Lorenz, Carmine M Pariante, Andrea Danese, Apostolos Tsiachristas, Edward Watkins, Benita Middleton, Amanda Blaber, Anke Ehlers
INTRODUCTION: Emergency workers dedicate their lives to promoting public health and safety, yet suffer higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) compared with the general population. They also suffer an associated increased risk for physical health problems, which may be linked to specific immunological and endocrine markers or changes in relevant markers. Poor physical and mental health is costly to organisations, the National Health Service and society...
December 31, 2018: BMJ Open
John A Hammer, Jia Wang, Mezida Saeed, Antonio Pedrosa
The engagement of aTcell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) or activating surface results in the formation within the T cell of several distinct actin and actomyosin networks. These networks reside largely within a narrow zone immediately under the T cell's plasma membrane at its site of contact with the APC or activating surface, i.e., at the immunological synapse. Here we review the origin, organization, dynamics, and function of these synapse-associated actin and actomyosin networks. Importantly, recent insights into the nature of these actin-based cytoskeletal structures were made possible in several cases by advances in light microscopy...
December 21, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Joshua Tan, Luca Piccoli, Antonio Lanzavecchia
Plasmodium falciparum remains a serious public health problem and a continuous challenge for the immune system due to the complexity and diversity of the pathogen. Recent advances from several laboratories in the characterization of the antibody response to the parasite have led to the identification of critical targets for protection and revealed a new mechanism of diversification based on the insertion of host receptors into immunoglobulin genes, leading to the production of receptor-based antibodies. These advances have opened new possibilities for vaccine design and passive antibody therapies to provide sterilizing immunity and control blood-stage parasites...
December 19, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Michael Schatz, Scott H Sicherer, David Khan, Robert S Zeiger
A large number of clinically impactful studies and reviews were published in this Journal in 2018. This article provides highlights of the original research published in 2018 issues of JACI: In Practice on the subjects of anaphylaxis, asthma, dermatitis, drug allergy, eosinophilic disorders, food allergy, immune deficiency, rhinitis/upper respiratory disease, and urticaria/angioedema. Within each topic, practical aspects of diagnosis and management are emphasized. Treatments discussed include lifestyle modifications, allergen avoidance therapy, positive and negative effects of pharmacologic therapy, and various forms of immunologic and desensitization management...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Ton N Schumacher, Wouter Scheper, Pia Kvistborg
Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies. Here we review the evidence for the relevance of cancer neoantigens in tumor control and the biological properties of these antigens...
December 14, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Molla Abebe, Bamlaku Enawgaw
<i>Background:</i> Clinical laboratory reference intervals are derived from a sample of selected healthy population and they are used for disease diagnosis, management, and monitoring. International guidelines recommended that laboratories and manufacturers are supposed to establish their own RIs for a certain group of population. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review is to summarize the current status and to show future directions regarding reference intervals of clinical laboratory parameters among Ethiopian population...
October 31, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
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