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microglia neuroinflammation parkinson' disease

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771505/neurotoxic-effects-of-mptp-on-mouse-cerebral-cortex-modulation-of-neuroinflammation-as-a-neuroprotective-strategy
#1
Mariana Oliveira Mendes, Alexandra Isabel Rosa, Andreia Neves Carvalho, Maria João Nunes, Pedro Dionísio, Elsa Rodrigues, Daniela Costa, Sara Duarte-Silva, Patrícia Maciel, Cecília Maria Pereira Rodrigues, Maria João Gama, Margarida Castro-Caldas
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder, mainly characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and by the presence of intracellular inclusions, known as Lewy bodies. Despite SNpc being considered the primary affected region in PD, the neuropathological features are confined solely to the nigro-striatal axis. With disease progression other brain regions are also affected, namely the cerebral cortex, although the spreading of the neurologic damage to this region is still not completely unraveled...
February 13, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30761145/peripheral-inflammation-regulates-cns-immune-surveillance-through-the-recruitment-of-inflammatory-monocytes-upon-systemic-%C3%AE-synuclein-administration
#2
Javier María Peralta Ramos, Pablo Iribarren, Luc Bousset, Ronald Melki, Veerle Baekelandt, Anke Van der Perren
Innate immune activation and chronic neuroinflammation are characteristic features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. The discovery of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSYN) protein aggregates, which amplify in a "prion-like" fashion, has led us to consider that pathogenic αSYN might be hijacking the activation and mobilization mechanism of the peripheral immune system to reach and disseminate within the CNS. Furthermore, our lab and other groups have recently shown that αSYN can adopt distinct fibril conformations or "strains" with varying levels of pathogenic impact...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30734970/farrerol-attenuates-mpp-induced-inflammatory-response-by-tlr4-signaling-in-a-microglia-cell-line
#3
Bei Cui, Xiaqing Guo, Yanhui You, Rongli Fu
Farrerol was found to possess neuroprotective effect; however, the mechanism remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of farrerol on MPP+ -induced inflammation in mouse microglial BV-2 cells and to elaborate the underlying mechanism. MTT assay was performed to measure the cell viability. The pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); inducible nitric oxide synthase; and cyclooxygenase 2 were measured. The expression of p-p65, p-IκBα, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 were analyzed by western blot...
February 8, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716359/role-of-epoxy-fatty-acids-and-epoxide-hydrolases-in-the-pathology-of-neuro-inflammation
#4
Sean D Kodani, Christophe Morisseau
Neuroinflammation is a physiologic response aimed at protecting the central nervous system during injury. However, unresolved and chronic neuroinflammation can lead to long term damage and eventually neurologic disease including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Recently, enhancing the concentration of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) through blocking their hydrolytic degradation by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) has been applied towards reducing the long-term damage associated with central neurologic insults...
February 1, 2019: Biochimie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30708997/novel-immunotherapeutic-approaches-to-target-alpha-synuclein-and-related-neuroinflammation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#5
REVIEW
Maria Angela Samis Zella, Judith Metzdorf, Friederike Ostendorf, Fabian Maass, Siegfried Muhlack, Ralf Gold, Aiden Haghikia, Lars Tönges
The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is significantly influenced by disease-causing changes in the protein alpha-Synuclein (aSyn). It can trigger and promote intracellular stress and thereby impair the function of dopaminergic neurons. However, these damage mechanisms do not only extend to neuronal cells, but also affect most glial cell populations, such as astroglia and microglia, but also T lymphocytes, which can no longer maintain the homeostatic CNS milieu because they produce neuroinflammatory responses to aSyn pathology...
January 31, 2019: Cells
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30689733/cd73-derived-adenosine-controls-inflammation-and-neurodegeneration-by-modulating-dopamine-signalling
#6
Fan Meng, Zhige Guo, Yaling Hu, Weihao Mai, Zhenjie Zhang, Bin Zhang, Qianqian Ge, Huifang Lou, Fang Guo, Jiangfan Chen, Shumin Duan, Zhihua Gao
Ectonucleotidase-mediated ATP catabolism provides a powerful mechanism to control the levels of extracellular adenosine. While increased adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling has been well-documented in both Parkinson's disease models and patients, the source of this enhanced adenosine signalling remains unclear. Here, we show that the ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73)-mediated adenosine formation provides an important input to activate A2AR, and upregulated CD73 and A2AR in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinson's disease models coordinatively contribute to the elevated adenosine signalling...
January 27, 2019: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30684217/molecular-insights-into-nr4a2-nurr1-an-emerging-target-for-neuroprotective-therapy-against-neuroinflammation-and-neuronal-cell-death
#7
REVIEW
Md Jakaria, Md Ezazul Haque, Duk-Yeon Cho, Shofiul Azam, In-Su Kim, Dong-Kug Choi
NR4A2 is a nuclear receptor and a transcription factor, with distinctive physiological features. In the cell nuclei of the central nervous system, it is widely expressed and identified as a crucial regulator of dopaminergic (DA) neuronal differentiation, survival, and maintenance. Importantly, it has regulated different genes crucial for dopaminergic signals, and its expression has been diminished in both aged and PD post-mortem brains and reduced in PD patients. In microglia and astrocytes, the expression of NR4A2 has been found where it can be capable of inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory mediators; hence, it protected inflammation-mediated DA neuronal death...
January 25, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30637730/adipose-derived-stem-cells-decreased-microglia-activation-and-protected-dopaminergic-loss-in-rat-lipopolysaccharide-model
#8
Mario F Muñoz, Sandro Argüelles, Rafael Medina, Mercedes Cano, Antonio Ayala
Adult stem cell therapy is being used extensively to rejuvenate damaged tissue. One important tissue source to obtain these cells is adipose, which contains cells called adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). These cells have a great therapeutic potential not only for their multipotent properties as well as for immunomodulatory effects on the immune system. Parkinson's disease is characterized as neurodegenerative disorder which etiology is undoubtedly related to neuroinflammation process. The properties of ADSCs can be used as a new tool in stem cells therapy to treat neurodegenerative disorders...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30636594/advantages-of-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide-for-the-future-treatment-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Orhan Tansel Korkmaz, Neşe Tunçel
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in adults over the age of 65. The characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease, such as resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and gait imbalance, are thought to be a result of the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra compacta, resulting in insufficient dopamine integrated signalling on GABAergic medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Despite tremendous research, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease have remained largely unknown...
January 11, 2019: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635412/pet-imaging-of-microglia-by-targeting-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-csf1r
#10
Andrew G Horti, Ravi Naik, Catherine A Foss, Il Minn, Varia Misheneva, Yong Du, Yuchuan Wang, William B Mathews, Yunkou Wu, Andrew Hall, Catherine LaCourse, Hye-Hyun Ahn, Hwanhee Nam, Wojciech G Lesniak, Heather Valentine, Olga Pletnikova, Juan C Troncoso, Matthew D Smith, Peter A Calabresi, Alena V Savonenko, Robert F Dannals, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Martin G Pomper
While neuroinflammation is an evolving concept and the cells involved and their functions are being defined, microglia are understood to be a key cellular mediator of brain injury and repair. The ability to measure microglial activity specifically and noninvasively would be a boon to the study of neuroinflammation, which is involved in a wide variety of neuropsychiatric disorders including traumatic brain injury, demyelinating disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Parkinson's disease, among others. We have developed [11 C]CPPC [5-cyano- N -(4-(4-[11 C]methylpiperazin-1-yl)-2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)furan-2-carboxamide], a positron-emitting, high-affinity ligand that is specific for the macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), the expression of which is essentially restricted to microglia within brain...
January 11, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30614568/the-role-of-the-gut-microbiota-in-development-function-and-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system-and-the-enteric-nervous-system
#11
REVIEW
C N Heiss, L E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the development of the central nervous system (CNS) and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Before obtaining its own microbiota, eutherian fetuses are exposed to products and metabolites from the maternal microbiota. At birth, the infants are colonized by microorganisms. The microbial composition in early life is strongly influenced by the mode of delivery, the feeding method, use of antibiotics as well as the maternal microbial composition...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30594776/the-mechanisms-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-pyroptosis-activation-and-their-role-in-parkinson-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Shuo Wang, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen, Hong-Bo Wang
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a typical neurodegenerative disease and the pathological feature of which is the death of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra region. At present, neuronal death caused by inflammatory cytokine-mediated neuroinflammation is being extensively studied. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is an inflammatory complex existing in microglia. Its activation promotes the secretion of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β/18 (IL-1β/18) and induces pyroptosis, a type of cell death that possesses the potential for inflammation, to rupture microglia to further release IL-1β...
February 2019: International Immunopharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590319/icariside-ii-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-through-inhibiting-tlr4-myd88-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-rats
#13
Jiayin Zhou, Yuanyuan Deng, Fei Li, Caixia Yin, Jingshan Shi, Qihai Gong
Inflammation in central nervous system (CNS) plays a vital role in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Lewy body dementia (DLB), HIV-related dementia and traumatic brain injury. Icariside II (ICS II), an active flavonoid compound derived from a Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, has been shown to possess a neuroprotective effect on AD model. However, whether ICS II has a directly protective effect on acute neuroinflammation remains still unclear...
December 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30572656/extracellular-interactions-of-alpha-synuclein-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#14
REVIEW
Dario Valdinocci, Rowan A W Radford, Michael Goulding, Junna Hayashi, Roger S Chung, Dean L Pountney
Multiple system atrophy, characterized by atypical Parkinsonism, results from central nervous system (CNS) cell loss and dysfunction linked to aggregates of the normally pre-synaptic α-synuclein protein. Mostly cytoplasmic pathological α-synuclein inclusion bodies occur predominantly in oligodendrocytes in affected brain regions and there is evidence that α-synuclein released by neurons is taken up preferentially by oligodendrocytes. However, extracellular α-synuclein has also been shown to interact with other neural cell types, including astrocytes and microglia, as well as extracellular factors, mediating neuroinflammation, cell-to-cell spread and other aspects of pathogenesis...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30568577/kinase-based-taming-of-brain-microglia-toward-disease-modifying-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Microglia are the primary immune cells residing in the central nervous system (CNS), where they play essential roles in the health and disease. Depending on the CNS inflammatory milieu, they exist in either resting or activated states. Chronic neuroinflammation mediated by activated microglia is now considered to be a common characteristic shared by many neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which currently pose a significant socioeconomic burden to the global healthcare system...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30515090/a-critical-role-of-autophagy-in-regulating-microglia-polarization-in-neurodegeneration
#16
Meng-Meng Jin, Fen Wang, Di Qi, Wen-Wen Liu, Chao Gu, Cheng-Jie Mao, Ya-Ping Yang, Zhong Zhao, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
Neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction are closely related to the development of neurodegeneration such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of autophagy in microglia polarization and neuroinflammation is poorly understood. TNF-α, which is highly toxic to dopaminergic neurons, is implicated as a major mediator of neuroinflammation in PD. In this study, we found that TNF-α resulted in an impairment of autophagic flux in microglia. Concomitantly, an increase of M1 marker (iNOS/NO, IL-1β, and IL-6) expression and reduction of M2 marker (Arginase1, Ym1/2, and IL-10) were observed in TNF-α challenged microglia...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30501635/counteracting-neuroinflammation-in-experimental-parkinson-s-disease-favors-recovery-of-function-effects-of-er-npcs-administration
#17
Stephana Carelli, Toniella Giallongo, Zuzana Gombalova, Federica Rey, Maria Carlotta F Gorio, Massimiliano Mazza, Anna Maria Di Giulio
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, presenting with midbrain dopaminergic neurons degeneration. A number of studies suggest that microglial activation may have a role in PD. It has emerged that inflammation-derived oxidative stress and cytokine-dependent toxicity may contribute to nigrostriatal pathway degeneration and exacerbate the progression of the disease in patients with idiopathic PD. Cell therapies have long been considered a feasible regenerative approach to compensate for the loss of specific cell populations such as the one that occurs in PD...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30486939/the-gold-nanocluster-protects-neurons-directly-or-via-inhibiting-cytotoxic-secretions-of-microglia-cell
#18
Qing Yuan, Yawen Yao, Xiangchun Zhang, Jinling Yuan, Baoyun Sun, Xueyun Gao
Neurodegenerative diseases have become a huge challenge to public health, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Microglia driving inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been involved in the pathological process of these disorders and could be novel therapy target. However, traditional anti-inflammatory drugs are not effective in alleviating neuroinflammation. In this study, a potential neuroprotective effect of a peptide-templated gold nanocluster (Au25 Sv9 ) was investigated. Firstly, effect of the nanocluster on cytotoxins' secretion of activated BV-2 microglia cells was assessed...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30485484/knockdown-of-cathepsin-d-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-against-neuroinflammation-mediated-neurotoxicity-through-inhibition-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-parkinson-s-disease-model
#19
Ping Gan, Qiaofang Xia, Guihua Hang, Yincai Zhou, Xiaojuan Qian, Xiaomei Wang, Lidong Ding
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Chronic neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PD pathophysiology. Cathepsin D (CathD), a soluble aspartic protease, has been reported to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. This research focused on the role of CathD and the molecular mechanisms involved in the process of neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity...
November 28, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30474172/immune-system-responses-in-parkinson-s-disease-early-and-dynamic
#20
Malú G Tansey, Marina Romero-Ramos
The neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) are the degeneration and death of dopamine-producing neurons in the ventral midbrain, the widespread intraneuronal aggregation of alpha-synuclein (a-syn) in Lewy bodies and neurites, neuroinflammation, and gliosis. Signs of microglia activation in the PD brain postmortem as well as during disease development revealed by neuroimaging, implicate immune responses in the pathophysiology of the disease. Intensive research during the last two decades has advanced our understanding of the role of these responses in the disease process, yet many questions remain unanswered...
November 25, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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